- Количество слайдов: 73
America and WWII • After Pearl Harbor, public opinion in America, especially the West coast, called for an immediate response and attack on Japan. But…. • Roosevelt had already worked out the ABC-1 Agreement: – Attack Germany first – If U. S. attacked Pacific first and put all strength there, Hitler might defeat Soviets and British and make it impossible to defeat him – If Germany defeated fist, the Allied powers could concentrate on defeating Japan next. – So U. S gave just enough resources to Pacific campaign to prevent Japan from getting too strong and fortified
America’s Task • Preparing for war and the logistics of war were far more difficult and complex in WWII: – Feed, cloth, and arm itself and its allies – Transport troops is far flung places as Burma and also Britain. Truly a global war – Transport supplies to its soldiers and allies from USSR to Australia. – Question was: Was America up for this herculean task?
Home Front • National Unity was strong, mostly due to the surprise attack by the Japanese – American Communists clamored for an all out assault on the Axis powers – Italian-Americans and German-Americans gave support to the Allied cause – Patriotism of immigrants was not in question like in World War I • Ethnic groups more engrained into American society • Strong Supporters of Roosevelt and New Dealers • No government witch hunt like in World War I
Japanese Internment • One exception was the internment of 110, 000 Japanese-Americans on the pacific coast – 2/3 rds were American born and citizens – Fear of sabotage and spying, they were herded into concentration and internment camps by the U. S. government – Many robbed of their property and also future earnings – Korematsu v. U. S. Supreme Court upheld the internment – In 1988, U. S. apologized and survivors received 20, 000 each
Throwing in an Extra Charge, 1941 • The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 excited virulent hatred of Japan among Americans, who called for a war of vengeance against the treacherous aggressor. Anti. Japanese sentiment remained stronger than anti-German sentiment throughout the war. Orr © 1941 by The Chicago Tribune
Enemy Aliens • When the United States suddenly found itself at war with Germany, Italy, and Japan in December 1941, noncitizen German, Italian, and Japanese immigrants became “enemy aliens” and were required to register with the authorities. Several hundred resident Germans and Italians were detained in internment camps, but the harshest treatment was meted out to the Japanese, some 110, 000 of whom, noncitizens and citizens alike, were eventually interned. Ironically, the two Japanese American Boy Scouts posting this notice in Los Angeles would soon be on their way to a government detention camp. Brown Brothers
Pledging in Vain • These Japanese American schoolchildren in San Francisco were . soon evacuated along with their parents National Archives
Japanese American Evacuees, 1942 • After the U. S. Army’s Western Defense Command ordered the forced evacuation of all Japanese and Japanese Americans living on the Pacific Coast, families had no choice but to pack up whatever they could carry and move to the “relocation centers” hastily erected farther inland. Library of Congress
Manzanar Internment Camp, 1943 • This view of Manzanar is deceptively picturesque and tranquil. In reality, the six-thousand-acre camp on the barren flats of a dried-up lake in California’s interior was enclosed in barbed wire, and the 20× 20 uninsulated cabins were virtually uninhabitable. A riot in late 1942 against the government’s use of informants within the camp resulted in the deaths of two internees and the serious injury of eight others. Library of Congress
Reviving the Economy • Mobilizing the economy for war finally ended the Great Depression – 100 billion dollars in military orders in 1942 alone – War Production Board (WPB) helped orchestrate the production of military supplies • • • 40 billion bullets 300, 000 aircrafts 76, 000 ships 86, 000 tanks 2. 6 million machine guns
Reviving the Economy • War Production Board – Managed economy and halted manufacturing of non-essential items – Assigned priorities for transportation and access to raw materials • Farmers – New machinery and also new fertilizers allowed farms to also increase production, even thought they had a smaller workforce
Reviving the Economy • Increased production led to increased inflation in 1942: – Office of Price Administration • Extensive regulations controlling prices • Rationing of meat and butter enforced – War Labor Board • Enforced ceilings on wage increases • Labor hated the wage ceilings and staged many walkouts – In response the government passed Smith Connally Antistrike Act of 1943 • Government could seize and operate tied- up industries • Strikes against government run industries was illegal • Government took control of coal mines and railroads • But by the war’s end, only 1% of all work time was lost to strikes, proving labor’s effort in fighting the war
Your Number Was Called!
