- Количество слайдов: 30
Alternatives in Assessment
Assessment Options Popham, W. J. (1995). Classroom assessment : what teachers need to know. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Item Types • Selected-response • Constructed-response • Personal response
Selected-response formats • • Conventional multiple-choice Matching Alternate choice True-False Complex multiple-choice Multiple True – False Context-dependent item sets (reading comprehension)
Conventional MC item “I’d like to buy some more coffee, please. ” “I’m sorry, but there doesn’t seem to be ____. ” A. any left Answer (*key) B. left any C. leaving any D. some left (C. E. L. T. Test of English Structure) Stem distractors
Matching original private royal complete slow first sorry • Keep items similar • Unequal number of choices • +Efficient • -Can lead to trivial lists not public total Nation, I. S. P. (1990). Teaching and learning vocabulary. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
Alternate choice The team needs new (shirts / shorts). (Oxford Placement Test – Listening) § Comparison between choices – not true/false § Many tests have only two plausible distractors anyway § + Efficient § Score range 50% - 100%
True - False A person who lethargic is full of energy. • • TRUE / FALSE Popular in many textbook exercises + Efficient + realistic judgment - guessing affected by test-takers’ personality • Score range 50% - 100%
Complex multiple choice The fluid imbalance known as edema is commonly associated with: 1. Allergic reactions. 2. Congestive heart failure. 3. Extensive burns. 4. Protein deficiency. The correct answer is: a. 1, 2, and 3. b. 1 and 3. c. 2 and 4. d. 4 only. *e. 1, 2, 3, and 4. • More difficult to process than regular MCQ • Does not discriminate well BYU Guidebook for Developing Multiple-Choice Tests
Multiple True-False The fluid imbalance known as edema is commonly associated with: 1. Allergic reactions. (T/F) 2. Congestive heart failure. (T/F) 3. Extensive burns. (T/F) 4. Protein deficiency. (T/F) • Also often used in textbooks • Fewer problems than complex multiplechoice
Context dependent item sets • Sometimes known as ‘testlets’, ‘item bundles’, ‘scenarios’ • Reading comprehension passage with multiple questions • Listening comprehension passage with multiple questions • Items are usually not independent • Should ideally be treated as a group
Interlinear items Rathmell, G. (1985). Test of English proficiency level. California: Hayward: The Alemany Press.
Items using visual support Reading proficiency test by Siwon Park, piloted in HELP program
Advantages of selected response • easy to administer • easy to score • scoring is “objective”
Disadvantages of selectedresponse • relatively difficult to create • requires no language production • tend to measure knowledge rather than skill
Constructed-response formats • • Fill-in cloze C-test short answer essay interview performance (weak / strong)
Fill-in item Tom loves coffee. He drinks it ______ day. • Requires production but is constrained • Can target specific knowledge • Potential for ambiguity
Cloze The science of automatic control depends on certain common principles by which an organism, machine, or system regulates itself. Many historical developments up to the present day have helped to identify these principles. For hundreds of years there ___(1)____ many examples of automatic control systems, but no connections were recognized among ___(2)____. A very early example was a device on windmills designed ___(3)___ keep their sails facing into the wind …. (Heisei University) • Rational versus mechanical deletion +(Relatively) easy to create and score -What does cloze measure?
C-Test An American friend of ours hired a car in London although he was inexperienced in driving on the left-hand side of the road. Soon h_(1)_ found him__(2)_ going i__(3)_ the wr__(4)_ direction ro__(5)_ a roundabout. H__(6)_ braked sha__(7)_, slid side__(8)_, and en__(9)_ up wi__(10)_ both fr__(11)_ wheels o__(12)_ the pave__(13)_. … http: //www. uni-duisburg. de/FB 3/ANGLING/FORSCHUNG/CTENGS. htm +Objective scoring possible +Easy to create -Format may confuse test takers
Short answer / Essay ESSAY: Recently, incidents depicting violence have been increasingly common in primetime TV programs. Some people argue that watching violent acts encourages people to become more violent. Other people claim that watching violence fulfills a natural desire for aggression and actually reduces violent behavior. Which position do you agree with? Write an essay defending your position. Be sure to support your ideas. +Easy to create +Extended sample of language -Scoring can be subjective -Interaction between language and other abilities
Interview • Very popular format for assessing oral language +direct assessment of speaking ability -scoring can be subjective -influence of interviewer
Strengths of performance assessments • Positive washback for programs • Focus on real world ability rather than trivial knowledge • Closer match to course objectives • Can document creativity, critical thinking skills • Provide useful diagnostic information about students’ abilities
Weaknesses of performance assessments • Logistically difficult to create and administer on a large scale • Use of rater judgments may lead to low reliability • Construct underrepresentation • Construct irrelevant variance • Generalizability
Advantages of constructedresponse • no effect for guessing • productive language use • interaction of receptive and productive skills
Disadvantages of constructedresponse • difficult and time consuming to score • scoring is subjective • “bluffing” is possible
Personal response • • conferences portfolios student profiles self-assessment
Advantages of personal response • student-centered • appropriate for assessing learning processes • useful for learners with unique profiles
Disadvantages of personal response • difficult to create and structure • scoring is subjective
Test delivery formats • paper and pencil • telephone • computer – computer-delivered – web delivered – computer adaptive
Adaptive testing Sands, W. A. , & Waters, B. K. (1997). Introduction to ASVAB and CAT. In W. A. Sands & B. K. Waters & J. R. Mc. Bride (Eds. ), Computerized adaptive testing (pp. 3 -10). Washington: American Psychological Association.