Скачать презентацию Animal Bites Rabies Rabies virus Скачать презентацию Animal Bites Rabies Rabies virus

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Animal Bites & Rabies Animal Bites & Rabies

Rabies virus Rabies virus

Disease • Rabies virus causes an acute encephalitis in all warm-blooded hosts, including humans, Disease • Rabies virus causes an acute encephalitis in all warm-blooded hosts, including humans, and the outcome is almost always fatal. Although all species of mammals are susceptible to rabies virus infection, only a few species are important as reservoirs for the disease

Rabies family • Rabies virus belongs to the order Mononegavirales, viruses with a nonsegmented, Rabies family • Rabies virus belongs to the order Mononegavirales, viruses with a nonsegmented, negative-stranded RNA genomes. Within this group, viruses with a distinct "bullet" shape are classified in the Rhabdoviridae family. • The genus Lyssavirus includes rabies virus, Lagos bat, Mokola virus, Duvenhage virus, European bat virus 1 & 2 and Australian bat virus.

Transmission • The rabies virus is transmitted when infected saliva of a host is Transmission • The rabies virus is transmitted when infected saliva of a host is passed to an uninfected animal. Various routes of transmission have been documented and include contamination of mucous membranes (i. e. , eyes, nose, mouth), aerosol transmission, and corneal transplantations. The most common mode of rabies virus transmission is through the bite and virus-containing saliva of an infected host.

Oregon Administrative Rules Oregon Administrative Rules

Animal Bites & Rabies Oregon Administrative Rules (OARS) Chapter 333, Division 19 ‑ Health Animal Bites & Rabies Oregon Administrative Rules (OARS) Chapter 333, Division 19 ‑ Health Division 333‑ 019‑ • Except where specifically exempt, all dogs at least three months old shall be immunized against rabies by the age of six months. The following are exempt

Animal Bites & Rabies Oregon Administrative Rules • Vaccination of an animal against rabies Animal Bites & Rabies Oregon Administrative Rules • Vaccination of an animal against rabies is valid only when performed: a) by a licensed veterinarian; b) by a veterinary technician (certified according to OAR 875 -030 -0010) under the supervision of a licensed veterinarian; or • Except as provided in (3), any dog, cat, or ferret that has bitten a person shall be held for observation until the tenth day following the bite. This observation shall be under the supervision of a Licensed Veterinarian or other person designated by the Local Public Health Authority.

Animal Bites & Rabies Oregon Administrative Rules • A Rabies Vaccination Certificate shall be Animal Bites & Rabies Oregon Administrative Rules • A Rabies Vaccination Certificate shall be completed and signed by the person performing the vaccination.

Animal Bites & Rabies • (iii) Destruction of the head of a biting animal. Animal Bites & Rabies • (iii) Destruction of the head of a biting animal. No person shall destroy or allow to be destroyed without authorization by the local health officer or administrator (or designee) the head of a rabies susceptible animal which has bitten a person. • • (B) Laboratory Testing of the Head of a rabies susceptible animal which has bitten a person. The head of the biting animal shall be submitted immediately and under refrigeration to the Oregon Public Health Laboratory

Rabies in the US Rabies in the US

Human Rabies Data 1996 -2005 Human Rabies Data 1996 -2005

Human Rabies Data US acquired cases only TX 1990 1 case Bat related 1991 Human Rabies Data US acquired cases only TX 1990 1 case Bat related 1991 2 cases AK, GA Bat related 1993 2 cases NY, TX Bat related 1994 4 cases CA, AL Bat related 1995 4 cases CA(2), CT, WA Bat related 1996 2 cases MT, KY Bat related 1997 4 cases MT, WA, NY, TX Bat related 1998 1 case VA Bat related 2000 5 cases CA, NY, GA, MN, WI Bat related 2002 3 cases CA, TN, IW Bat Related 2003 1 case VA Raccoon Related 2004 2 cases CA, WI Bat related

Rabies Information from the Oregon Health Division Rabies Information from the Oregon Health Division

Rabies Silver-haired bats Lasionycteris noctivagans Rabies Silver-haired bats Lasionycteris noctivagans

