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Ancient Civilizations (River Valley Civilizations) Asian Studies II Ancient Civilizations (River Valley Civilizations) Asian Studies II

*NOTES* WHAT IS A CIVILIZATION? ? ? CIVILIZATION- (1) group of people living and *NOTES* WHAT IS A CIVILIZATION? ? ? CIVILIZATION- (1) group of people living and working together for the purpose of creating an organized society. (2) “the highest cultural grouping of people which distinguishes humans from other species” (3) “complex systems or network of cities that emerge from pre-urban culture”

*NOTES* EIGHT BASIC FEATURES OF A CIVILIZATION: (1) Writing Systems (2) Infrastructure- public works *NOTES* EIGHT BASIC FEATURES OF A CIVILIZATION: (1) Writing Systems (2) Infrastructure- public works such as bridges, roads etc. (3) Government / Laws

*NOTES* (4) Art / Architecture (5) Social Classes *NOTES* (4) Art / Architecture (5) Social Classes

*NOTES* (6) Organized Religion (7) Job Specialization (8) Development of Cities *NOTES* (6) Organized Religion (7) Job Specialization (8) Development of Cities

An agricultural surplus led to the emergence of civilization Rise of cities Artistic Activity An agricultural surplus led to the emergence of civilization Rise of cities Artistic Activity Temples, Pyramids, Palaces, Painting, and Sculpture Culture The way of life of a group of people Growth of Government. Usually monarchs Use of Writing First was Cuneiform in Sumer New Social Structure Different social classes emerge Emergence of Religion Priests take an active role.

Seatwork 2. 3: In one paragraph (5 -7 sentences), discuss two negative (bad) and Seatwork 2. 3: In one paragraph (5 -7 sentences), discuss two negative (bad) and two positive (good) consequences of civilization building. What types of issues do complex societies deal with? ? ?

ASIAN CIVILIZATION Social Studies II Archaeologists believe this is where one of the world’s ASIAN CIVILIZATION Social Studies II Archaeologists believe this is where one of the world’s first civilizations arose. Mesopotamia (today’s Iraq) – is known as the cradle of Civilization. TODAY’s OBJECTIVES: • Summarize how geography affected the cultural development in the Fertile Crescent. • Describe city-states and how other cultures learned from them. • Describe Sumerian religious beliefs, social structure, and technology. • Explain the influence of Sumer on later civilizations.

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: 4 early River Valley Civilizations • Sumerian Civilization - Tigris Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: 4 early River Valley Civilizations • Sumerian Civilization - Tigris & Euphrates Rivers (Mesopotamia) • Egyptian Civilization - Nile River • Harappan Civilization - Indus River • Ancient China - Huang Ho (Yellow) River PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H. S.

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” • Sumerian Civilization - Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” • Sumerian Civilization - Tigris & Euphrates Rivers (Mesopotamia) City-States in Mesopotamia PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H. S.

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in Mesopotamia I. Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in Mesopotamia I. GEOGRAPHY A. Mostly dry desert climate in SW Asia (Middle East) 1. Except in region between Tigris / Euphrates rivers 2. a flat plain known as Mesopotamia lies between the two rivers 3. Because of this region’s shape and the richness of its soil, it is called the Fertile Crescent. - the rivers flood at least once a year, leaving a thick bed of mud called silt. SW Asia (the Middle East) Fertile Crescent PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H. S.

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in Mesopotamia I. Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in Mesopotamia I. GEOGRAPHY 3. Because of this region’s shape and the richness of it’s soil, it is called the Fertile Crescent. - the rivers flood at least once a year, leaving a thick bed of mud called silt. Sumerians were first to settle in this region, attracted by the rich soil. B. Three Disadvantages / Environmental Challenges 1. Unpredictable flooding / dry summer months 2. No natural barriers for protection - small villages lying in open plain were defenseless 3. Limited natural resources - stone, wood, metal PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H. S.

