- Количество слайдов: 26
An Introduction to the Four Gospels Christian Scriptures’ Class: Pat Orr
Review: Inspiration and Salvation History l l Salvation History is the belief that God is involved in human history; Inspiration is the belief that God makes his presence known to humans and that humans are capable of putting those truths into their own words, examples, and idioms. The difficulty is making sure that we work to understand the words so that we can find the truth behind the words The Scriptures may include historical information, but are not intended to be History: they tell of God’s continuing love for the world.
Review: Gospels * l l Literally, the word Gospel means “the Good News” that the promised Messiah has finally arrived in the person of Jesus of Nazareth and that we didn’t have to lives of wishing but rather could lives of fulfillment in the “olam ha-ba” or “eschaton”-the promised “reclaiming” of the world by God. The Gospels are to be considered “communal portraits” and not “literal photographs” of Jesus and His mission. The Jews of the Diaspora (Jews living outside of Israel) were the first to hear the Good News when Apostles told them the story of Jesus in the Synagogues of the Diaspora. Gentiles (non. Jews) were then introduced to Jesus.
Excursus: a little trip that explains l Synagogues were run by Rabbis of the Pharisee Sect – – – Believed in Table Fellowship as way to God Believed the entire Tenach was inspired by God Believed in a promised Messiah, resurrection of the dead, life after death with God. Believed the Scriptures needed to be applied to the present moment and not just be taken literally Wanted to make the Scriptures “Phar-I-see”!!!
Excursus: a little trip that explains l The Temple was run by Priests of the Sadducee Sect – – – Believed that Temple Worship was only way to God Believed only the Torah was inspired by God Did not believe in a promised Messiah, resurrection of the dead, life after death with God because these ideas came from the Prophets– these were not inspired by God. Believed the present moment needed to fit into the Scriptures which were to be taken literally. This is why they were “Sadd-u-cee”!!!
An Introduction to the Four Gospels: The Story of the Storytellers l l l Forty years separates the death of Jesus from the writing of the first gospel– we move from first generation Christians to second, third, and fourth generations. The death of Jesus was a reminder to each generation that their personal death and the death of their own way of life was imminent. Telling about this Apocalyptic world-view was the work of the early writers of the Scriptures. Early Christians were engaged in one of the most basic of human activities: STORY TELLING So, an introduction to the Gospels is as much the story of the Storytellers.
An Introduction to the Four Gospels: The Story of the Storytellers l The Storytellers passed on the tradition of: l l l – – – what happened to Jesus, what he stood for and what he did. This was done orally, refining the story by telling it and retelling it. In this process they defined Jesus for themselves: Is Jesus the Moshiach or the Savior or both? They also defined themselves by defining what it meant to be a Christian.
An Introduction to the Four Gospels l l l These shared memories, passed along by word of mouth, are known as “ORAL TRADITION. " They included stories of Jesus' miracles and healings, his parables and teachings, and his death The first written documents probably included an account of the death of Jesus and a collection of sayings attributed to him.
An Introduction to the Four Gospels l l l In about the year 70 CE, the evangelist known as Mark wrote the first "gospel" -- the words mean "good news" about Jesus. The Greek word for “good news” is “eu-angelium” but since the Greek letter for “u” looks like a “v” (think “W”), we have made the word “evangelist. ” The word “Gospel” comes from the German translation of good news, “Gut spiel”, which becomes “Godspel”/Gospel in English.
An Introduction to the Four Gospels l l l This first Gospel is called “Mark’s” with a certain amount of speculation, since it was common practice in the ancient world to attribute written works to famous people. The community of Mark (called “Mark”) was concerned that his message about Jesus would be lost, so they collected all his thoughts. “Mark's” genius was to commit the story of Jesus to writing, and thereby start the written gospel tradition about the year 70 AD/CE.
An Introduction to the Four Gospels l l Matthew composed his Gospel about 15 years after Mark (ca. 85 CE), using as his sources: his own experience, Mark’s Gospel, and a collection of sayings called "Q", for Quelle (Grk for “source”) The Gospel of Luke, written about ten years later, (ca. 95 CE), also uses Mark and “Q”. – l Matthew, Mark, and Luke are collectively known as the “synoptic” Gospels because they have the “same vision. ” The Gospel of John (the “Spiritual Gospel) is completed around 100 CE and its style is totally different from the Synoptic Gospels.