Manpower and Womanpower • Armed Services enlisted: – 15 million men – 216, 000 women • WAACS (Army), WAVES (navy), and SPARS (Coast Guard) • This many men leaving for armed service meant that farms and factories were short of workers – Bracero Program • Brought in Mexican agricultural workers to harvest grain and fruit in the West
Womanpower • More than 6 million women took jobs outside the home. • As mothers, the government helped establish daycares while the women worked • After the war, many women wanted to stay in their jobs and it foreshadowed the eventual revolution of the role of women in American society
War Workers • More than 6 million women--3 million of them homemakers who had never before worked for wages--entered the work force during World War II. In contrast to the experience of women workers in World War I, many of these newly employed women continued as wage workers after the war ended. National Archives/Stock Montage
Rosie the Riveter
“Rosie, the Riveter”
Fix that Engine!
Join the Women’s Army Corps
Women’s Army Air Corps Pilots
We Need Nurses Badly
Female War Photographer
Internal Migration in the United States During World War II • Few events in American history have moved the American people about so massively as World War II. The West and the South boomed, and several war-industry cities grew explosively. A majority of migrants from the South were blacks; 1. 6 million African Americans left the region in the 1940 s. (c) Houghton Mifflin Company. All Rights Reserved. Copyright
On the Road Looking for Work
Navajo Code Talkers, 1943 • One of the best-kept secrets of World War II was the use of the Navajo language in a Marine Corps code designed to confuse the Japanese. Two marines in the leatherneck unit, made up of Native Americans from Arizona and New Mexico, transmitted in code during © the battle for Bougainville Island in the South Pacific in 1943. Bettmann/ CORBIS
Home Front Impact • Being isolated from the fighting, America came out of the war practically unscathed. • As noted, war invigorated the economy – – – GNP in 1940 was $100 billion GNP in 1945 was $200 billion Corporate profits doubled during the same time period from $ billion to $12 billion – Disposable income more than doubled – When price ceilings were lifted in 1946, Americans pushed up prices 33 percent in 2 years. • All this growth occurred while the rest of the world was laid to waste and struggling
Increased Government • During the war, the government took on a greater role than ever before and the lives of Americans were influenced more than ever by the federal government. – Rationing system – Worked for the government or served in armed forces – Millions worked in defense industries who employees and unions were monitored by the FEPC and WLB. – Personal needs cared for by government housing projects, day-care facilities, and health plans – Office of Scientific research and Development funneled money to universities and cemented the relationship between the government and universities.
Do Your Bit!
Buy, Buy a Bond: It Will Lead to VICTORY!
Get Your Ration Cards
S. . t. . r. . e. . t. . c. . h That Food!
No New Dresses for a While
Increased Government • In many ways, the government became the warfare-welfare state – Idea of an established military-industrial complex. • Idea that the government needed a large military to survive, especially with the Cold War following WWII. • But high military spending made the economy dependent on it and thus government spending to maintain economic growth – Government continues even today extensive welfare programs for impoverished citizens
Cost and Debt • Cost of war was $330 billion – 10 x more than the Great War – 2 x more than all government spending since 1776 • Income tax was expanded to an astonishing 90 percent rated – But only 2/5 ths of the war costs were paid by current revenue. Remainder was borrowed. • National debt skyrocketed from $49 billion in 1941 to $259 billion in 1945 • War cost $10 million dollars an hour at its height of production
The National Debt, 1930– 1950 • Contrary to much popular mythology, it was World War II, not the New Deal, that first ballooned the national debt. The debt accumulated to still greater amounts in the 1980 s and 1990 s. Source: Historical Statistics of the United States.