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in Mesopotamia I. Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in Mesopotamia I. GEOGRAPHY Sumerians were first to settle in this region, attracted by the rich soil. B. Three Disadvantages / Environmental Challenges 1. Unpredictable flooding / dry summer months 2. No natural barriers for protection - small villages lying in open plain were defenseless 3. Limited natural resources (stone, wood, metal) C. Solutions 1. Irrigation ditches Sumerian innovations in achieving civilization 2. Built city walls with set example others would follow. mud bricks 3. Traded with people around them But to arrive at these solutions, for the products they lacked. required organized government. Initiated Bronze Age. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H. S. Let’s now look at the type of government the Sumerians had. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H. S.

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in Mesopotamia II. Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in Mesopotamia II. The City-State Structure of Government A. Although all the cities shared the same culture … B. each city had its own government / rulers, warriors, it’s own patron god, and functioned like an independent country C. includes within the city walls and also the surrounding farm land D. Examples include Sumerian cities of Ur, Uruk, Kish, Lagesh E. At center of each city was the walled temple with a ziggurat – a massive, tiered, pyramid-shaped structure. Define type of government PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H. S.

The Ziggurat at Ur was first excavated by British archaeologist Woolley in 1923. The The Ziggurat at Ur was first excavated by British archaeologist Woolley in 1923. The Iraqi Directorate of Antiquities restored its lower stages in the 1980 s.

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in Mesopotamia II. Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in Mesopotamia II. The City-State Structure of Government A. Although all the cities shared the same culture … B. each city had its own government / rulers, warriors, it’s own patron god, and functioned like an independent country C. includes within the city walls and also the surrounding farm land D. Examples include Sumerian cities of Ur, Uruk, Kish, Lagesh E. At center of each city was the walled temple with a ziggurat – a massive, tiered, pyramid-shaped structure. F. Powerful priests held much political power in the beginning. Define type of government Right: Standing nude "priest-king, " ca. 3300– 3000 B. C. ; Uruk. Left: Bas-relief depicting priests intervening between worshipers and gods. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H. S.

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in Mesopotamia II. Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in Mesopotamia II. The City-State Structure of Government A. Although all the cities shared the same culture … Define B. each city had its own government / rulers, warriors, type of government it’s own patron god, and functioned like an independent country C. includes within the city walls and also the surrounding farm land D. Examples include Sumerian cities of Ur, Uruk, Kish, Lagesh E. At the center of each city was the walled temple with a ziggurat – a massive, tiered, pyramid-shaped structure. F. Powerful priests held much political power in the beginning. G. Military commanders eventually became ruler / monarch - then began passing rule to their own heirs, creating a new structure of government called a Dynasty – a series of rulers descending from a single family line. Define type of government Historians wonder… Did the Sumerians develop this new type of government on their own, or did they learn and adopt it only after contact with other peoples – cultural diffusion? PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H. S.

Cultural diffusion is the spread of elements of one culture to another people, generally Cultural diffusion is the spread of elements of one culture to another people, generally through trade. Take the spread of writing. Similarities between the pictograms of Egyptian hieroglyphics, Sumerian cuneiform, and the Indus script are striking. Can you give examples of cultural diffusion in your society today? PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H. S.

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in Mesopotamia II. Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in Mesopotamia II. The City-State Structure of Government A. Although all the cities shared the same culture … B. each city had its own government / rulers, warriors, it’s own patron god, and functioned like an independent country C. includes within the city walls and also the surrounding farm land D. Examples include Sumerian cities of Ur, Uruk, Kish, Lagesh E. At center of each city was the walled temple with a ziggurat – a massive, tiered, pyramid-shaped structure. F. Powerful priests held much political power in the beginning. G. Military commanders eventually became ruler / monarch - then began passing rule to their own heirs, creating a new structure of government called a Dynasty – a series of rulers descending from a single family line. H. Through their trade with neighboring peoples, the Sumerians spread their new innovations. This is cultural diffusion – the spread of one culture’s ideas, products, traditions, beliefs etc. to another people. Let’s now examine Sumerian beliefs and other elements of their culture. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H. S.

