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Introduction The Akkadian Empire(2340 -2200 B. C. E. ) It was located on the western bank of the Euphrates, in present- day Iraq. We will now delve into its history, culture, and advancements.
Important Individuals Sargon of Akkad (2270 -2215 BCE) helped establish the Akkadian Empire. He led the Akkadian Empire to its greatest extent. Sargon conquered lands for his empire and his blood reign went on for generations.
Important Individuals (cont. ) Sargon’s blood reign went on for a few generations. Sargon was by far the most famous and successful ruler, however. Later rulers such as Manishtushu Rimish maintained Sargon’s rule. Eventually however, the Akkadian Empire shrunk and collapsed due to Armani attacks.
Social Institutions Agriculture was the economic backbone of Akkad. Like most ancient societies, Akkad utilized irrigation and rainfall for crops Family was very important to Akkad Adultery was punishable by death for woman
Government Akkadian government was known as classical standard. The ensi was the main leader. The ensi, a preist- like figure, had to marry the goddess Inana, solidifying his position.
Government cont. The kings in Akkad were at first below the ensi in power. However, later in history, the king became the prominent ruler.
Economics As we said, agriculture was vital in Akkad. Due to very little rainfall, irrigation was key to successful farming. Akkad had a surplus of cattle and crops However, it lacked other commodities like metals and timber.
Major Conflicts Sargon of Akkad led many major conquests to expand his empire. He attacked and conquered Uruk. He also conquered King Kashtubila of Kazalla. Sargon’s were all for not, however. Later leaders slowly lost the land until Akkad’s eventual collapse.
Population The population of pre-modern states was dependent upon the agricultural system of the region. Two principals: irrigated farmlands or rain-fed agriculture 10
Cuneiform This writing was developed and used in the middle east among: Sumerians Babylonians Elamites Hurrians Kassites Littites 11
Legal codes written in cuneiform scripts. Semitic language- Hebrew and Arabic 12
Technology • empire was bound together by roads, along which there was a regular postal service • Clay seals took the place of stamps example of Akkadian cuneiform
Rulers of the Akkadian Empire Ruler Length of reign Sargon of Akakd 40 years Rimush of Akkad 9 years Man-Ishtishu 15 years Naram-Suen of 56 years Akkad Shar-kalli- Shari 25 years • Iriaia • Imi Unknown • Nanum • llulu Dudu of Akkad 21 years Shu-Dural 15 years Sargon
Law They followed the “Code of Hammurabi” The Code of Hammurabi was carved into a black diorite stone. 15
Art Akkadian artists discovered “lost wax” 16
Collapse of the Akkadian Empire • Within 100 years the Empire of Akkad collapsed, almost as fast as it had developed, bringing in a Dark Age • The empire collapsed entire from the invasion of barbarians of the Zagros known as “Gutians” • said to be associated with rapidly increasing dryness, and failing rainfall in the region of the Ancient Near East,
Individuals in History : Sargon of Akkad King of ancient Mesopotamia during 2334 BCE to 2279 BCE known for his extremely long reigning period Formed the first Jewish dynasty in the region Founder of Mesopotamian military traditions Trade thrived under his rule
How Sargon Formed His Kingdom When the King of Uruk was defeated Sargon took his place to rule over the lands that he had collected Sargon had to defeat every city that tried to break free from his rule He succeeded which formed the kingdom of Akkad
Trade under Sargon’s Rule Traded with the Indus Valley, islands in the Persian Gulf, and Oman Imported things such as lapis lazuli (semi-precious stone), cedar wood, and silver
Language, Art, and Military Under Sargon’s Rule When Sargon was king military traditions such as spearman formations and shield walls were established People began to use the language that the Sumerians had previously used Started a new form of calligraphy which they put on clay tablets with beautiful scenes of mythology and festive life
Cooperation and Conflict Majority of conflicts were with Sumer Especially empire migration to the north 2125 BCE: Ur revolted causing Akkad to fall as Sumer rose to power again Barbarian invasion of the Zagros also known as “Gutians” caused empire to collapse
Accomplishments Dramatic advances One major king Sargon First Poet Enheduanna
Location Historians are not exactly sure where it is They think it’s on the West bank of Euphrates Between Sippar and Kish In present day Iraq Farmers
Social Classes Ensis and Lugals Provincial Ensis Regular priests Nobels (Lugal’s trusted workers) Peasants (farmers, tradesmen, fishers) Slaves
Akkadian Art Egyptian style art Has been found in Turkey
Technology First statue made of lead Spoke their own Akkadian language (Assyrian-Babylonian) Discovered “lost wax” (bronze casting)
Poetry Sumerian art was excellent during the Akkadian empire Enheduanna – first poet to actually record things Wife of Nanna – Sumerian moon god Daughter of Sargon
Achievements Empire was bound together by roads Included a postal service Clay seals Sargon and son’s names Cadadstral survey o Wrritten ownership of land “Limmu” calendar system Year =big event Empire was bound together by roads first collection of astronomical observations was made for a library established by Sargon
Government Set a standard for all Sumerian City-States Ensi Highest priest Married to “Inanna”, goddess of love, fertility, and war “Divine power” which was initially highest power Lugal Literally “Great man” Equivalent to king Was initially 2 nd in power to an “Ensi”, but became 1 st but later dynastic times
