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Air Pollution in Delhi: Air Quality Index - Public Awareness Tool J. K. Bassin Ex. Chief Scientist & Head CSIR-NEERI Delhi Zonal Lab. , New Delhi Issues & Challenges – Air Pollution in Delhi PHD Chamber of Commerce, New Delhi and Greenc. India Consulting Co. Ltd. May 6, 2016
Earth’s Atmosphere Earth is completely enveloped in a layer of a gaseous mixture called the Atmosphere. The atmosphere is held in place by gravity but moves with relative ease in complex patterns over the face of the earth. Although traces of atmospheric gases are found rotating with the earth as high as 10000 km, >50% mass of atmosphere lies below 6 km & ~99% below 29 km a very thin layer when compared to earth’s diameter.
Earth’s Atmosphere Troposphere is the layer in which most living things exist and hence is of greatest interest from point of view of pollution. Earth’s atmosphere is not boundless it has definite limits. It also has limited capacity to cleanse itself. Rapid industrialization and urbanization has resulted in release of various pollutants into atmosphere, presuming it to be an endless reservoir.
. . Population, Billion World Population 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1800 1850 1900 Year 1950 2000 2050
Development is Necessary The environmental problems of developing countries are not the side effects of excessive industrialization but reflect the inadequacy of development. The rich countries may look upon development as the cause of environmental destruction, but to us it is one of – • primary means of improving the environment for living • providing food, water, sanitation and shelter • making the deserts green and the mountains habitable. A higher standard of living must be achieved without alienating people from their heritage & without despoiling nature of its beauty, freshness & purity so essential to our lives. Shrimati Indira Gandhi United Nations Conference on the Human Environment Stockholm, June 1972
Development is Necessary Indicators • Industrialization • Env’mental Quality Goods & Services for Better QOL Resources EAir EWater ELand EEnergy EMinerals EOthers INDUSTRY Developmental Activity Gaseous Effluent Liquid Effluent Solid Wastes SINK (Assimilative) SOURCE (Supportive) Technology Management Reduce/Reuse/ Recycle/Recover SD: More with Less All our developmental activities utilize resources Conversion efficiencies dictate the extent of wastes generated
Environmental Consequences of Development Ø Large-scale industrialization has, however, resulted in severe Air Pollution of Global, Regional, and Local dimensions, Such as - Climate Change and Global Warming - Greenhouse Gases: CO 2, CH 4, N 2 O, O 3 and Water Vapour - Ozone Hole (stratospheric O 3): CFCs - Acid rain: NO 2, SO 2 - Heat Island Effect: Increased Energy Use Therefore, Sustainable Development is warranted
The Major Issue Survival of Life on Earth depends on 3 Natural Resources Air - We can live for ~ 5 minutes without air 25000 L (~16 kg) @Breathing rate of 22000/day Water - We can live for ~ 5 days without water Normal consumption 2 – 5 kg per day Food - We can live for ~ 5 weeks without food Normal consumption 1 -2 kg per day Lead 0. 3 mg/L (300000µg/m 3) in water considered harmful but only 1. 5 µg/m 3 in air is deadly harmful Air, Water & Food must forever constitute the survival bases of human and other populations. We will pay for them whatever they cost in Time, Money and Effort. Without them we die. THEIR IMPORTANCE - Not Manufactured Limited Assimilative Capacity Limited Supportive Capacity
John Ruskin, The Seven Lamps of Architecture, 1849 Sacrifice, Truth, Power, Beauty, Life, Memory & Obedience The excerpt is from “The Lamp of Memory”
Definition of Air Pollution The excess concentration of foreign matter in the air that adversely affects the well-being of the individual or causes damage to property THE AIR (PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF POLLUTION) ACT, 1981 Air pollution means the presence in the atmosphere of any air pollutant. Air pollutant means any solid, liquid or gaseous substance (including noise) present in the atmosphere in such concentration as may be or tend to be injurious to human beings or other living creatures or plants or property or environment
