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Analysis of the French Revolution 1750 -1914 Lesson 3 Analysis of the French Revolution 1750 -1914 Lesson 3

La Marseillaise Allons, enfants de la Patrie, Le jour de gloire est arrive! Contre La Marseillaise Allons, enfants de la Patrie, Le jour de gloire est arrive! Contre nous de la tyrannie L’étendard sanglant est levé! L’étendard sanglant est levé. Entendez-vous dans les campagnes Mugir ces féroces soldats? Ils viennent jusque dans nos bras Egorger nos fils et nos compagnes: Aux armes, citoyens! Formez vos bataillons! Marchons! Qu’un sang impur abreuve nos sillons!

Causes of the Revolution • Class antagonisms – Disparity (98% Third Estate) – Voting Causes of the Revolution • Class antagonisms – Disparity (98% Third Estate) – Voting in the Estates General – Tax Issues

Causes of the Revolution • Government Inefficiency: – National deficit – No responses to Causes of the Revolution • Government Inefficiency: – National deficit – No responses to poverty – Increased tax pressure

Causes of the Revolution • Inept Ruler: – Louis XVI • horrible procrastinator • Causes of the Revolution • Inept Ruler: – Louis XVI • horrible procrastinator • Moderately intelligent, easily influenced – Marie-Antoinette • Austrian, not French • Big spender, gambling debts

Causes of the Revolution • Intellectuals transfer loyalty: – Enlightenment influences on bourgeoisie – Causes of the Revolution • Intellectuals transfer loyalty: – Enlightenment influences on bourgeoisie – Tax issues – Reform of Estates General

Early Stages • Failure of Force: – Effects of troops vs. rioters/demonstrators – “Let Early Stages • Failure of Force: – Effects of troops vs. rioters/demonstrators – “Let them eat cake” – Lock-out of Third Estate – Storming the Bastille & Versailles

Early Stages • Political & Economic Upgrades – Bread riots – Redistribution of land Early Stages • Political & Economic Upgrades – Bread riots – Redistribution of land – Abolishment of feudalism & nobility – The National Assembly & Legislative Assembly

Crisis Stage • Foreign Involvement – Why would other countries care? – April 1792, Crisis Stage • Foreign Involvement – Why would other countries care? – April 1792, Austrian & Prussian armies march into France & on Paris

The King is Dead. . . • Riots & the Radicals • Jacobins--Radical political The King is Dead. . . • Riots & the Radicals • Jacobins--Radical political group led by Maximilian Robespierre • Jacobins try Louis XVI as a traitor & execute him on the guillotine in Jan. 1793

Radical Stage: The Reign of Terror • Robespierre: society of virtue & freedom came Radical Stage: The Reign of Terror • Robespierre: society of virtue & freedom came from the presence of terror • July 1793 -July 1794: Up to 3000 Parisians ( 40, 000 total) executed as “traitors to the revolution” • Terror ends when Robespierre is executed in July 1794 --Radicals lose power

Reactionary Stage: The Directory • Fear of Radicals • Directory’s actions – two-house legislature; Reactionary Stage: The Directory • Fear of Radicals • Directory’s actions – two-house legislature; greater stability – Napoleon Bonaparte named First Consul

France on the Eve of Napoleon • Instability, factions, distrust • Peasants still have France on the Eve of Napoleon • Instability, factions, distrust • Peasants still have little, but now aren’t afraid to resort to violence • Enemies on all sides--the rest of Europe is TERRIFIED by the French Revolution