- Количество слайдов: 62
AMERICA IN THE MODERN AGE WORLD WAR II THE COLD WAR THE KOREAN WAR
w SSUSH 19 The student will identify the origins, major developments, and the domestic impact of World War II, especially the growth of the federal government. w b. Explain the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the internment of Japanese- Americans, German-Americans, and Italian-Americans. w c. Explain major events; include the lend-lease program, the Battle of Midway, D-Day, and the fall of Berlin. w d. Describe war mobilization, as indicated by rationing, wartime conversion, and the role of women in war industries w e. Describe Los Alamos and the scientific, economic, and military implications of developing the atomic bomb.
SSUSH 20 : The student will analyze the domestic and international impact of the Cold War on the United States. a. Describe the creation of the Marshall Plan, U. S. commitment to Europe, the Truman Doctrine, and the origins and implications of the containment policy. b. Explain the impact of the new communist regime in China, the outbreak of the Korean War
Essential questions: 1. How did the United States’ national crisis’ in the 1930’s and WWII lead to changes in the political, social, economic and cultural identity of the USA? 2. What impact did the Cold war have the USA? Vocabulary: w w w w Lend-Lease Act Allies Winston Churchill Stalingrad The Italian campaign D-Day Douglas Macarthur Midway Battle of the Coral Sea Kamikaze Wagner Act National Labor Relations Act Manhattan Project w w w w Harry Truman Eleanor Roosevelt Hiroshima Nagasaki Dwight Eisenhower Hitler Nazi Huey Long Court Packing Bill Neutrality Act President Roosevelt A. Philip Randolph War Production Board Rosie the Riveter Old age insurance
WORLD WAR II
RISE OF DICTATORS w Three (3) events that led to their rise Great Depression in Europe following WWI. Anger over the Treaty of Versailles 1. 2. l Germany Strong sense of nationalism 3. l Desire that all peoples with like languages and cultures should be together in one country.
BENITO MUSSOLINI w Leads the Fascist Party of Italy to power in 1922. w Outlaws all political parties except Fascists. w Takes control of press, schools, religion. w Invades Ethiopia with no interference by the League of Nations.
ADOLF HITLER w Head of the Nazi Party in Germany- 1933 w Blames Jews for German problems and calls for the creation of the Aryan Race. n Blond haired, blue-eyed Germans w Creates a totalitarian state in which Nazi Party controls all of the govt. , schools, and religion.
JAPAN w Hirohito- Emperor of Japan. w Militarists dominate the government. n Hideki Tojo- War Minister. w 1932 - Seizes Manchuria in China. w 1936 - leaves the League of Nations and invades rest of China.
JOSEPH STALIN w Succeeds Lenin upon his death in 1922. w Had all of his political opponents killed. w Govt. takes control of all aspects of economy. w Signs pact with Germany to stay out of war. w Later joins with Allies after Germany attacks Russia
WINSTON CHURCHILL w Becomes Prime Minister of Great Britain in 1940. w Noted for his stirring speeches and bulldog confidence. w Leads Britain against Nazi aggression. w Pressures for the United States to enter the war.
FDR-ELECTION OF 1936 Franklin Roosevelt up for a second term n His New deal is very popular but it is not working n Depression has not turned around n Thinks war is inevitable but America is isolationist in the 1930’s w Roosevelt wins all but 2 states
THE BEGINING OF THE WAR w 1935: Germany rearms. w 1936: Germany takes the Rhineland. w 1937: Germany, Italy, Japan form the Axis Powers. w 1938: Germany seizes Sudetenland Austria. w 1939: Germany invades Czechoslovakia.
EUROPEAN RESPONSE w Britain and France adopt appeasement policy at Munich Conference to let Hitler have what he has taken. w America adopts Neutrality Acts. w Soviet Union signs Nazi. Soviet Pact to agree not to attack each other. w September 1, 1939: Germany invades Poland.
EUROPEAN RESPONSE w September 3, 1939: Britain and France declare war on Germany.
THE WORLD AT WAR w Hitler uses blitzkrieg “lightning war” against Europe. w Spring, 1940: Germany invades Denmark, Belgium, and France. w June, 1940 - France falls to the Nazis. n Hitler presides over the surrender in the same railroad car as the 1918 Armistice.