Sargon and Naram-Sin Governing Strategy Purpose = spread and maintain control of land Made daughters (Enheduanna and Enmenanna) high priestesses of moon goddess Married daughters off to other peripheral rulers Made sons provincial “Ensis”, equivalent to Governors
Economy Greatly dependent on agriculture Changed from year to year depending on rainfall and crop yield Harvest was late spring and summer Had form of unemployment relief Government recruited farmers from August to September to maintain Nile flooding and annual irrigation Imports were metals, timber, and building stone
Religion Polytheistic religion Worshipped gods and goddesses of or like those of the Sumerians No seperation of religion and state, priests lead civilization
Scribal School Divided into 2 sections: Beginning and Advanced Students began at young age (5 -7) Mostly male students, but there is evidence of some female students Education generally only available to the wealthy and elite Wrote in Cuneiform on clay tablets with a reed stylus
Cultural Development Location Arabian Peninsula Present day = Saudi Arabia, Israel, Jordan, and Kuwait Buildings Large temples (ziggurats) and monuments Tower of Babylon Walls – poorly constructed – made of clay Shaped like domes
Cultural Development Cont. Food Hunted fish, duck, and geese Ate dates, bread, onions, beans, cucumbers, garlic Wash it down with beer or water Writing Cuneiform – shaped symbols Reed stylus Invented by Sumerians in 2500 BCE
Cultural Development Cont. Art Resembled early Egyptian art Found in modern Turkey Cylinder Seals – examples of gem cutter’s art Poetry Priestess Enhedumanna
Cultural Development Cont. Achievements Roads – postal service Clay seals – stamps Astronomy Library Limmu calendar system Years were named after one specific event
Rise of Democratic Ideas Overpowered the Sumerian states King Sargon I of Akkad conquered military and political centers of the south Mesopotamia united into one empire
Rise of Democratic Ideas Akkad became the political, economic, and cultural center of the empire Emperors gave themselves the title “Kings of the Four Lands of the World”
Rise of Democratic Ideas Government Ensi = highest functionary of Sumerian city-states To become an ensi you have to marry the goddess Inanna Validated the rulership through divine consent
Individuals and History Sargon means “kind of universal domination” Started monarchy Ended power struggles Wasn’t raised royal (cupbearer of Ur) Came to power by overthrowing the king and then took the throne
Individuals and History Sargon united the people into first empire…. Akkadians Successful conqueror Successful battles – new tactics – looser form – javelins and arrows Stationed troops
Individuals and History Sargon gained land Formed better relationships with neighboring tribes Sargon gained better goods and ideas Religion, gods, new use of writing He was in control for 56 years but it ended when the empire went in revolt
Technology and History “Lost wax” – method of bronze cast Postal service Clay seals Cuneiform Two languages (Assyrian and babylonian)
Economy Depended mainly on agriculture Nomadic groups (early Ammorites) Nomadic groups were allowed to let their sheep graze on Akkadian’s farms, in exchange for payment to temples
Economy Always had a surplus of food Imported metals, timber, and building materials because limited resources
Cooperation and Conflict Akkadians were violent people in general Started empire based off of the relentless conquering of Sargon Never at peace because people they conquered never agreed with their rules
Impact of Ideas Sargon’s conquests spread Akkadian’s ideas, culture, and writing system Empires can encourage trade and bring peace to people People of cultures share ideas, technology, and customs Adopted Sumerian culture and ideas Polytheistic - many gods: An, En – lil, E- ki
Social Institutions Priests were mediators between people and gods Had decreased status Men and women were created by the gods to serve the gods To feed and clothe them, to honor and obey them Didn't have a code of ethics or morality Scribal education
Continuity and Change Akkadians were Semitic people and their descendents that survive today as Jews and Arabs
Epic of Gilgamesh First ever epic Gathered by the Akkadians and written on 12 stone tablets Tells the story of King Gilgamesh, who was 2/3 god and 1/3 human, and his adventures
Fun Facts!!! Akkad is also known as Accad or Agade Left bank of the Euphrates river Height of its power between the 24 – 22 century BCE Gifted warriors of their time
. "Ancient Akkadians. "" src="http://present5.com/presentation/5cc7a1a4cc16fce76974eab3da40a1b3/image-55.jpg" alt="Bibliography "Akkadians. " Wikipedia. 10 Oct. 2008.
Works Cited "Akkadian Empire. " South and Southwest Asia. Ed. Peter N. Peregrine and Melvin Ember. Vol. 8. New York, NY: Springer, 2003. 21 -23. "The Akkadian Empire. " Wikipedia. 4 Nov. 2008. Wikipedia Foundation, Inc. 7 Nov. 2008
Works Cited (continued) "Akkadian School Texts. " Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative. 7 Sept. 2008. UCLA. 16 Nov. 2008
Works Cited (continued) Hooker, Richard. "The Akkadians. " Mesopotamia. 6 June 1999. Washington State University. 7 Nov. 2008
Bibliography: • www. wikipedia. org • www. angelfire. com/nt/Gilgamesh/ak kadian. html • www. historyforkids. org/learn/westasi a/history/akkadians. htm • www. newworldencyclopedia. org/entr y/Akkadian_Empire • historyworld. org/sargon_the_great. htm • history-world. org/akkadians. htm