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in Mesopotamia III. Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in Mesopotamia III. SUMERIAN CULTURE A. RELIGION 1. Belief in many gods - polytheism God of the clouds / air was Enlil – the most powerful god. (Nearly 3, 000 others – with human qualities. The Sumerians viewed their gods as hostile and unpredictable – similar to the natural environment around them. ) Reflection Time: How does every event happening to people at any given moment affect how they think about their God(s)? A Sumerian warrior-god, gold figurine, ca. 2, 400 -2, 500 Dragon god Marduk, the B. C. E. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H. S.

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in Mesopotamia III. Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in Mesopotamia III. SUMERIAN CULTURE A. RELIGION 1. Belief in many gods - polytheism God of the clouds / air was Enlil – the most powerful god. (Nearly 3, 000 others – with human qualities. They were viewed as often hostile and unpredictable – similar to the natural environment around them. ) 2. Gilgamesh Epic, one of the earliest works of literature. Contains a “flood story” that predates the Hebrew Old Testament story of Noah by at least 2, 000 years. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H. S.

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in Mesopotamia III. Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in Mesopotamia III. SUMERIAN CULTURE A. RELIGION 1. Belief in many gods - polytheism God of the clouds / air was Enlil – the most powerful god. (Nearly 3, 000 others – with human qualities. They were viewed as often hostile and unpredictable – similar to the natural environment around them. ) 2. Gilgamesh Epic, one of the earliest works of literature. Contains a “flood story” that predates the Hebrew Old Testament story of Noah by at least 2, 000 years. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H. S.

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in Mesopotamia III. Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in Mesopotamia III. SUMERIAN CULTURE B. SOCIETY 1. Three social classes a. Priests and royalty (kings) b. Wealthy merchants c. Ordinary workers [Slaves] –were not free citizens and thus not included in class system 2. Women a. Had more rights than in many later civilizations (could own property, join lower ranks of priesthood) b. But not allowed to attend schools (could not read or write) Left: Statue of Sumerian woman with hands clasped at chest, ca. 2600 -2300 B. C. Right: Gypsum statue of man and woman at Inanna Temple at Nippur, circa 2600 -2300 B. C.

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in Mesopotamia III. Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in Mesopotamia III. SUMERIAN CULTURE C. SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 1. One of the first writing systems - Cuneiform Cylinder seals and their ancient impressions on administrative documents and locking devices are our richest source for a range of meaningful subject matters. A wealth of these have been discovered at Sumerian sites. * PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H. S.

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in Mesopotamia III. Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in Mesopotamia III. SUMERIAN CULTURE C. SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 1. One of the first writing systems - Cuneiform 2. Invented wheel, the sail, the plow and sickle 3. First to use bronze. Other Sumerian Achievements • one of the earliest sketched maps • astronomy • a number system in base 60 from which stems our modern units of measuring time and the 360 degrees of a circle. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H. S.

SUMERIAN EDUCATION _ Sumerian Schools: EDUBBAS or Tablet houses _Used in writing: STYLUS. Clay SUMERIAN EDUCATION _ Sumerian Schools: EDUBBAS or Tablet houses _Used in writing: STYLUS. Clay tablets: TEXTBOOKS _Numerical System: based on 60, F R A C T I O N S _Development of WEIGHTS and MEASURES

_ Set Laws First Law From Ur-Nammu, ruler of Ur: Sumeria _ Use Shell _ Set Laws First Law From Ur-Nammu, ruler of Ur: Sumeria _ Use Shell coins _ Develop Banking System

SUMERIAN ORNAMENTS Bust of Lady Pu-abi Reconstructed with golden earrings and elaborate headdress SUMERIAN ORNAMENTS Bust of Lady Pu-abi Reconstructed with golden earrings and elaborate headdress

DEATH PIT OF UR A Mesopotamian statue known as DEATH PIT OF UR A Mesopotamian statue known as "The Ram in the Thicket". This object was found in the Great Death Pit at the Royal Cemetery at Ur and dates from the third millenium BC.