Neutrality Acts: 1935, 1936, 1937 When the President proclaimed the existence of a foreign war, certain restrictions would automatically go into effect: § Prohibited sales of arms to belligerent nations. § Prohibited loans and credits to belligerent nations. § Forbade Americans to travel on vessels of nations at war [in contrast to WW I]. § Non-military goods must be purchased on a “cash-andcarry” basis pay when goods are picked up. This limited the options of the President in a crisis. America in the 1930 s declined to build up its forces because it was isolationist
1939 Neutrality Act In response to Germany’s invasion of Poland. FDR persuades Congress in special session to allow the US to aid European democracies in a limited way: § The US could sell weapons to the European democracies on a “cash-and-carry” basis. § FDR was authorized to proclaim danger zones which US ships and citizens could not enter. Results of the 1939 Neutrality Act: § Aggressors could not send ships to buy US munitions. § The US economy improved as European demands for war goods helped bring the country out of the 1937 -38 recession. America becomes the “Arsenal of
LEND-LEASE w 1941 proposal to Congress by Roosevelt. n British running short on money. w United States greatly increased its production of military equipment so that it could be leant to the British and the Allies. w $7 billion dollars used to build airplanes, ships, and tanks.
AMERICA ENTERS THE WAR w July, 1941 - America freezes Japanese assets for aggression in the Pacific. n November, 1941 negotiations between the U. S and Japan fail. w Sunday, December 7, 1941 - Pearl Harbor, Hawaii bombed by Japanese planes at 7: 55 a. m. n 19 ships and 150 planes destroyed.
AMERICA ENTERS THE WAR w December 8, 1941: President Roosevelt formally asks Congress to declare war on Japan. w December 11: Germany and Italy declare war on America.
War Mobilization w How does America get ready for war? w What’s it like on the home front? w How do the people left at home help win WWII? w How does the role of women change during the war?
Buy, Buy a Bond: It Will Lead to VICTORY!
“Rosie, the Riveter”
Women’s Army Air Corps Pilots, Women’s Army Corps. Army Nurses
Get Your Ration Cards
S. . t. . r. . e. . t. . c. . h That Food!
Japanese-American Boy Scout Troop in an Internment Camp
Navaho “Code Talkers”
WARTIME ALLIANCES w w ALLIES United States Britain France Soviet Union AXIS w Germany w Italy w Japan
BATTLES IN THE PACIFIC w Battle of Midway: June 4 -7, 1942 - America sinks 4 Japanese aircraft carriers. w Turning Point of the war for America in the Pacific
European Theater 1942 -1945 General Dwight D. Eisenhower Marshal Georgy Zhukov Supreme Allied Commander Soviet Field Marshal
INVASION OF ITALY w July, 1943 - Island of Sicily invaded. w Mussolini flees Italy for Germany. n Caught by his own people and executed. w Italian army surrenders, but German army continues to fight. w June, 1944 - Allies march into Rome.
BATTLE FOR RUSSIA w July, 1942 - Battle of Stalingrad. n Russians destroy their own cities so Germans would have “nothing to conquer. ” w July, 1943 - Battle of Kursk n Germans forced to withdraw.
D-DAY w Operation Overlordinvasion of France via English Channel. w Gen. Eisenhower leads w June 6, 1944 - Beaches of Normandy, France are invaded by 3 million Allied troops. w Aug. 25, 1944 - Paris liberated.
EAST MEETS WEST w April 26, 1945 Russian and American troops meet at the Elbe River.
WAR IN THE PACIFIC w Japan severely weakened by U. S. forces. w Island Hopping Campaign. Feb. - March, 1945 America captures Japanese controlled islands n Philippines, Iwo Jima w Kamikaze- Japanese suicide runs w/ planes.
Iwo Jima-More US Marines earned the Medal of Honor on Iwo Jima than in any other battle in US History.
General Mac. Arthur and the Philippines I Will Return!
YALTA CONFERENCE w w Meeting of the “Big Three” in Feb. , 1945. Agreements made 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Germany divided into 4 zones. Germany would pay for war and lose military. Created United Nations Stalin demands Poland to be “pro-Russian. ” Soviet Union agrees to enter the war against Japan after the defeat of Germany.
