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AIR TRANSPORTAION AND AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE (AE 1012 ) BY Y. K. SINHA
Flight Times by Piston and Jet Engines from Chicago Piston Engine 10 hours 15 hours 20 hours 24 hours 30 hours rs 40 u ho urs 20 ho urs o 4 h 15 10 hours ho ur s Jet Engine 2
Average Airfare (roundtrip) between New York and London, 1946 -2004 (in 2004 dollars)
Main Commercial Passenger Aircraft, 1935 -2008 Aircraft Year of First Commercial Service Speed (km/hr) Maximum Seating Range at Capacity Full Payload (km) Douglas DC-3 1935 346 563 30 Douglas DC-7 1953 555 5, 810 52 Boeing 707 -100 1958 897 6, 820 110 Boeing 727 -100 1963 917 5, 000 94 Boeing 747 -100 1970 907 9, 045 385 Mc. Donnell Douglas DC-10 1971 908 7, 415 260 Airbus A 300 1974 847 3, 420 269 Boeing 767 -200 1982 954 5, 855 216 Boeing 747 -400 1989 939 13, 444 416 Boeing 777 -200 ER 1995 1030 14, 300 Airbus A 340 -500 2003 886 15, 800 313 Airbus A 380 2008 930 14, 800 555 Boeing 787 -8 2008 1040 15, 700 250
Selected Ultra-Long-Range Nonstop Airline Routes From To Airline Aircraft Flying Time Distance (km) Singapore New York Singapore Airbus A 340 -500 18: 35 15, 335 Singapore Los Angeles Singapore Airbus A 340 -500 18: 20 14, 104 Bangkok New York Thai International Airbus A 340 -500 17: 30 13, 950 New York Hong Kong Continental Boeing 777 -200 ER/LR 16: 00 12, 952 Chicago Hong Kong United Boeing 747 -400 15: 55 12, 517 Toronto Hong Kong Air Canada Airbus A 340 -500 15: 30 12, 550 Melbourne Los Angeles Qantas Boeing 747 -400 15: 20 12, 751 Karachi Toronto Pakistan Boeing 777 -200 ER/LR 15: 15 11, 671 Atlanta Johannesburg South African Boeing 747 -400 15: 05 13, 575
Development Costs for Selected Aircraft Year of First Service Development Costs, Constant 2004 Dollars Douglas DC-3 1936 4, 300, 000 Douglas DC-6 1946 144, 000 Boeing 707 1958 1, 300, 000 Boeing 747 1970 3, 700, 000 Boeing 777 1995 7, 000, 000 Airbus A 380 2007 14, 400, 000
IATA The International Air Transport Association is an international industry trade group of airlines headquartered in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, where the International Civil Aviation Organization is also headquartered. The main objective of the organization is to assist airline companies to achieve lawful competition and uniformity in prices. The Director General is Giovanni Bisignani. IATA was formed in April 1945, in Havana, Cuba. It is the successor to the International Air Traffic Association, founded in The Hague in 1919, the year of the world's first international scheduled services. At its founding, IATA had 57 members from 31 nations, mostly in Europe and North America. Today it has over 240 members from more than 140 nations in every part of the globe. For fare calculations IATA has divided the world in three regions: South, Central and North America. Europe, Middle East and Africa. IATA Europe includes the geographical Europe and Turkey, Israel, Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. Asia, Australia, New Zealand the islands of the Pacific Ocean.
ICAO The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), an agency of the United Nations, codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth. Its headquarters are located in the Quartier International of Montreal, Canada. The ICAO Council adopts standards and recommended practices concerning air navigation, prevention of unlawful interference, and facilitation of border-crossing procedures for international civil aviation. In addition, the ICAO defines the protocols for air accident investigation followed by transport safety authorities in countries signatory to the Convention on International Civil Aviation, commonly known as the Chicago Convention. See NTSB, AAIB, BFU, and BEA.
AIR TRANSPOTATION GROWTH
Airline Schedule Planning
Some Basic Definitions • Market – An origin-destination airport pair, between which passengers wish to fly one-way • BOS-ORD and ORD-BOS are different • Itinerary – A specific sequence of flight legs on which a passenger travels from their ultimate origin to their ultimate destination • Fare Classes – Different prices for the same travel service, usually distinguished from one another by the set of restrictions imposed by the airlines
Some More Definitions • Spill – Passengers that are denied booking due to capacity restrictions • Recapture – Passengers that are recaptured back to the airline after being spilled from another flight leg
Problem Description • Given – An airline’s flight schedule – The unconstrained demand for all itineraries over the airline’s flight schedule • Objective – Maximize revenues by intelligently spilling passengers that are either low fare or will most likely fly another itinerary (recapture) • Equivalent to minimize the total spill costs
RELIABILITY DEFINITION In general, reliability (systemic def. ) is the ability of a person or system to perform and maintain its functions in routine circumstances, as well as hostile or unexpected circumstances
The need for reliability data standards: Operators need to collect, organize and report reliability data to many different organizations : Manufacturers, suppliers, regulatory authorities, each other. Some of the benefits of reliability data exchange : • Assist operators and manufacturers to attain and maintain higher reliability through trend monitoring. • Facilitate maintenance program development, escalation and deescalation. • Determine which modification has a better payback by comparing removal and failure rates of operators incorporating various Service Bulletins/modifications. • Determine if certain problem areas are unique to an operator or if others are experiencing the same problems.
ETOPS • ETOPS is an acronym for Extended-range Twin-engine Operational Performance Standards, an International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) rule permitting twin-engined commercial air transports to fly routes that, at some points, are farther than a distance of 60 minutes' flying time from an emergency or diversion airport with one engine inoperative. • This rule allows twin-engined airliners—such as the Airbus A 300, A 310, A 320, A 330 and A 350 families, and the Boeing 737, 757, 767, 777 and 787 and Tupolev Tu-204 —to fly longdistance routes that were previously off-limits to twin-engined aircraft. ETOPS operation has no direct correlation to water nor distance over water. It refers to single-engine flight times between diversion airfields—regardless as to whether such fields are separated by water or land.
Aircraft maintenance checks A Check This is performed approximately every month. This check is usually done overnight at an airport gate. The actual occurrence of this check varies by aircraft type, the cycle count (takeoff and landing is considered an aircraft "cycle"), or the number of hours flown since the last check. The occurrence can be delayed by the airline if certain predetermined conditions are met. 500 Flight Hours (FH).
Aircraft maintenance checks B Check This is performed approximately every 3 months. This check is also usually done overnight at an airport gate. A similar occurrence schedule applies to the B check as to the A check.
Aircraft maintenance checks C Check This is performed approximately every 12 -18 months or 2500 Flight Hours (FH). This maintenance check puts the aircraft out of service and requires plenty of space - usually at a hangar at a maintenance base. The schedule of occurrence has many factors and components as has been described, and thus varies by aircraft category and type.
Aircraft maintenance checks D Check This is the heaviest check for the airplane. This check occurs approximately every 4 -5 years. This is the check that, more or less, takes the entire airplane apart for inspection. This requires even more space and time than all other checks, and must be performed at a maintenance base. Often, older aircraft being phased out of a particular airlines' fleet are stored or scrapped upon reaching their next check.