SUMERIAN REFERENCES http: //www. wsu. edu: 8080/~dee/MESO/SUMER. HTM http: //mesopotamia. mrdonn. org http: //www. SUMERIAN REFERENCES http: //www. wsu. edu: 8080/~dee/MESO/SUMER. HTM http: //mesopotamia. mrdonn. org http: //www. sjsu. edu/faculty/watkins/sumer. htm http: //www. nlcs. k 12. in. us/oljrhi/brown/mesopotamia/meso. htm http: //www. earth-history. com

AKKADIANS AKKADIA , CITY OF AKKAD THE VERY FIRST EMPIRE IN HISTORY 1800 – AKKADIANS AKKADIA , CITY OF AKKAD THE VERY FIRST EMPIRE IN HISTORY 1800 – 1530 B. C.

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in Mesopotamia IV. Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in Mesopotamia IV. First EMPIRE Builders A. 3, 000 – 2, 000 B. C. E. the City-States began to war with each other. These internal struggles meant they were too weak to ward off an attack by an outside enemy. B. Sargon of Akkad (ca. 2, 350 B. C. E. ) Define 1. Took control of the region, creating world’s first empire - type of when several peoples, nations, or previously independent government states are placed under the control of one ruler. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H. S.

2. The Akkadian Empire lasted about 200 years, 2350 – approx. 2150 B. C. 2. The Akkadian Empire lasted about 200 years, 2350 – approx. 2150 B. C. E. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H. S.

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in Mesopotamia IV. Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in Mesopotamia IV. First EMPIRE Builders A. 3, 000 – 2, 000 B. C. E. the City-States began to war with each other. These internal struggle meant they were too weak to ward off an attack by an outside enemy. B. Sargon of Akkad (ca. 2, 350 B. C. E. ) Define 1. Took control of the region, creating world’s first empire - type of bringing together several peoples, nations, or previously government independent states and place them under the control of one ruler. 2. The Akkadian Empire lasted about 200 years 3. Spoke a Semitic language (related to Arabic and Hebrew) Invasions, internal fighting, and a severe famine all contributed to the end of the Akkadian Empire. sample Akkadian text Arabic Hebrew PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H. S.

AKKADIAN’S INTERNAL DISSENTION þ Sargon abolished the local dynasties Sargon diverted the Persian Gulf AKKADIAN’S INTERNAL DISSENTION þ Sargon abolished the local dynasties Sargon diverted the Persian Gulf trade of copper, precious stones to Agade which resulted to Sumer’s impoverishment. Sargon was of different race.

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in Mesopotamia C. Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in Mesopotamia C. Babylonian Empire 1. Overtook Sumerians around 2, 000 B. C. 2. Built capital, Babylon, on Euphrates river PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H. S.

Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in Mesopotamia C. Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: “The Four Early River Valley Civilizations” City-States in Mesopotamia C. Babylonian Empire 1. Overtook Sumerians around 2, 000 B. C. E. 2. Built captial, Babylon, on Euphrates river 3. Reign of Hammurabi [1792 -1750 B. C. E. ] PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H. S.

3. Reign of Hammurabi a. Famous Code of Law • he wisely took all 3. Reign of Hammurabi a. Famous Code of Law • he wisely took all the laws of the region’s city-states and unified them into one code. This helped unify the region. • Engraved in stone, erected all over the empire. And do you think he believed it important Whywhy do think Hammurabi thought it to place the place prominent within his important tolaws inall the citieslocations so the people under the same them? Empirecould visibly seeuniform code of laws? A total of 282 laws are etched on this 7 ft. 5 in. tall black basalt pillar (stele). The top portion, shown here, depicts Hammurabi with Shamash, the sun god. Shamash is presenting to Hammurabi a staff and ring, which symbolize the power to administer the law. Although Hammurabi's Code is not the first code of laws (the first records date four centuries earlier), it is the best preserved legal document reflecting the social structure of Babylon during Hammurabi's rule. This amazing find was discovered in 1901 and today is in the famous Louvre Museum in Paris, France. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H. S.

