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AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY Great Debates in American Foreign Policy, 1789 -1945 AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY Great Debates in American Foreign Policy, 1789 -1945

I Isolationism vs. Internationalism George Washington’s Farewell Address History and experience prove that foreign I Isolationism vs. Internationalism George Washington’s Farewell Address History and experience prove that foreign influence is one of the most baneful foes of republican government…. Excessive partiality for one foreign nation and excessive dislike of another cause those whom they actuate to see danger only on one side and serve to veil and even second the arts of influence on the other…. The great rule of conduct for us in regard to foreign nations is in extending our commercial relations to have as little political connection as possible. So far as we have already formed engagements let them be fulfilled with perfect good faith. Here let us stop.

Europe has a set of primary interests which to us have none or a Europe has a set of primary interests which to us have none or a very remote relation. Hence she must be engaged in frequent controversies, the causes of which are essentially foreign to our concerns. Hence, therefore, it must be unwise for us to implicate ourselves by artificial ties in the ordinary vicissitudes of her politics or the ordinary combinations and collisions of her friendships or enmities. Our detached and distant situation invites and enables us to pursue a different course…. Why forego the advantage s of so peculiar a situation? . . . Why, by interweaving our destiny with that of any part of Europe, estrange our peace and prosperity in the toils of European ambition, rivalship, interest, humor or caprice?

Taking care always to keep ourselves to suitable establishments on a respectable defensive posture, Taking care always to keep ourselves to suitable establishments on a respectable defensive posture, we may safely trust to temporary alliances for extraordinary emergencies. There can be no greater error than to expect or calculate upon real favors from nation to nation. It is an illusion which experience must cure, which a just pride ought to discard…. It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world, so far, I mean, as we are at liberty to do it….

Isolationism= no involvement in world affairs? 1、Western Expansion 2、Monroe Doctrine 3、Spanish-American War: President Theodore Isolationism= no involvement in world affairs? 1、Western Expansion 2、Monroe Doctrine 3、Spanish-American War: President Theodore Roosevelt’s internationalism, emphasis on power 4、World War One 5、President Woodrow Wilson’s internationalism, emphasis on principle 6、The process of getting involved into WWII, FDR’s internationalism

II Debate on the scope of military and defence Prewar troop levels Wartime mobilization II Debate on the scope of military and defence Prewar troop levels Wartime mobilization Postwar demobilizatio n War of 1812 12, 000 36, 000 0 Civil War, 1861 -65 16, 000 1, 000 25, 000 WWI, 1917 -18 130, 000 2, 000 265, 000 WWII, 1941 -45 175, 000 8, 500, 000 550, 000

WWII and U. S. Federal Government’s expenditure Civilian employees Annual budget Before WWII 1, WWII and U. S. Federal Government’s expenditure Civilian employees Annual budget Before WWII 1, 000 During WWII 3, 800, 000 $9 billion $98. 4 billion

: ? III Principles Ideals or not American Exceptionalism city on the hill American : ? III Principles Ideals or not American Exceptionalism city on the hill American exceptionalism not only celebrate the uniqueness and special virtues of the United States, but also elevates America to a higher moral plane than any other counties…. Exceptionalism can stimulate both crusading interventionalism and complacent withdrawal from world affairs…. The attendant American determination to spread American ideals around the world… [and] an excuse to remain smug and content in an isolationist cocoon, well protected from ‘corrupt’ or ‘inferior’ foreigners.

Cases of Presidents Wilson, FDR 1、14 points 2、4 freedoms Cases of Presidents Wilson, FDR 1、14 points 2、4 freedoms

Cases against the Principle 1. Annexation of Mexican territory and War against Mexico 2. Cases against the Principle 1. Annexation of Mexican territory and War against Mexico 2. Colonization war against the Philippines 3. Racism in Foreign Policy

IV Prosperity: US Imperialism U. S. Military Interventions in Latin America, early 20 th IV Prosperity: US Imperialism U. S. Military Interventions in Latin America, early 20 th Century Mexico: 1914, 1916 -17 Honduras: 1924 -25 Nicaragua: 1909 -10, 1912 -25, 1926 -33 Panama: 1903 (Canal Zone acquired) Cuba: 1898 -1902, 1906 -09, 1912, 1917 -22 Dominican Republic: 1916 -24 Haiti: 1915 -34

American Policy toward Latin America Regional Hegemon? Good Neighbor? American Policy toward Latin America Regional Hegemon? Good Neighbor?

V U. S. A. as a Pacific Power 1. U. S. and Japan Perry V U. S. A. as a Pacific Power 1. U. S. and Japan Perry Fleet: only for trade? American-Japanese Relations in early 20 th Century 2. U. S. and China Commercial Ship Queen China、Treaty of Wangxia Open-Door Policy 3. U. S. and Asia during WWII

VI Great Debates in Foreign Policy Politics Going to War 1. War of 1812 VI Great Debates in Foreign Policy Politics Going to War 1. War of 1812 President James Madison requested the Congress for declaration of war, and the Congress debated for 3 weeks with the voting results: 79: 49 in the House, 19: 13 in the Senate 2. Annexation of Texas and Declaration of War toward Mexico The Treaty of Annexation of “Lone Star Republic” could not be approved by the Senate by 2/3 majority; at last passed the House and the Senate as a joint resolution with simple majority. War against Mexico was declared by the Congress, but opposed by famous representative Abraham Lincoln.

3. WWI Three years after WWI started, when American security was endangered (American merchant 3. WWI Three years after WWI started, when American security was endangered (American merchant ships were hit by German U-boats, and Germany’s initiative to joint hands with Mexico against America) Senate: 82: 6; House: 373: 50 4. WWII good war Europe got involved into the war for more than 2 years, and Asia has been driven into the war for years Pearl Harbor attack U. S. declared war against Japan; Germany declared war against U. S.

Free Trade vs. Protectionism Debate on tariff policy in the early half of 19 Free Trade vs. Protectionism Debate on tariff policy in the early half of 19 th century Economic groups of different regions Northern industrialists Northern and Western farmers Northeastern Merchants Southern plantation owners view higher tariff, protection for “infant industries” higher tariff, protection of domestic market for agricultural products lower tariff, more profit in import and export businesses Lower tariff, promotion of cotton and tobacco export in Europe

Free Trade vs. Protectionism in late 19 th century Democratic Party: free trade Republican Free Trade vs. Protectionism in late 19 th century Democratic Party: free trade Republican Party: protectionism Democratic and Republican “warfare”: President’s particianship? Which party controlled the majority of the Congress?