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An Analysis of XMPP Security Team “Vision” Chris Nelson Ashwin Kulkarni Nitin Khatri Taulant Haka Yong Chen CMPE 209 Spring 2009
Agenda n n n HISTORY OF XMPP INTRODUCTION TO XMPP SECURITY IN XMPP • Use of TLS (Transport Layer Security) • Use of SASL (Simple Authentication and Security Layer) n n SECURITY CONCERNS IN XMPP Conclusion
HISTORY OF XMPP n n n 1998 -Core technology was invented by Jeremie Miller 1999 -Jabber open-source community initially started to developed the protocol 2000 -Instant Messaging and Presence Protocol (IMPP) Working Group published the result 2002 and 2003 -XMPP protocol was formalized by IETF 2004 -The XMPP RFCs were published. 2007 -Jabber Software Foundation was renamed XMPP Standards Foundation
Application using XMPP n n n n n Instant messaging Presence Media session management Shared editing Whiteboarding Collaboration Lightweight middleware Content syndication Generalized XML routing.
The core protocols of Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol n n n Jabber Client Jabber Server Presence and IM Session Establishment Resource Binding Server Dialback Simple Authentication and Security Layer S/MIME Encryption Stanza Errors Stream Errors Transport Layer Security XML Streams
XMPP Communication § XMPP uses XML to communicate between two nodes ØA client and a server ØA server and a server ØA client and another client via one or more servers
XMPP Communication (cont. ) n n simplistic view of one-way communication using XMPP.
SECURITY IN XMPP n XMPP is built on four layers • TCP as the reliable transport protocol • TLS for encryption of data sent over the TCP connection • SASL for authentication of nodes communicating over TLS and TCP • XMPP as an application communicating over the reliable, authenticated, and encrypted channel
SECURITY IN XMPP Use of TLS n n n The initiating entity opens a TCP connection including the 'version' attribute The receiving entity responds by opening a TCP connection including the 'version' attribute The receiving entity offers the STARTTLS extension including a
SECURITY IN XMPP Use of TLS (Cont) n n The initiating entity issues the STARTTLS command The receiving entity MUST reply with either a
SECURITY IN XMPP Use of SASL n n n The initiating entity requests SASL authentication by including the 'version' The receiving entity advertises a list of available SASL authentication mechanisms The initiating entity selects a mechanism by sending an
SECURITY IN XMPP Use of SASL (cont. ) n If necessary, the receiving entity sends more challenges -- the initiating entity sends more responses until: • The initiating entity aborts the handshake by sending an
XMPP Extensions n n n Instant Messaging and Presence -- base XMPP extensions for instant messaging, contact lists, presence, and privacy blocking. (RFC 3921) End-to-End Signing and Object Encryption (RFC 3923) XMPP extensions with additional features including XML-RPC and SOAP bindings, inband registration, extended presence, geolocation, and reliable message delivery (XEP series )
XMPP Extensions (XEP series ) n n Service Discovery -- a robust protocol for determining the features supported by other entities on an XMPP network (XEP-0030) Data Forms -- a flexible protocol formshandling via XMPP, mainly used in workflow applications and for dynamic configuration (XEP 0004 ) File Transfer -- a protocol for transferring files from one XMPP entity to another (XEP-0096) HTTP Binding -- a binding of XMPP to HTTP rather than TCP, mainly used for devices that cannot maintain persistent TCP connections to a server (XEP-0124 )
SECURITY CONCERNS IN XMPP n Security depend on user • User trust a certificate from an unknown source n And/Or implementation • Performing SASL negotiations before securing the channel with TLS • sending message, presence, or iq data before completing the TLS or SASL negotiations
Conclusion n n XMPP was designed with security in mind Its architecture is solid The implementation is secure Susceptible to careless users
References § § § § § Summary of XMPP. (2007, January 16). Retrieved March 8, 2008, from http: //www. xmpp. org/about/summary. shtml Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol. Retrieved March 8, 2008, from http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Extensible_Messaging_and_Presence_Protocol Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP): Core. (2004, October). Retrieved March 8, 2008, from http: //tools. ietf. org/html/rfc 3920 Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP): Instant Messaging and Presence. (2004, October). Retrieved March 8, 2008, from http: //tools. ietf. org/html/rfc 3921 6 End-to-End Signing and Object Encryption for the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP). (2004, October). Retrieved March 8, 2008, from http: //tools. ietf. org/html/rfc 3923 The XMPP Federation. Retrieved March 8, 2008 from https: //www. xmpp. net Simple Authentication and Security Layer (SASL). (2006, June). Retrieved March 8, 2008, from http: //tools. ietf. org/html/rfc 4422 Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP): Core. (2004, October). Retrieved March 8, 2008, from http: //tools. ietf. org/html/rfc 3920
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