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 America’s most unpopular war Cost LBJ his second term to Richard Nixon America’s America’s most unpopular war Cost LBJ his second term to Richard Nixon America’s longest and most expensive war Divided America on the home front The best technical war money could buy America hardly ever lost a tactical battle A war America did not win Today, we are living with the “ghosts of Vietnam”.

X Berlin Blockade 1947 -8 X CONTAINMENT • Marshall Plan • Berlin Airlift • X Berlin Blockade 1947 -8 X CONTAINMENT • Marshall Plan • Berlin Airlift • NATO • Korean War • Cuban Missile Crisis • Alliance for Progress • Peace Corps Eastern Europe 1946 Soviet Union 1918 China 1949 Cuban Missile Crisis * *Cuba would remain and still is a communist country. X Korean War 1950 to 1953 Vietnam War 1946 to 1975 US Involvement 1965 to 1975 Communist Expansion “CONTAINMENT”

The War in Southeast Asia vn map 1. “Domino Theory” Must “contain” communism and The War in Southeast Asia vn map 1. “Domino Theory” Must “contain” communism and not allow it to spread. If it does, it would lead to more countries falling to the communists.

Background to the War a At end of WW II, Ho Chi Minh declared Background to the War a At end of WW II, Ho Chi Minh declared Vietnam an independent nation a With U. S. aid, France attempted recolonize Vietnam

2. Background to the War a. International Conference at Geneva in 1954 e Vietnam 2. Background to the War a. International Conference at Geneva in 1954 e Vietnam was split at 17 th parallel Ho Chi Minh’s nationalist forces controlled the North Ngo Dinh Diem, a French. Diem educated, Roman Catholic claimed control of the South a. Elections were to be held two years later but Diem backed out.

U. S. Military Involvement Begins a. Repressive dictatorial rule by Diem e Diem’s family U. S. Military Involvement Begins a. Repressive dictatorial rule by Diem e Diem’s family holds all power e Wealth is hoarded by the elite e Buddhist majority persecuted e Torture, lack of political freedom prevail a. The U. S. aided Diem’s government e Ike sent financial and military aid e 675 U. S. Army advisors sent by 1960.

Early Protests of Diem’s Government Self-Emulation by a Buddhist Monk protesting against the brutality Early Protests of Diem’s Government Self-Emulation by a Buddhist Monk protesting against the brutality of Diem’s government

U. S. Military Involvement Begins a Kennedy elected 1960 a Increases military “advisors” to U. S. Military Involvement Begins a Kennedy elected 1960 a Increases military “advisors” to 16, 000 a 1963: JFK supports a S. Vietnamese military coup d’etat – Diem and his brother are murdered (Nov. 2) a Kennedy was later (Nov. 22) assassinated just weeks

U. S. Troop Deployments in Vietnam U. S. Troop Deployments in Vietnam

Lyndon Johnson, Speech at Johns Hopkins University, Lyndon Johnson, Speech at Johns Hopkins University, "Why are we in South Vietnam" • Why are we in South Vietnam? We are there because we have a promise to keep. Since 1954 every American President has offered to support the people of South Vietnam. • We have helped to build and we have helped to defend. Thus, over many years, we have made a national pledge to help South Vietnam defend its independence.

Johnson Sends Ground Forces a. Remembers Truman’s “loss” of China --> Domino Theory revived Johnson Sends Ground Forces a. Remembers Truman’s “loss” of China --> Domino Theory revived I’m not going to be the president who saw Southeast Asia go the way China went.

1964 4. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Passed by Congress 5 Aug 1964 – Radically 1964 4. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Passed by Congress 5 Aug 1964 – Radically altered the War in Southeast Asia – Gave President Johnson a “blank check”: “To take all necessary steps to repel armed attack against US forces”, including force, to assist South Vietnam and any member of SEATO”

5. The Air War 1965 -1968 a 1965: Sustained bombing of North Vietnam begins 5. The Air War 1965 -1968 a 1965: Sustained bombing of North Vietnam begins a Operation Rolling Thunder (March 2, 1965) a Downed Pilots: P. O. W. s a Carpet Bombing – napalm

The Air War: A Napalm Attack The Air War: A Napalm Attack

Who Is the Enemy? a. Vietcong: Vietcong founded in South Vietnam who were communists— Who Is the Enemy? a. Vietcong: Vietcong founded in South Vietnam who were communists— supported by N. Vietnam. e. Farmers by day; guerillas at night. e. Very patient people willing to accept many casualties. e. The US grossly underestimated them.