Japan and the Pacific http: //ww 2. wwarii. com/var/albums/maps_documents/pacific_theater/ww 2 -asia-overview. gif
Japan and the Pacific • After Pearl Harbor, Japanese go on the offensive for about half a year with astonishing results: – Too Wake Island Guam] – Invaded and conquered the Philippines, Hong Kong, Malaya, and British Singapore – Seized Burma – Took over Dutch east Indies (Indonesia) – Took Control of British Borneo – Northern part of New Guinea – Solomon Islands
Japan and the Pacific Japanese Empire in 1942. However, in May and June of 1942, Americans Begin to show resisitance
Battle of the Coral Sea First naval battle in History fought exclusively With aircrafts carriers. Americans inflicted heavy Losses on the Japanese. Aircraft carried out the Attack and neither fleet Shot at each other. Showed that Japanese were Not invincible.
Battle of Midway was important to The Japanese because It would serve as a base To launch attacks on American fleet in Hawaii And maybe compel The weakened Americans to fight a destructive battle. Leading to a cease-fire Battle waged from June 3 -6 1942.
Battle of Midway • Admiral Chester Nimitz directed a small but skillfully maneuvered carrier force, against the powerful invading Japanese fleet. • Most of the fighting was again done by aircraft. • Japanese retreated after losing 4 carriers. • Marked a turning point in the war, along with Coral Sea. The victory halted Japanese expansion. • In many ways, Japanese were victims of their own success. They simply overstretched themselves and overcommitted themselves. This allowed the Americans to take the offensive
American Strategy • After Midway and Coral sea, Americans took parts of Guadalcanal Island in the Solomon Islands – Important trade post for supply lines to and from Australia. – In Feb 1943, Japanese evacuated. They lost 20, 000 soldiers and the Americans only 1, 700. This ratio of 10: 1 remained throughout the war – General Macarthur and his troops held on in New Guinea and by August 1944, he had taken all of New Guinea.
American strategy • Americans decided to leapfrog Japanese islands. – Attacking fortified islands meant death and time. – So Americans took less fortified islands, essentially leapfrogging fortified ones, and then engaged in heavy bombing of the Japanese. – They also were able to cut off supplies, so they could also starve them out.
American Success • May and August of 1943 – Attu and Kiska Islands • November 1943 – Gilbert Islands • Feb 1944 – Marshall Islands • June 1944 – Marinas Islands – Great Turkey Shoot – By July and August, all of the Marinas were controlled. Round the clock bombing started in Japan. • Battle of the Philippine Sea – June 20 1944 – Several Japanese carriers sunk
German U-Boats During 1942, the German u-boats Hunted in packs. Coined wolfpacks. And sank 500 U. S. Merchant ships. Ship destruction Outran ship Production. Slowly, Americans gained A upper hand with radar, Plane convoys, and ENIGMA.
ENIGMA British Code Breakers finally Were able to understand Enigma and were able to Pinpoint the exact location Of the U-boats in the Atlantic. A group of code breakers were Secretly hidden in a non. Descript office in London. http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Hb 44 b. GY 2 Kd. U &safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe =active
Battle of the Atlantic • Around the spring of 1943, the Americans and British had finally subdued the Uboats. • This is important because – Britain might have been blockaded and defeated, meaning no D-Day or second front
War in Europe • In late 1942, the Allied powers started to bomb Germany relentlessly: – In May of 42, British had a 1, 000 plane raid on Cologne. – In August of 42, Americans joined in the raids on Germany • General Rommel, Desert Fox, drove Britain back to close to the Suez Canal • But British General Montgomery defeated him at El Alamein, west of Cairo. He had the aid of Sherman tanks. Rommel was pushed all the way back to Tunisia.
Stalingrad • In September of 42, the Soviets were able to stall the Germans at Stalingrad. Invading divisions came only to be defeated. • In November of 1942, The Soviets launched a counter attack, which was mostly never truly reversed. • By the end of 1943, Stalin recovered 2/3 rds of the territory lost to Hitler.