3. Babylonian Reign of Hammurabi a. Famous Code of Law • he wisely took 3. Babylonian Reign of Hammurabi a. Famous Code of Law • he wisely took all the laws of the region’s city-states and unified them into one code. This helped unify the region. • Engraved in stone, erected all over the empire. • Strict in nature – “the punishment fits the crime” / “eye for an eye” Such laws were adopted by neighbors – many similar found in Hebrew scriptures (Old Testament) • His act set an important precedent – idea that the government was responsible for what occurred in society. A total of 282 laws are etched on this 7 ft. 5 in. tall black basalt pillar (stele). The top portion, shown here, depicts Hammurabi with Shamash, the sun god. Shamash is presenting to Hammurabi a staff and ring, which symbolize the power to administer the law. Although Hammurabi's Code is not the first code of laws (the first records date four centuries earlier), it is the best preserved legal document reflecting the social structure of Babylon during Hammurabi's rule. This amazing find was discovered in 1901 and today is in the famous Louvre Museum in Paris, France. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H. S.

CH 2 Sec. 1 Primary Source Document Analysis: “Hammurabi’s Code” (see handout) Cute website CH 2 Sec. 1 Primary Source Document Analysis: “Hammurabi’s Code” (see handout) Cute website http: //www. phillipmartin. info/hammurabi_situation_index. htm PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H. S.

Partnered Students Hammurabi, the king of righteousness, On whom Shamash has conferred the Law, Partnered Students Hammurabi, the king of righteousness, On whom Shamash has conferred the Law, am I. When Marduk sent me to rule over men, to give the protection of right to the land, I did right and in righteousness brought about the well-being of the oppressed. Below are situations Hammurabi faced. You and your partner decide what you think to be a fair way to deal with the problem. Then together we’ll view what Hammurabi actually declared. We’ll find out if Marduk, the supreme god, will be pleased with your decisions? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. What should be done to the carpenter who builds a house that falls and kills the owner? What should be done about a wife who ignores her duties and belittles her husband? What should be done when a "sister of god" (or nun) enters the wine shop for a drink? What should be done if a son is adopted and then the birth-parents want him back? What happens if a man is unable to pay his debts? What should happen to a boy who slaps his father? What happens to the wine seller who fails to arrest bad characters gathered at her shop? How is the truth determined when one man brings an accusation against another?

BABYLONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS a First to Study the Planets a Divided the week into 7 BABYLONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS a First to Study the Planets a Divided the week into 7 days a Invented the clock and sundial to measure time

OLDEST MAP IN HISTORY WITH BABYLON AT THE CENTER OLDEST MAP IN HISTORY WITH BABYLON AT THE CENTER

BABYLONIAN BELIEF SOOTHSLAYERS make predictions by studying internal organs of butchered animals BABYLONIAN BELIEF SOOTHSLAYERS make predictions by studying internal organs of butchered animals

CODE OF HAMMURABI z laws which dealt with crimes against the state. LEX TALIONIS CODE OF HAMMURABI z laws which dealt with crimes against the state. LEX TALIONIS “Law of Retaliation” Law of JUSTICE Hammurabi – 1 st King of Babylonian Empire

GILGAMESH The oldest known copies of these Sumerian versions royal court entertainment in the GILGAMESH The oldest known copies of these Sumerian versions royal court entertainment in the reign of the Third dynasty of Ur and King Shulgi. Gilgamesh, King of Uruk author’s name : Shin-eqiunninni, who is now the oldest known human author

BABYLONIAN REFERENCES http: //www. deeperstudy. org/link/babylonian_empire. html http: //www. maverickscience. com/archaeoastronomy. htm http: //en. BABYLONIAN REFERENCES http: //www. deeperstudy. org/link/babylonian_empire. html http: //www. maverickscience. com/archaeoastronomy. htm http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Babylonia http: //www. utexas. edu/courses/gelbmyth/babylonianflood. jpg