Air Pollution Scenario in Delhi Air pollution is one of the major problems faced by many urban centers across the country. Delhi is no exception as it boasts of all the right mix of sources which can create an unacceptable urban air pollution scenario. The tremendous increase in the number of vehicles has contributed significantly to the increase in combustion of petroleum products. The vehicular pollution in Delhi has grown from 64% to 72% in the last decade (1990 – 2000) whereas petrol and diesel consumption have grown by 400% and 300% respectively in the last two decades. Other sources such as construction dust, biomass and refuse burning and other unregulated sources are becoming major inputs in some areas of high pollution levels. Ref: Air Quality Monitoring, Emission Inventory & Source Apportionment Studies for Delhi NEERI, Nagpur
Garbage burning. (ref: TOI 24. 04. 16)
Air Pollution Scenario in Delhi Diesel generator sets are very common in household as well as for commercial purposes due to perennial power shortage, more pronounced in summer Slums use wood, kerosene, biomass, refuse for cooking. Biomass burning for heating is very high during winter months The city has mix of many types of industries starting from SSI to large industries such as power plants. Industrial use of fuel is mixed and many of them operate in non-conforming zones Ref: Air Quality Monitoring, Emission Inventory & Source Apportionment Studies for Delhi NEERI, Nagpur
NAAQS-2009 Pollutant Concentration in Ambient Air Indl, Resi, Rural Ecologically & other Areas Sensitive Area Sulphur Dioxide (SO 2), µg/m 3 Annual 50 24 hr 80 Annual 24 hr 20 80 Nitrogen Dioxide (NO 2), µg/m 3 40 80 30 80 Particulate Matter (Size < 10µm) PM 10, µg/m 3 60 100 Particulate Matter (Size < 2. 5µm) PM 2. 5, µg/m 3 40 60 Ozone (O 3) , µg/m 3 100 180 Lead (Pb) , µg/m 3 0. 50 1. 0 Carbon Monoxide (CO), mg/m 3 02 04 Ammonia (NH 3), µg/m 3 100 400 Benzene (C 6 H 6), µg/m 3 05 - Benzo(a)Pyrene (Ba. P) Particulate only, ng/m 3 01 - Arsenic (As), ng/m 3 06 - Nickel (Ni), ng/m 3 20 -
2000 -2010 Air Pollution Trends in Delhi RSPM Concentration 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 IND 167 185 212 216 237 204 224 263 274 257 COM 184 200 190 189 167 149 185 278 316 374 RES 130 168 169 164 154 143 159 131 183 193 257 S-I 120 120 120 S-R 60 60 60
2000 -2010 Air Pollution Trends in Delhi
2000 -2010 Air Pollution Trends in Delhi
Air Pollution – Monitoring & Action Ambient air quality is monitored at 593 locations in 249 cities, towns and industrial areas across the country by CPCB in association with SPCBs & PCC for SO 2, NO 2, and PM 10 under National Air Monitoring Programme (NAMP) Govt. has taken several measures to mitigate air pollution which include: ü Notification of NAAQS-2009, envisaging 12 pollutants ü Regulations / statutes including stringent source specific standards for industries to address the rising levels of air pollution in the country ü Setting up of monitoring network for assessment of ambient air quality ü Execution of SA studies in select cities & formulation of action plans for AQ in cities ü Implementation of BS-IV norms in 63 select cities & BS-III norms in rest of the country ü Cleaner fuel like CNG, LPG etc. ; promotion of public transport network including Metro ü Creation of infrastructure for industrial pollution control incorporating cleaner production processes, setting up of common pollution control facilities ü National Air Quality Index was launched in April, 2015 ü Short-term and long-term plans have been formulated to mitigate pollution in Delhi Ref: Statement referred to in reply to Lok Sabha Starred Question No. 109 due for reply on 28. 07. 2015 regarding National Ambient Air Quality Standards' by KUMARI SUSHMITA DEV and SHRI RAJESH RANJAN, Hon'ble Members of Parliament
Is Odd-Even Scheme a Solution? CBCP told the principal bench of the NGT, “… There is no data to suggest that the odd-even scheme has any impact on the decrease in vehicular pollution… the fluctuations in PM 10 and PM 2. 5 is due to weather and change in wind patterns” http: //indianexpress. com/article/cities/delhi/cpcb-to-ngt-odd-even-ii-not-reducing-vehicular-pollution 2764708/#sthash. bt. SIVf. Cb. dpuf Odd-even not a solution to Delhi pollution, says AIIMS doctor http: //www. thestatesman. com/news/latest-headlines/odd-even-not-a-solution-to-delhi-pollution-saysaiims-doctor/138947. html#EBWR 0 Cj. Jokv. Ecgd. S. 99 Odd-even is judged by ‘editors in AC rooms’ http: //www. thehindu. com/todays-paper/tp-national/tp-newdelhi/oddeven-is-judged-by-editors-in-acrooms/article 8534813. ece Contribution of vehicles to PM 2. 5 concentration is 20% (IITK)
About National Air Quality Index Ø AQI is a tool for effective communication of air quality status to people in terms, which are easy to understand – an index for reporting daily air quality Ø AQI tells how clean or polluted air is, and what associated health effects might be a concern Ø AQI transforms complex air quality data of various pollutants into a single number (index value), nomenclature and colour Ø AQI focuses on health effects one may experience within a few hours or days after breathing polluted air
