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Amazing Minerals Li Chung Ming, Pavel Zinin Rocks. Jia & Tayro Acousta & Minerals Amazing Minerals Li Chung Ming, Pavel Zinin Rocks. Jia & Tayro Acousta & Minerals Ruth

Minerals are ……. the chemicals that make up the rocks Minerals are ……. the chemicals that make up the rocks

4 important elements for a mineral Naturally-occurring Inorganic Solid Fixed Chemical Composition Crystalline 4 important elements for a mineral Naturally-occurring Inorganic Solid Fixed Chemical Composition Crystalline

Is diamond a mineral? Is diamond a mineral?

Yes, diamond is a mineral It has been found in many different parts of Yes, diamond is a mineral It has been found in many different parts of the earth as shown below

Many diamonds were found in the kimberlite pipe, Kimberley, South Africa Many diamonds were found in the kimberlite pipe, Kimberley, South Africa

Diamond is crystalline with a fixed chemical composition -- carbon (C) A single crystal Diamond is crystalline with a fixed chemical composition -- carbon (C) A single crystal with a well-developed external form The unit cell of diamond structure showing how carbon atoms inside arranged.

Do you know how many minerals have been found so far ? Do you know how many minerals have been found so far ?

There about 3000 known minerals so far. Only 200 of them are commonly observed. There about 3000 known minerals so far. Only 200 of them are commonly observed. 20 of them are important rockforming minerals.

7 Amazing Minerals 7 Amazing Minerals

1. Diamond 1. Diamond

The hardest mineral on earth “Diamond is forever” The hardest mineral on earth “Diamond is forever”

2. Quartz 2. Quartz

The most abundant mineral on the earth’s surface -- quartz (rock crystal) Si. O The most abundant mineral on the earth’s surface -- quartz (rock crystal) Si. O 2

The mineral we eat daily –table salt Na. Cl (halite) Na+1 The mineral halite The mineral we eat daily –table salt Na. Cl (halite) Na+1 The mineral halite has a typical ionic bonding between Na+1 and Cl-1 The unit cell is face-center cubic Cl-1

3. Mica 3. Mica

The mineral that looks like a stack of papers mica – a sheet silicate The mineral that looks like a stack of papers mica – a sheet silicate

4. Magnetite 4. Magnetite

The mineral that attracts iron metals magnetite – an iron oxide (Fe 3 O The mineral that attracts iron metals magnetite – an iron oxide (Fe 3 O 4)

5. Pyrite 5. Pyrite

The yellow mineral that fools many people as gold pyrite (Fe. S 2 ) The yellow mineral that fools many people as gold pyrite (Fe. S 2 ) The cubic crystal of pyrite Crystal structure – a face-center cubic

Interesting features of pyrite, Fe. S 2 Clear striations on the surface The black Interesting features of pyrite, Fe. S 2 Clear striations on the surface The black color for pyrite powder The simplest way to produce powder from minerals is to scratch a sharp edge of a specimen against a rough & hard ceramic plate. You may try a pyrite specimen on the table to see if it is correct.

6. Ice 6. Ice

The mineral that floats on water Ice – the solid form of water, H The mineral that floats on water Ice – the solid form of water, H 2 O

7. Olivine 7. Olivine

A green mineral called Hawaii diamond Olivine – a silicate, (Fe, Mg)2 Si. O A green mineral called Hawaii diamond Olivine – a silicate, (Fe, Mg)2 Si. O 4

Interesting facts about the olivine mineral olivine crystals in the basalt It is the Interesting facts about the olivine mineral olivine crystals in the basalt It is the first mineral crystallized out from the molten magma. Puu Mahana, Green Sand Beach, Hawaii It is the major component for the green sand.

The most abundant mineral in the earth’s upper mantle (below the crust and above The most abundant mineral in the earth’s upper mantle (below the crust and above 410 km depth)

The End Thank you for coming Mahalo The End Thank you for coming Mahalo