SILVER HAIR…………… BAT SILVER HAIR…………… BAT

Rabies in Oregon Rabies in Oregon

Last: ANIMAL RABIES Oregon 1960 - 2002 Cats 1999 Douglas Co. Dog 1990 Mexico/ Last: ANIMAL RABIES Oregon 1960 - 2002 Cats 1999 Douglas Co. Dog 1990 Mexico/ Douglas Co. Fox 2000 Josephine Co. Human 1989 Washington Co. Skunk 1979 Multnomah Co. Raccoon 1967 Hood River Co. Cow 1999 Curry Co. COLUMBIA CLATSOP 3 B MULTNOMAH 5 B 21 B, 1 D, 1 C, 1 S, 1 Hu WASHINGTON 12 B, 1 S, 1 Hu TILLAMOOK YAMHILL 2 B, 1 C POLK 1 B HOOD RIVER 3 B, 1 R CLACKAMAS 26 B, 1 C, 1 S LANE 31 B, 1 D, 1 F COOS 5 B, 1 F, CURRY 5 B, 2 F 1 Co JACKSON 21 B, 8 F BAKER 4 B, 1 Hu JEFFERSON 7 B GRANT 4 B CROOK 1 B DESCHUTES 14 B DOUGLAS 10 B, 1 D, 1 C. 1 F JOSEPHINE 4 B, 2 F UNION 4 B GILLIAM WHEELER LINN 24 B, 1 F WALLOWA 3 B MORROW WASCO 4 B MARION 14 B LINCOLN 4 B, 1 C BENTON 25 B, 2 F UMATILLA 6 B 1 S SHERMAN LAKE 19 B HARNEY 7 B MALHEUR 6 B Legend: B Bat C Cat D Dog F Fox Hu Human R Raccoon S Skunk Co Cow KLAMATH 8 B Updated Jan 2001

Rabies-positive animals Oregon, 2005 COLUMBIA CLATSOP WASHINGTON HOOD RIVER MULTNOMAH TILLAMOOK UMATILLA SHERMAN GILLIAM Rabies-positive animals Oregon, 2005 COLUMBIA CLATSOP WASHINGTON HOOD RIVER MULTNOMAH TILLAMOOK UMATILLA SHERMAN GILLIAM YAMHILL WALLOWA MORROW UNION CLACKAMAS WASCO POLK MARION LINCOLN BAKER WHEELER LINN JEFFERSON = 1 Bat GRANT BENTON CROOK LANE DESCHUTES COOS MALHEUR DOUGLAS LAKE JOSEPHINE CURRY JACKSON KLAMATH HARNEY

Rabies positive animals OREGON MAP 2006 COLUMBIA CLATSOP MULTNOMAH WASHINGTON TILLAMOOK YAMHILL UMATILLA HOOD Rabies positive animals OREGON MAP 2006 COLUMBIA CLATSOP MULTNOMAH WASHINGTON TILLAMOOK YAMHILL UMATILLA HOOD RIVER CLACKAMAS WALLOWA SHERMAN MORROW WASCO UNION GILLIAM POLK MARION WHEELER BAKER JEFFERSON LINCOLN LINN BENTON GRANT CROOK LANE DESCHUTES COOS MALHEUR DOUGLAS LAKE JACKSON JOEPHINE CURRY KLAMATH HARNEY

Year Bat Cat Dog Fox Other Animals 1990 1/29 0/61 0/34 0/14 1991 4/40 Year Bat Cat Dog Fox Other Animals 1990 1/29 0/61 0/34 0/14 1991 4/40 1/85 1/54 1/4 0/19 1992 2/29 0/98 0/54 1993 2/43 1/96 0/34 4/10 0/59 1994 10/47 0/88 0/58 3/7 0/78 1995 3/47 0/98 0/61 5/5 0/159 1996 3/48 0/51 0/33 0/58 1997 14/116 1/83 0/52 0/6 0/45 1998 6/95 0/56 0/3 0/49 1999 11/115 1/95 0/45 0/1 1/47 (Cow) 2000 8/73 0/79 0/56 1/4 0/4 2001 4/59 0/67 0/46 0/1 0/41 2002 12/134 0/102 0/27 2/4 0/29 2003 6/61 0/75 0/36 1/5 0/39 2004 7/88 0/105 0/42 0/27 2005 8/83 0/100 0/48 0/1 0/23 2006 23/126 0/72 0/26 2/4 0/41 2007 12/153 0/80 0/33 0/1 0/26 Totals 1990 -2007 136/1386 9. 8% 4/1530 0. 26% 1/798 0. 12% 19/68 28% 1/812 0. 1%

Prevention or PEP • Preexposure vaccination is recommended for persons in high-risk groups, such Prevention or PEP • Preexposure vaccination is recommended for persons in high-risk groups, such as veterinarians, animal handlers, and certain laboratory workers. • Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) is indicated for persons possibly exposed to a rabid animal. Possible exposures include animal bites, or mucous membrane contamination with infectious tissue, such as saliva

Preexposure prophylaxis regimen • Preexposure prophylaxis consists of three doses of rabies vaccine given Preexposure prophylaxis regimen • Preexposure prophylaxis consists of three doses of rabies vaccine given on days 0, 7, and 21 or 28.

Postexposure prophylaxis regimen • In the United States, PEP consists of a regimen of Postexposure prophylaxis regimen • In the United States, PEP consists of a regimen of one dose of immune globulin and five doses of rabies vaccine over a 28 -day period. • Rabies immune globulin and the first dose of rabies vaccine should be given as soon as possible after exposure. • Additional doses of rabies vaccine should be given on days 3, 7, 14, and 28 after the first vaccination. Current vaccines are relatively painless and are given in your arm, like a flu or tetanus vaccine

Rabies Testing Laboratory Diagnosis Rabies Testing Laboratory Diagnosis