A Second European Front • Stalin wanted the Brits and Americans to open a second front, primarily in Western Europe. • Roosevelt wanted France, as early as 1942 or 1943 • Churchill argued against this out of fear of many losses, like in WWI. • Churchill argued to go through the “soft underbelly. ” Meaning through N. Africa to and Italy.
Operation Torch Launched in November of 42, was headed by Dwight D. “Ike” Eisenhower. 400, 000 men from Canada, U. S. France, and Britain and about 850 ships attacked. By May of 43, the trapped Italian-German troops surrendered In Tunisia.
Casablanca Conference • Jan, 1943 Churchill and Roosevelt met in Casablanca in a historic meeting of the Big Two. • Agreed to increase war in Pacific, invade Sicily, increase pressure on Italy, and insist on “unconditional surrender. ” (used by Grant in Civil war. • This agreement also was a statement of commitment to Stalin, who feared a separate peace treaty from the western European countries.
Unconditional Surrender • Criticism – Forced enemy to fight to the end and not seek a cease-fire – Also perhaps discouraged anti-war groups from revolting • However, there is little to no proof stating the war was lengthened or shortened due to the unconditional surrender policy.
Italian campaign • Sicily fell in August of 1943. • Afterwards, Mussolini was deposed and Italy unconditionally surrendered. • But…. The Nazis were still there. • Fighting raged on and Rome was taken in June of 1944, and the fight continued in Italy until May 5, 1945. • Italian campaign…Good or bad?
D-Day June 6, 1944 • Tehran Conference – Big Three (Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill) met to from Nov 28 -Dec 1 1943 – Broad plans on how to attack in the West and coordinate Soviet movements and attacks in the East. • Invasion of France was organized and lad by Eisenhower. • Allied powers chose Normandy France for the attack.
Election of 1944 Thomas Dewey-R FDR and Truman FDR-Runs for 4 th Term FDR wins 432 -99
Battle of the Bulge • By December of 44, Germany seemed to be on the brink of defeat. – Sovets attacking in the east – Round-the-Clock bombing from the Brits and Americans – Western Front about to buckle from attack • Hitler made one last ditch attempt and breaking the Allied lines in the Ardennes forest, to capture Antwerp • For ten Days, Hitler was successful, but the 101 st Airborne division held firm and stopped their advance.
Battle of the Bulge After defeating Germans at The Battle of the Bulge, Americans Advanced to The Rhine by March of 45 and To the Elbe by April of 45.
Germany defeated • Soviets captured Berlin in April-may of 45. • April 30, Hitler committed suicide after marrying his mistress Eva Braun • However, on April 12, 1945, Roosevelt died from a cerebral hemorrhage.
Japan and the End of the War • American submarines reduced Japan’s merchant fleet to nothing. All told, 1042 ships were sunk, about 50 percent of Japan’s fleet. • Also, japans' cities were being reduced to rubble by the constant barrage of American bombers. • March 9 -10 1945, massive fire-bombing destroyed Tokyo – 250, 000 buildings destroyed – 83, 000 people – Damage was on same scale as the Atomic Bombs
Japan and the End of the War • Mac. Arthur, with 600 ships and 250, 000 men attacked Philippines: – People of the Philippines, I have returned, rally to me. • Battle of Leyte Sea, last ditch effort by Japanese to stop Americans, but Americans win all three battles. (Oct 2326 1944) • Philippines taken July of 45, but with 60, 000 casualties. • Iwo Jima taken March 45. • Okinawa taken June of 45, but with 50, 000 casulaties.
Iwo Jima Photo
Mt. Suribachi, Iwo Jima
V-E Day On May 8, 1945 the surrender Of Germany was officially Proclaimed.
7 Future American Presidents Views of the World Were Formed by Their Service in World War II
The Beginning of the Nuclear Age
It’s Finally Over!!!!!
WW II Memorial in Washington, DC Dedicated on April 29, 2004