About National Air Quality Index Ø Six AQI categories: Good Poor Satisfactory Moderate Very-Poor Severe Ø Category is decided based on ambient concentration of air pollutants and their likely health impacts (known as health breakpoints) Ø AQ sub-index and health breakpoints are evolved for eight pollutants (PM 10, PM 2. 5, NO 2, SO 2, CO, O 3, NH 3, and Pb) for which short-term (upto 24 -hours) NAAQS are prescribed Ø Based on the measured ambient concentrations of a pollutant, subindex is calculated. The worst sub-index determines the overall AQI
How is AQI calculated Ø Sub-indices for individual pollutants are calculated using 24 -hourly average concentration value (8 -hourly in case of CO and O 3) and health breakpoint concentration range Ø The worst sub-index is the AQI for that location Ø Overall AQI is calculated if ü data are available for minimum three pollutants – one necessarily be either PM 2. 5 or PM 10 ü minimum of 16 hours’ data is available else, data are considered insufficient for calculating AQI Ø Sub-indices for monitored pollutants are calculated and disseminated, even if data are inadequate for determining AQI
How is AQI calculated Ø Web-based system is designed to provide AQI on real time basis Ø An automated system that captures data from CAMS without human intervention, and displays AQI based on 24 -hrly running average values (e. g. AQI at 6 am on a day will incorporate data from 6 am on previous day to the current day) Ø For manual monitoring stations, an AQI calculator is developed wherein data can be fed manually to get AQI value AQI Manual
Air Quality Index & Health Impacts AQI Associated Health Impact Good (0– 50) Minimal Impact Satisfactory (51– 100) Minor breathing discomfort to sensitive people Moderate (101– 200) Breathing discomfort to the people with lung disease such as asthma and discomfort to people with heart disease, children and older adults Poor (201– 300) Breathing discomfort to people on prolonged exposure and discomfort to people with heart disease Very Poor (301– 400) Respiratory illness to the people on prolonged exposure. Effect may be more pronounced in people with lung and heart disease Severe (401 -500) Respiratory effects even on healthy people & serious health impacts on people with lung / heart disease. Health impacts may be experienced even during light physical activity
Air Quality Index Categories AQI Descriptor Color 50 Good Green 100 Satisfactory L. Green SO 2 NO 2 PM 2. 5 PM 10 CO O 3 NH 3 Pb 40 40 30 50 1 50 200 0. 5 80 80 60 100 2 100 400 1 200 Moderate Yellow 380 180 90 250 10 200 800 2 300 Poor Ochre 800 280 150 350 17 265 1200 3 400 Very Poor Red 1600 400 250 430 34 748 1800 3. 5 500 Severe Brown 3200 550 400 800 70 1200 3000 4
Air Quality Index - VFG & BPs
Air Quality Index - VFG & BPs NO 2 – Nitrogen dioxide 500 Air Quality Index 400 300 200 100 0 0 100 200 300 400 Concentration, microgram/cubic meter 500 600
Air Quality Index - VFG & BPs PM 2. 5 – Fine Particulate Matter (2. 5 micron) 500 Air Quality Index 400 300 200 100 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Concentration, microgram/cubic meter 350 400
Air Quality Index - VFG & BPs PM 10 – Particulate Matter (10 micron) 500 450 300 250 200 150 100 50 Concentration, microgram/cubic meter 800 750 700 650 600 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 Air Quality Index 400
Air Quality Index - VFG & BPs CO – Carbon monoxide 500 Air Quality Index 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Concentration, mg/cubic meter (8 -hrly average) 60 70
Air Quality Index - VFG & BPs O 3 - Ozone 500 450 Air Quality Index 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Concentration, microgram/cubic meter (8 -hrly average) 1200
Air Quality Index - VFG & BPs NH 3 - Ammonia 500 450 Air Quality Index 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Concentration, microgram/cubic meter 2500 3000
Air Quality Index - VFG & BPs Pb - Lead 500 450 Air Quality Index 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 0. 5 1 1. 5 2 2. 5 3 Concentration, microgram/cubic meter 3. 5 4
Online AQI at Select Monitoring Sites http: //cpcb. nic. in/AQI_new_2. php
Online AQI at Select Monitoring Sites
Online AQI at Select Monitoring Sites
