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An Age Of Cities An Age Of Cities

Growth of Cities Farmers – In – Migrants Southern African - Americans CITIES Immigrants Growth of Cities Farmers – In – Migrants Southern African - Americans CITIES Immigrants Cities grew because people came for jobs.

“Urbanization” Living Conditions • Row Houses (Brownstones), tenements and slums Limited water and kerosene “Urbanization” Living Conditions • Row Houses (Brownstones), tenements and slums Limited water and kerosene lamps - fires a hazard Transportation • Streetcars Cable Cars Electric Cable Cars Subways Electrified Rails Sanitation • Hard to keep up with & not always done • Especially challenging when horses were still in use.

Cities and Technology • Swarms of new people required more and more space, so Cities and Technology • Swarms of new people required more and more space, so cities grew out and up. • Bridges linked the 5 boroughs of New York. • Skyscrapers created skylines of major cities. Elevators made it practical to build tall buildings. • 1881 – Richmond, VA – 1 st to have electric streetcars

Richmond 1881 Richmond 1881

Building Skyscrapers Digging the Subways Building Skyscrapers Digging the Subways

Problems in Cities How many people are in this picture? How do they look? Problems in Cities How many people are in this picture? How do they look? Why do you think people lived like this?

Problems in Cities Immigrants and factory workers lived in crowded slums in industrial cities. Problems in Cities Immigrants and factory workers lived in crowded slums in industrial cities. Squalid and dangerous life. Low wages meant wives & children worked to help families survive.

Problems in Cities What problems could have resulted from things in these pictures? Problems in Cities What problems could have resulted from things in these pictures?

People Get Some Help Overcrowding and overbuilding prompted city managers to plan. Serenity of People Get Some Help Overcrowding and overbuilding prompted city managers to plan. Serenity of life was fading. Building Codes • Building owners had to install fire escapes. • Had to make buildings safer. • Plumbing required.

People Who Helped Reformers Mother Cabrini – Hospitals for the poor. Jane Addams – People Who Helped Reformers Mother Cabrini – Hospitals for the poor. Jane Addams – Hull House first Settlement House – community centers that helped poor immigrants ACCULTURATE Salvation Army – Collected money and clothes for the poor. YMHA – Young Men’s Hebrew Association - activities for boys promoting good citizenship. Jacob Riis – Reformer who took pictures of life in the cities Social Gospel – People who had money should use it to help the poor.

People Who Helped Hull House - 1856 Hull House - 1904 People Who Helped Hull House - 1856 Hull House - 1904

Middle Class Moves Out • Transportation enables movement of the professional class – lawyers, Middle Class Moves Out • Transportation enables movement of the professional class – lawyers, doctors, merchants - to create suburbs. • Men freely commuted home for fresh air of the country and more family time. • By 1890 over 100, 000 commuters were taking trains to the city from their suburban homes.

How Urbanization Looked Poor Factory Workers Docs, Lawyers, Office workers Factory Owners Crowded & How Urbanization Looked Poor Factory Workers Docs, Lawyers, Office workers Factory Owners Crowded & Dirty Tenements Small, but neat and clean one family houses Big & Luxurious Homes of many rooms

Education Surges • Increased wealth creates leisure time. • More time for more education Education Surges • Increased wealth creates leisure time. • More time for more education • 5500 High Schools and 150 more Universities by 1900 • Colleges begin preparing men and women for business careers.

Communications Grow 1880 s • Web Perfecting Press – Prints on both sides of Communications Grow 1880 s • Web Perfecting Press – Prints on both sides of paper Revolutionizes newspaper business – lowers cost! • Linotype Machine - Set lines in printing operations much faster, cheaper and the same way every time. • Kodak Camera – 1 st Commercially available camera • Flight - Dec. 7, 1903 – Wright Brothers - Kitty Hawk! Speeds up mail delivery by 1920

Mass Circulation Newspapers 1880 s Two rivals in NY competed sensational “scoops” • Joseph Mass Circulation Newspapers 1880 s Two rivals in NY competed sensational “scoops” • Joseph Pulitzer’s New York World - “Sin, Sex and Sensation!” Comic Sections; Sports; Big Sunday Paper • William Randolph Hearst’s Morning Journal – “Scandals, Cruelty & Crime” By 1898 both papers sold ads & over 1 million a day!

Culture & Leisure Time • Wealth brought leisure time & Outdoors activities popular Sports Culture & Leisure Time • Wealth brought leisure time & Outdoors activities popular Sports • Ice Skating (1850)! Roller Skating (1863!) • Cycling (mid-1870 s) Tennis (1874) • Coney Island Amusement Park (1884) first roller coasters. • “Spectator” sports thrived – Baseball since Civil War National League – 1876 American League – 1901 1903 - 1 st World Series - Boston Pilgrims vs. Pittsburgh Pirates

Mass Entertainment • Live Shows – Plays with International Stars • 1899 - Vaudeville Mass Entertainment • Live Shows – Plays with International Stars • 1899 - Vaudeville – Live Variety Shows Slapstick Comedy…Singers…Chorus Lines…Tap Dancers…and Ragtime bands Al Jolson http: //www. digitalhistory. uh. edu/music/rockabye_your_baby_with_a_dixie_melody. mp 3 Scott Joplin http: //ilike. myspacecdn. com/play#Scott+Joplin: The+Entertainer: 38057: s 42359279. 1114930 6. 20076138. 0. 2. 65%2 Cstd_54 ef 37 dbf 98949 c 483 a 43 cc 28 aee 7518

Birth of Movies - Silent • Two hours long with written subtitles at bottom Birth of Movies - Silent • Two hours long with written subtitles at bottom Pearl White “Perils of Pauline” 1914 http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=JBJdik. Qnpzw Theda Bara Cleopatra 1917 Charlie Chaplin “The Cure” 1914

Consumer Economy • 1890 – Cleveland Ohio – 1 st Shopping Mall • Retail Consumer Economy • 1890 – Cleveland Ohio – 1 st Shopping Mall • Retail Shopping Districts developed easy to commute to with public transportation • 1865 – Chicago, IL - Marshall Field’s became the first Department Store – Big Advertiser • 1870 s – FW Woolworths Chain began 1 st 5 -and-10 -cents stores

Advertising Innovations • Big Ad Agencies producing new kinds of ads Advertising Innovations • Big Ad Agencies producing new kinds of ads

Booker T Washington vs. W. E. B. Du. Bois • Still widespread discrimination against Booker T Washington vs. W. E. B. Du. Bois • Still widespread discrimination against minorities Washington working within system for economic opportunity would gain equality for African Americans w/o demanding it. “…begin at bottom to get to…top. ” Dubois demanded equality NOW. Began Niagara Movement became NAACP. “…persistent manly agitation is the way to liberty. ” • Two Supreme Court Cases frustrated progress.

United States vs. Reese challenged that Southern laws violate the 15 th Amendment – United States vs. Reese challenged that Southern laws violate the 15 th Amendment – Voting Rights. Supreme Court rules that 15 th Amendment gave right to vote to no one. It said only that race cannot be used to deny it. Since Jim Crow laws don’t mention race, they don’t violate the law and can stand!

Plessy vs. Ferguson 1896 – Homer Plessy denied a seat in a “white car” Plessy vs. Ferguson 1896 – Homer Plessy denied a seat in a “white car” on a Louisiana railroad & sued. Railroad argued that all seats were equal on the train – none better than others. Supreme Court rules that “separate but equal” is constitutional – Critical Case for 60 years!