HITTITES 1100. – 612 B. C. The Hittites were a Hamitic race. They are HITTITES 1100. – 612 B. C. The Hittites were a Hamitic race. They are called "the sons of Heth"

i Indo – European Speaking People from Asia Minor i Hattic Language i Living i Indo – European Speaking People from Asia Minor i Hattic Language i Living in Hatti (Anatolia, Turkey) i First Hittite Kingdom founded by King Labarnas

HITTITES GOVERNMENT i MURSILIS I – King lead in to the victory over the HITTITES GOVERNMENT i MURSILIS I – King lead in to the victory over the Babylonians i SUPPILULIUMAS I – Made the Hittite Kingdom reach its height i SUPPILULIUMAS II – Last King of the Hittites

HITTITES POLITICS KADESH PARITY PEACE TREATY i Very First Treaty signed by two great HITTITES POLITICS KADESH PARITY PEACE TREATY i Very First Treaty signed by two great empires: Hittite and Egypt (Hatussili III) (Ramses II)

H I T T I T E ARCHITECTURE Lion Gate of Hattusa, the capital H I T T I T E ARCHITECTURE Lion Gate of Hattusa, the capital of Hittites,

H I T T I T E MINING AND FIRST IRON WEAPONS Hittite (bull) H I T T I T E MINING AND FIRST IRON WEAPONS Hittite (bull) Rhyton

HITTITE EXPERT HORSE RIDERS THE THREE MAN CHARIOT HITTITE EXPERT HORSE RIDERS THE THREE MAN CHARIOT

Assyrians (1176 -612 B. C. ) They were semetic people living in the North Assyrians (1176 -612 B. C. ) They were semetic people living in the North Mesopotamia

Important People: A. Shanishi-Abad (Monarch)- attempted to build an empire. B. Tukulti-Ninurta – began Important People: A. Shanishi-Abad (Monarch)- attempted to build an empire. B. Tukulti-Ninurta – began their first conquest C. Ashurnasirpal II – started the policy of territorial expansion D. Tiglat- Pileser – extended their control to Syria and Armenia E. Sargon II – divided the expanded domain to manageable areas Ashurbanipal-last great monarch. He assembled a library of all literature in Mesopotamia

Contributions: 1. Experts in carving stones 2. Perfected the use of iron 3. Skilled Contributions: 1. Experts in carving stones 2. Perfected the use of iron 3. Skilled hunters 4. Professional soldiers (science and art of war)

ASSYRIAN CARVING STONES ASSYRIAN CARVING STONES

CHALDEANS 612 – 539 B. C. For behold, I am rousing up the Chaldeans, CHALDEANS 612 – 539 B. C. For behold, I am rousing up the Chaldeans, that bitter and impetuous nation who march through the breadth of the earth to take possession of dwelling places that do not belong to them. [II Kings 24: 2. ]

 Chaldeans (612 -539 B. C. ) • They were also called the “New Chaldeans (612 -539 B. C. ) • They were also called the “New Babylonians” • They forced a large part of Jewish population to relocate.

 • Contributions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Hanging Garden Tower of Babel The • Contributions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Hanging Garden Tower of Babel The system of 1 hour=60 minutes Lunar and Solar Calendars with days, months and year High level of Algebra, Science and Astronomy Hanging garden

CHALDEAN ARCHITECTURE HANGING GARDENS - KING NEBUCCHADNEZZAR CHALDEAN ARCHITECTURE HANGING GARDENS - KING NEBUCCHADNEZZAR

CHALDEAN ARCHITECTURE TOWER OF BABEL CHALDEAN ARCHITECTURE TOWER OF BABEL

Important Leaders • Eriba Marduk- founder of the Chaldean dynasty • Merodach Baldenattempted to Important Leaders • Eriba Marduk- founder of the Chaldean dynasty • Merodach Baldenattempted to seize the Babylonian crown with the help of the Elamites • Mushezib Marduk – the prince who revolted with the support of the Elamites Eriba Marduk

