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America Moves Towards War Isolationist Viewpoint • The U. S. should avoid alliances with America Moves Towards War Isolationist Viewpoint • The U. S. should avoid alliances with other nations • Americans should focus on issues at home, such as the depression • Complete neutrality was the way to keep the U. S. safe • Intervention in a foreign war would be a mistake, just as WWI was Interventionist Viewpoint • The U. S. should work with other nations to promote collective security • Axis aggressions were wrong and threatened American interests • The U. S. should aid the allies, who were fighting for democracy and freedom • The U. S. should put pressure on the Axis Powers and prepare for war

Moving Cautiously Away from Neutrality FDR issued an official proclamation of neutrality On Sept. Moving Cautiously Away from Neutrality FDR issued an official proclamation of neutrality On Sept. 8, after 6 weeks of debates, FDR persuades Congress to pass “cash-and-carry” FDR argues we must help France & Britain to defeat Hitler to keep us out of the war 1940, FDR tries to provide Britain “all aid short of war”

The Lend-Lease Plan • This was a economic declaration of war against Germany & The Lend-Lease Plan • This was a economic declaration of war against Germany & the Axis • FDR tells nation if Britain fall, Axis powers are free to conquer the world – U. S. must become the “arsenal of democracy” • By late 1940, Britain has no more cash to buy U. S. arms • 1941 Lend-Lease Act – U. S. to lend or lease supplies for defense – lend weapons & other supplies to any country whose defense was vital to the U. S.

Lend Lease Aid Given by the United States Year 1941 (March – December) 1942 Lend Lease Aid Given by the United States Year 1941 (March – December) 1942 1943 1944 1945 (January – August) Total British $1. 1 billion Soviet Union $20. 0 million $4. 8 billion $9. 0 billion $10. 8 billion $4. 4 billion $1. 4 billion $2. 4 billion $4. 1 billion $2. 8 billion $30. 1 billion $10. 7 billion

The Atlantic Charter August, FDR & Churchill meet and issues the Atlantic Charter – The Atlantic Charter August, FDR & Churchill meet and issues the Atlantic Charter – A joint declaration of war aims Fight Europe first then Pacific Charter is basis of “A Declaration of the United Nations” or Allies – nations that fight the Axis powers; 26 nations sign the Declaration

Shoot on Sight • German U-boats fire on U. S. ships • Fall of Shoot on Sight • German U-boats fire on U. S. ships • Fall of 1941, USS Reuben James is sunk killing more than 100 sailors • FDR orders the navy to shoot U-boats on sight • U-boat attacks lead Senate to repeal ban on arming merchant ships

Japan’s Ambitions in the Pacific • Japan had dreams of creating a vast colonial Japan’s Ambitions in the Pacific • Japan had dreams of creating a vast colonial empire • July, 1941, Japan seizes French bases in Indochina – U. S. cut off steel & oil to Japan • Japan needs oil from U. S. or must take Dutch East Indies oil fields • Japan started peace talks

Peace Talks are Questioned 1941, U. S. breaks Japanese codes; learns Japan planning to Peace Talks are Questioned 1941, U. S. breaks Japanese codes; learns Japan planning to attack the U. S. Peace talks with Japan last about 1 month November 5, Tojo starts to plan for the attack on Pearl Harbor December 6, Japanese envoy instructed to reject all U. S. proposals

The Attack on Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941, the Japanese attacks Pearl Harbor 2, The Attack on Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941, the Japanese attacks Pearl Harbor 2, 403 Americans killed; 1, 178 wounded Over 300 aircraft, 21 ships destroyed or damaged

Attack on Pearl Harbor Attack on Pearl Harbor

Reaction to Pearl Harbor December 8, Congress approves FDR’s request for declaration of war Reaction to Pearl Harbor December 8, Congress approves FDR’s request for declaration of war against Japan December 11, Germany & Italy declared war on the U. S. The U. S. was unprepared to fight in both the Atlantic & Pacific Oceans

Chapter 16 Section 4 Quiz • • 1. )What act allowed the U. S. Chapter 16 Section 4 Quiz • • 1. )What act allowed the U. S. to sell weapons to nations at war as long as they paid cash? a. ) Selective Services Act b. ) Kellogg-Briand Act c. ) Neutrality Act • 2. ) Why did the Americans start selling weapons to nations at war? a. ) Pres. Roosevelt thought it would help France and Great Britain b. ) Pres. Roosevelt thought it would bring America out of a depression c. ) Pres. Roosevelt wanted America to get involved in the war • • • • 3. ) What countries formed the Axis power? a. ) Germany, Italy and Japan b. ) Germany, France and Italy c. ) U. S. , France and Great Britain • • 4. ) What was the name of the act that created the draft? a. ) Selective Services Act b. ) Neutrality Act c. ) War Draft Act • • 5. ) What president had three terms? a. ) Pres. Hoover b. ) Pres. Franklin Roosevelt c. ) Pres. Theodore Roosevelt • • • 6. ) What form of media was used by Pres. Roosevelt to reveal America was at war? a. ) Television b. ) Magazine c. ) Radio 7. ) What act was passed that allowed America to lend money and weapons to Great Britain? a. ) Neutrality Act b. ) Lend-Lease Act c. ) Weapons Act of 1914 8. ) Which country broke their pledge and attacked when they promised they wouldn’t? a. ) Germany attacked the Soviet Union b. ) The Soviet Union attacked Germany c. ) They both attacked each other 9. ) What future enemy did America send lendlease weapons to in WWII? a. ) Germany b. ) Italy c. ) Russia 10. ) What was the name of German submarines that attacked at night? a. ) Wolf Packs b. ) Pack attackers c. ) Stealth Bombers

Chapter 16 Section 4 Quiz Con’t. • • • 11. ) What new technology Chapter 16 Section 4 Quiz Con’t. • • • 11. ) What new technology helped Americans track down German submarines? a. ) Radar and Sonar b. ) Television c. ) Telescope 12. ) What was the name of the agreement between 26 nations where the nations agreed to military cooperation? a. ) United Nations b. ) United Arab Emirates c. ) Allied Nations • • 16. ) What base did the Japanese attack? a. ) Pearl Harbor b. ) Nuremburg c. ) Guantanamo Bay • 17. ) How many Americans died during the attack of Pearl Harbor? a. ) 2403 b. ) 24, 030 c. ) 243 • • 13. ) When Japan attacked East Asia, who was the only nation that could stop them? a. ) Great Britain b. ) France c. ) United States • • • 14. ) What did the U. S. do to Japan first? a. ) Cut off trade b. ) Invaded their nation c. ) Bombed them • • 15. ) What year did the Japanese attack Americans? a. ) 1941 b. ) 1914 c. ) 1951 • • 18. ) How many ships were sunk during the attack of Pearl Harbor? a. ) 21 ships b. ) 12 ships c. ) 112 ships 19. ) How many ai rcraft were destroyed during the attack of Pearl Harbor? a. ) over 300 b. ) over 3000 c. ) Under 100 20. ) Give the name of the speech by Pres. Roosevelt in response to Pearl Harbor? a. ) I Have a Dream b. ) The Fourteen Points bulletin c. ) Today is a Day That Will Live in Infamy