An Introduction to the Four Gospels l l Mark’s “Messianic Secret” emphasized the need to be ready: – to be “messianic” themselves and – for the “Eschaton” which was surrounding them. Matthew wanted to make sure that his Jewish community recognized their prophesized “Messiah” from their Tenakh. Luke wanted his diverse community to realize that the Spirit of God and the Messianic Good News was operating in all people. John looked at Jesus’ life as a continuing exposition of his Divinity rather than just a narrative of events which led up to the Passion and Resurrection.
An Introduction to the Four Gospels l l l The gospels also reflect the growing tensions between Christians and Jews. The Traditional Jews and the “Messianic” Jews start as brotherly sects of Judaism and become bitter enemies; this bitterness begins to show up in the writings about each other. This leads to a certain amount of “Anti-Jewish” commentary and blame in the Gospels as opposed to the original concerns over theology.
Council of Rome decides the Canon of Scripture
Council of Rome: 382 CE/AD l l Before Constantine, Christians and Jews were often considered to be enemies of the Empire. Constantine made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire by 325 AD/CE; Christians now had to conform to official Christian rules or be declared heretical and face persecution and death. The Council of Rome decided what material would be in the Canon of Scripture in the year 382 CE/AD. Pope Damasus hires St. Jerome to decide the Canon or official list of Scripture in order to unify Roman Christianity and stifle dissent.
Rome’s Criteria l l Historical-Traditional ties to Apostolic Times Truth to the Apostolic ideal of Service Jesus was truly a human who suffered Scriptures must be acceptable to all Christian churches
Rome’s Criteria 1. Real historical-traditional ties to the Apostolic timesnot necessarily to an Apostle who followed Jesus: l l Luke and Mark certainly never met Jesus. After starting out as a prosecutor against the heretical, upstart, Christian-Jewish sect, Paul converted and knew of Jesus only from the preaching and teaching of the early church leaders.
Rome’s Criteria 2. True to the apostolic ideal of service to others- being willing to give one’s life for others rather than taking lives: l l This is important because Christianity had become the accepted religion of the Roman Empire and was now a power. Soldiers and politicians, who had once killed Christians, were now in the position of killing in the name of Christ. Service became an even more important virtue to be stressed for the now powerful and strong Christian. Just War Theory develops out of this concern kill for the right reasons.
Rome’s Criteria 3. Jesus was a real human being who really suffered and was also a divine being; l l Other Christian Churches were advocating mystic and ethereal views about Jesus which made him appear not to be a real, physical human being. The importance of stressing the Real Humanity alongside the Divinity of Jesus was to stress the absolute connection between God and Creation--- There was to be no separation between the two even if there were distinctions.
Rome’s Criteria 4. The message of the Gospels and Epistles must be acceptable to the universal church and not just to one of the national Churches- Coptic, Byzantine, Roman, Greek, Syrian, etc.
King James Bible: 1611 CE/AD l l In 1611, the Theologians appointed by King James I of England published their “Authoritative” English version of the Bible This has become the Canon for Protestants, Reformers, Evangelicals, and modern Christian Churches
Introduction to Gospels l Divorce – – Mark 10: 10 -12 Matt 5: 31 -32 l l Sermon on the Mount – l Source of Matthew 5: 31 Matt 5 -7 Sermon on the Plains – Luke 6: 20 -46
Introduction to Gospels • Genealogy of Jesus • Matt 1: 1 -17 (Genealogy to Abraham) • • Luke 3: 23 -38 (Genealogy to God) • • Jesus is primarily Messiah for Jewish expectations Jesus is Messiah for all humans Christian-Jews conflict with Pharisaic Judaism • Matt 27: 62 -66 (Gospels claim conspiracy theory by “cynical” Jewish leaders)
Introduction to Gospels l John is “Spiritual” Gospel – – Uses Greek Philosophical Principles about Jesus John 3: 1 -8: Rebirth is metaphor John 4: 13 -15: Water is metaphor John 6: 47 -59: Bread is Metaphor
Introduction to Gospels l Paul the Persecutor turned Convert – – Acts 7: 54 -60: Paul/Saul helps kill Stephen Acts 9: 1 -9: Paul is converted to believe in Jesus
An Introduction to the Four Gospels The End