PHOENICIANS SEA FARERS PHOENICIANS SEA FARERS "shipmen that had a knowledge of the sea. “ (I Kings 9: 27) KNOWN AS THE CANAANITES AND SIDONIANS

PHOENICIAN LIFE h Semetic people living in Mediterranean Coast (Lebanon, some part of Syria PHOENICIAN LIFE h Semetic people living in Mediterranean Coast (Lebanon, some part of Syria and Israel) h most skillful shipbuilders and navigators of their time h seafaring, manufacturing, and trading nation

When sailing at night, sailors kept their ship in the right direction by observing When sailing at night, sailors kept their ship in the right direction by observing constellations and the North Star, or what the ancient world called the "Phoenician Star. " There were other voyages undertaken by Phoenician explorers

PHOENICIAN PORTS SIDON TYRE CENTER OF GLASS INDUSTRY CENTER OF DYE INDUSTRY PHOENICIAN PORTS SIDON TYRE CENTER OF GLASS INDUSTRY CENTER OF DYE INDUSTRY

PHOENICIAN Coastal city on the Gulf of Tunisia founded by the Tyrian Phoenicians in PHOENICIAN Coastal city on the Gulf of Tunisia founded by the Tyrian Phoenicians in 814 B. C. COLONY

PHOENICIAN TRADE METAL WORK GLASS h. From a snail, the murex, they obtained a PHOENICIAN TRADE METAL WORK GLASS h. From a snail, the murex, they obtained a crimson dye called TYRIAN PURPLE.

CEDAR TREES FOR SHIP BUILDING GOLD ORNAMENTS PHOENICIAN BUST, EGYPTIAN INFLUENCED PHOENICIAN COINS CEDAR TREES FOR SHIP BUILDING GOLD ORNAMENTS PHOENICIAN BUST, EGYPTIAN INFLUENCED PHOENICIAN COINS

PHOENICIAN NEW WRITING SYSTEM PHOENICIAN NEW WRITING SYSTEM

PHOENICIAN Phoenician religion was inspired by the powers and processes of nature. Many of PHOENICIAN Phoenician religion was inspired by the powers and processes of nature. Many of the gods they worshiped, however, were localized and are now known only under their local names. A pantheon was presided over by the father of the gods, but a goddess was the principal figure in the Phoenician pantheon. RELIGION BAAL: KING OF EARTH ASHERAH: QUEEN OF

HEBREWS HEBREWS ". . . I will bless you and make your name great ; and you shall be a blessing. I will bless those who bless you, and I will curse him who curses you; and in you all the families of the earth shall be blessed“ (Genesis 12: 2 -3)

HEBREW HISTORY YHebrews went to the land of Canaan, under Joshua’s leadership Hebrews settled HEBREW HISTORY YHebrews went to the land of Canaan, under Joshua’s leadership Hebrews settled at Mt. Sinai Great Exodus from Egypt, under the rule Ramses II During the famine, some Hebrews went to Egypt Hebrews travelled to Canaan with leader,

 בן-ישי מלך ישראל דוד David ben Yishai, Melekh Ysra’el HEBREW KINGDOM KING SAUL בן-ישי מלך ישראל דוד David ben Yishai, Melekh Ysra’el HEBREW KINGDOM KING SAUL KING DAVID KING SOLOMON

HEBREW RELIGION ARC OF THE COVENAN T YAHWEH SUPREME ETERNAL AGELESS MONOTHEISM HEBREW RELIGION ARC OF THE COVENAN T YAHWEH SUPREME ETERNAL AGELESS MONOTHEISM

HEBREW EMPHASIZES MORAL BEHAVIOR 1. I am the Lord your GOD 2. You shall HEBREW EMPHASIZES MORAL BEHAVIOR 1. I am the Lord your GOD 2. You shall have no other gods before me. You shall not make for yourself an idol. 3. You shall not make wrongful use of the name of your God. 4. Remember the Sabbath and keep it holy. 5. Honor your father and mother. 6. You shall not murder. 7. You shall not commit adultery. 8. You shall not steal. 9. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor. 10. You shall not covet anything that belongs to your neighbor. 10 COMMANDMENTS