DEATH OF HITLER w July, 1944 - Assassination attempt by German generals. Hitler survives. w Soviet forces invade Berlin. w Hitler marries long-time girlfriend, Anna Braun w April 30, 1945 - they commit suicide in bunker by swallowing cyanide capsules. w Bodies burned by German soldiers. Hitler’s last official photo
DEATH OF ROOSEVELT w Election of 1944 n Roosevelt defeats Thomas Dewey for a 4 th term. w 63 years old, very sick with influenza, high blood pressure, and congestive heart failure. w April 12, 1945 - suffers a stroke at Warm Springs, Georgia. w April 15, 1945 - State Funeral
HARRY S. TRUMAN w Becomes President on death of Roosevelt. w “out of the loop” on war-time planning. w Orders drop of Atomic Bomb to “save American lives. ”
THE END OF THE WAR w June, 1944 - D-Day w May 8, 1945 - Germany surrenders (V-E Day) w Manhattan Project at Los Alamos w August 6, 1945 - Atomic Bomb dropped on: n n Hiroshima (70, 000 killed) Nagasaki (40, 000 killed)
THE END OF THE WAR w August 14, 1945 Japan surrenders (V-J Day)
THE COLD WAR- a war fought with words, threats, espionage but not weapons of mass destruction
“The Iron Curtain” w Soviet Union controls nations of Eastern Europe, each with a pro-Moscow Communist government. n n 1946 -1947 - Poland, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria 1948 - Czechoslovakia w Churchill calls this the, “Iron Curtain. ” w Germany split into East Germany (pro-Soviet) and West Germany (Independent).
UNITED NATIONS w w Created in 1945. Member nations agreed to bring all disputes to. Any nation can belong. 5 Permanent members 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. United States Great Britain Soviet Union China France
TRUMAN DOCTRINE w 1947 - Soviet Union threatens Greece and Turkey. w United States would send $400 million in aid to Greece and Turkey to help stop the Communists. w “It must be the policy of the United States to support free people who are resisting outside pressures. ”
MARSHALL PLAN w Plan by Secretary of State George Marshall to rebuild post-war Europe. w Believed that by helping these people, it would avoid Communist threats w Between 1948 -1952 the United States would give $12 billion in aid to Western Europe. w Aid offered to Eastern Europe, but turned down.
BERLIN BLOCKADE w Berlin divided into 4 zones n United States, Great Britain, France, Soviet Union. w Stalin cuts off all highway and rail traffic in June, 1948.
Berlin Airlift • Ordered by Harry Truman in June, 1948. • Daily food drops into Berlin. • Planes land every 4 minutes at the airport. • Ends in May, 1949. • 1 year and 2 months. • 277, 804 flights. • 2, 325, 809 tons of food and supplies.
OPPOSING ALLIANCES NATO w North Atlantic Treaty Organization w United States and nations of Western Europe. w Created in April, 1949. Warsaw Pact w Military organization of the Communist Nations. w Soviet Union, Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania. w Created in May, 1955.
ELECTION OF 1948 w Democrats n Harry S. Truman w Republicans n Thomas Dewey w Dixiecrats n Strom Thurmond w Truman travels the country by train- “whistle stop” campaign. w Dewey leads in the polls the entire campaign. n First use of Gallup Polls. w “Dewey Defeats Truman” headline w Truman wins
The “War” on Communism w Truman takes it upon himself to stop communism from spreading around the world. w Called the containment policy w Many 3 rd world nations susceptible to the ideals of communism.
The Korean War 1950 -1953
Korean Peninsula w Korean peninsula divided into north and south at 38 th Parallel after WWII. w People’s Republic of Korea (Communist North) led by Kim Il Sung. w Republic of Korea (Capitalist South) led by Syngman Rhee.
KOREAN WAR w June 25, 1950 - Invasion of South by communist North. w U. N. forces led by Gen. Mac. Arthur push into the North. w Chinese help communist North to push back south of the 38 th.
Gen. Mac. Arthur Fired w Douglas Mac. Arthur openly criticizes Truman for the handling of the war. n Wants to invade China. w April, 1951 - Mac. Arthur is recalled and relieved of duty. n Replaced by Mathew Ridgeway.
End of the War w War ends in July 27, 1953. w Armistice signed with the border staying at the 38 th Parallel.
Election of 1952 w Republicans n n n Dwight D. Eisenhower “I like Ike. ” Former WWII general w Democrats n Adlai Stevenson w Eisenhower wins in a landslide. w First Republican elected to Presidency in 20 years.