The Ground War 1965 -1968 a. No territorial goals a. Body counts on TV The Ground War 1965 -1968 a. No territorial goals a. Body counts on TV every night (first “living room” war) war

6. The Tet Offensive, January 1968 a. N. Vietnamese Army + Viet Cong attack 6. The Tet Offensive, January 1968 a. N. Vietnamese Army + Viet Cong attack South simultaneously a 80, 000 attack 100 cities, bases and the US embassy in Saigon a. Take every major southern city a. U. S. + ARVN beat back the offensive show this as a defeat!!!!

The Tet Offensive US troops defending the American Embassy in Saigon The Tet Offensive US troops defending the American Embassy in Saigon

Impact of the Tet Offensive a. Domestic U. S. Reaction: Disbelief, Anger, Distrust of Impact of the Tet Offensive a. Domestic U. S. Reaction: Disbelief, Anger, Distrust of Johnson Administration a. Hey, Hey LBJ! How many kids did you kill today?

7. Anti-War Demonstrations Columbia University, 1967 7. Anti-War Demonstrations Columbia University, 1967

Anti-War Demonstrations a. May 4, 1970 a 4 students shot dead. a 11 students Anti-War Demonstrations a. May 4, 1970 a 4 students shot dead. a 11 students wounded a. Jackson State University a. May Kent State University a 2 10, 1970 dead; 12 wounded

Impact of the Vietnam War Johnson announces (March, 1968): Accordingly, I shall not seek, Impact of the Vietnam War Johnson announces (March, 1968): Accordingly, I shall not seek, and I will not accept, the nomination of my party for another term as your President. a

divided US ESTABLISHMENT Called Middle America, the Silent Majority Supported Vietnam War Traditional American divided US ESTABLISHMENT Called Middle America, the Silent Majority Supported Vietnam War Traditional American values: hard work, family and patriotism ANTI-ESTABLISHMENT Feared and disliked new styles of music and dress of youth Against use of illegal drugs Called counterculture Hippies, Flower Children Opposed Vietnam War Disillusioned with values of money, status, power; emphasized love, individual freedom, cooperation Music and fashion emphasized movement toward new society, greater freedom Used “mind-expanding” drugs, LSD

8. Nixon in Vietnam a. Nixon’s 1968 Campaign promised an end to the war: 8. Nixon in Vietnam a. Nixon’s 1968 Campaign promised an end to the war: Peace with Honor a. Appealed to the great “Silent Majority” a. Vietnamization a. Expansion of the conflict – The “Secret War” e. Cambodia e. Laos

Peace Negotiations US & Vietnamese argue for 5 mo. over size of conference table. Peace Negotiations US & Vietnamese argue for 5 mo. over size of conference table. a

9. The Ceasefire, 1973 Conditions: 1. U. S. to remove all troops 2. North 9. The Ceasefire, 1973 Conditions: 1. U. S. to remove all troops 2. North Vietnam could leave troops already in S. V. 3. North Vietnam would resume war 4. No provision for POWs or MIAs a Last American troops left South Vietnam on March 29, 1973 a 1975: North Vietnam defeats South Vietnam a

1974 v Nixon’s impeachment hearings/Resignation v. South braces for huge Communist invasion. 1974 v Nixon’s impeachment hearings/Resignation v. South braces for huge Communist invasion.

The Fall of Saigon South Vietnamese Attempt to Flee the Country The Fall of Saigon South Vietnamese Attempt to Flee the Country

The Fall of Saigon April 30, 1975 America Abandons Its Embassy The Fall of Saigon April 30, 1975 America Abandons Its Embassy

The New Vietnam Formerly Saigon The New Vietnam Formerly Saigon

10. The Costs v 3, 000 Vietnamese killed v 58, 000 Americans killed v 10. The Costs v 3, 000 Vietnamese killed v 58, 000 Americans killed v 300, 000 wounded v Of those that died 11, 465 were teenagers v 10, 000 dead from accidents v 153, 000 hospitalized & survive v 2, 590, 000 Americans in Vietnam. v Great Society programs under funded v $150, 000, 000 in U. S. spending v U. S. morale, self-confidence, trust of government decimated