PROPHETS EXPRESS HEBREW BELIEFS YMessenger of God Y Preached obedience to God’s Law Y PROPHETS EXPRESS HEBREW BELIEFS YMessenger of God Y Preached obedience to God’s Law Y Warned of Dangers of breaking any of God’s Law YUrged Hebrews to remain firm to their Faith

Star of David or Shield of David symbol of Jewish Identity and Judaism Ynamed Star of David or Shield of David symbol of Jewish Identity and Judaism Ynamed after King David of ancient Israel.

God's Lamp, Man's Light: Mysteries of the Menorah Hanukkah, Menorah celebrates the rededication of God's Lamp, Man's Light: Mysteries of the Menorah Hanukkah, Menorah celebrates the rededication of the Temple after the successful Jewish revolt against the Seleucid monarchy

PERSIANS In the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, in order to fulfill PERSIANS In the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, in order to fulfill the word of the LORD spoken by Jeremiah, the LORD moved the heart of Cyrus king of Persia to make a proclamation throughout his realm and also to put it in writing (EZRA 1: 1) 529 B. C .

PERSIAN SOCIETY z. INDO – EUROPEAN SPEAKING TRIBE z SOUTHWESTERN IRAN z. CONTROLLED BY PERSIAN SOCIETY z. INDO – EUROPEAN SPEAKING TRIBE z SOUTHWESTERN IRAN z. CONTROLLED BY MEDES

PERSIAN RULERS CYRUS THE GREAT 1 ST PERSIAN RULER DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS DEFEATED PERSIAN RULERS CYRUS THE GREAT 1 ST PERSIAN RULER DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS DEFEATED ASSYRIAN TRIBE: MEDES CAPTURED LAND OF CHALDEANS EXTENDED PERSIA TO BORDERS OF INDIA(EAST) AEGEAN

PERSIAN RULERS CAMBYSES TOOK OVER PERSIA AFTER FATHER’S DEATH EXPANDED TERRITORY TO EGYPT SUFFERED PERSIAN RULERS CAMBYSES TOOK OVER PERSIA AFTER FATHER’S DEATH EXPANDED TERRITORY TO EGYPT SUFFERED MENTAL ILLNESS: SOCIAL ANXIETY: SUICIDE

PERSIAN RULERS DARIUS THE GREAT EMPIRE INTO PROVINCES DIRECTED SATRAPS (GOVERNORS) PUBLIC WORKS SYSTEM PERSIAN RULERS DARIUS THE GREAT EMPIRE INTO PROVINCES DIRECTED SATRAPS (GOVERNORS) PUBLIC WORKS SYSTEM GOLD COINS “DARICS”

PERSIAN RELIGION Z O R O A S T R I A N I PERSIAN RELIGION Z O R O A S T R I A N I S M AHURA MAZDA: DIVINE GOD ZOROASTE R :

PERSIAN PUBLIC WORKS PERSIAN PUBLIC WORKS

PERSIAN ARCHITECTURE PERSIAN ARCHITECTURE

PERSIAN BEHISTUN ROCK DISCOVERED BY HENRY RAWLINSON IN 1835 - 1852 imperishable stone of PERSIAN BEHISTUN ROCK DISCOVERED BY HENRY RAWLINSON IN 1835 - 1852 imperishable stone of a 4, 000 -foot Iranian mountain, artisans of Darius the Great carved his vainglorious autobiography almost 2, 500 years ago

Two centuries after Hammurabi’s reign, the Babylonian Empire fell to nomadic raiders. New groups Two centuries after Hammurabi’s reign, the Babylonian Empire fell to nomadic raiders. New groups would rule over the Fertile Crescent in the future. However, the innovative ideas of the Sumerians and their descendants in the region would be adopted by the later peoples – including the Assyrians, the Persians, Phoenicians and the Hebrews (Jews). PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H. S.