Public Awareness & Involvement AQI should be viewed as a tool to enhance public awareness and public involvement in efforts to improve air quality. People can contribute by Ø Maintaining vehicles properly (e. g. get PUC checks, replace car air filter, maintain right tire pressure) Ø Following lane discipline & speed limits Ø Avoiding prolonged idling & turning off engines at red traffic signals In addition to above, during severe or very poor AQI, people should Ø Minimise travel Ø Avoid using private vehicles and instead use public transport, bikes or walk, and carpool Ø Use smaller vehicles (e. g. avoid SUVs)
Air Quality Data sites – CPCB & DPCC https: //urbairindia-cpcb. in/ http: //www. dpccairdata. com/dpccairdata/display/index. php http: //164. 100. 43. 188/cpcbnew/movie. html http: //www. cpcb. gov. in/cpcbpa/ http: //aqicn. org/city/
Air Quality Monitoring & Source Apportionment Studies, Delhi 2004 -2007 STUDY FRAMEWORK DELIVERABLES OBJECTIVES § To measure baseline air pollutants and air toxics levels in different parts of Delhi, including "hot spots" on kerbside § To inventorise various air pollutants for emission inventory and projection analysis § To conduct source apportionment studies for Particulate Matter (PM 10 & PM 2. 5) § To delineate Urban Air Quality Management Plan • Spatial & Temporal analysis of different air quality parameters along with corresponding emission rates of pertinent sources (obtained through emission inventory) after quantification of contribution (temporal and spatial profiling) of pollutants emitted from different sectors (transport, industrial, commercial, residential, etc). • % share in emissions, of each source category at different receptors. (e. g. types of vehicles (2/3 wheelers, passenger cars, light duty vehicles, multi-utility vehicles, buses and trucks), each category of fuel (Gasoline, CNG/LPG and Diesel), sub-categorization in terms of vehicle technology within the aforesaid category, age of the vehicle and impact of inspection & maintenance practices, pre Euro-I, etc. ) • Development of different impact scenarios based on projected growth trends in emissions in the next 5 years for various source categories.
Major Components Ambient & Kerbside Air Quality Monitoring Criteria Pollutants Specific Pollutants SPM, PM 10 / RPM, PM 2. 5, SO 2, NOx CO, O 3 NMHC, VOCs, Aldehydes, PAH Emission Inventory Point Sources Major Industries Area Sources Domestic & other Sources/ Activities Source Apportionment Line Sources Different Categories viz. , Fuel type, Age, Vehicle Technology 20 days continuous at 4 sites simultaneously As per the monitoring schedule Database on criteria & specific pollutants Chemical Speciation Quantification of emission loads from Point, Area & Line Sources within the receptors impact zone Receptor Modeling CMB Factor Analysis Percentage contribution to air quality by different types of sources Projections on Air Quality Improvement under Different Emission Scenarios / Management Options through Modelling (ISCST 3)
Location of Monitoring Stations Started since June 2004 Ref IOCL ( 110) SSI NAAQM - NEERI (1113) 19 P Pura CPCB (14 -20) LONI 15 ISBT 20 11 12 14 Rd 56 18 17 L Garden Dhaula Kuan Ashram 13 Hauz Khas 16
Salient Features of Common Methodology 3 Season monitoring 20 days continuous 3 sites simultaneously Ref. site with every set of 3 sites Monitoring local met. at each site Stress on PM 10 ; Limited PM 2. 5 CPCB SOPs to be adhered Built-in checks for QA/QC Continuous (24 hr) power supply Instrumental Facilities installed in each Porta-cabin in the field. OC/EC Analyser installed in the Lab.
Average Concentration of Particulate & Gaseous Pollutant at Ten Sites SALIENT FINDINGS • RSPM range: 200 -500 μg/m 3, does not meet Std. at most sites. • SO 2 meet standards at all locations. • NOx exceeds Std. at few places wherever vehicular activities are intense. • Seasonal variation indicates that values are higher in Winter & PM than in Summer.
Prominence of Sources of PM 10
Air Pollution as a Problem of the Future Ø Despite long history of development, community air pollution must be looked upon as a problem of the future Ø Only few largest population concentrations of present day are occasionally using their air supplies faster than natural processes can replenish them. Ø Such overuse must be expected to occur with increasing frequency as populations increase, since per capita demand for air cannot decline. Ø Air resource was almost infinitely large in relation to daily withdrawal and use, so its pollution caused discomfort and illness only in areas immediately adjacent to sources.
Air Pollution as a Problem of the Future Ø Due to population increase, a time must come when human occupation of the medium will threaten the quality of the total air resource. Ø Residues of nuclear weapon testing and huge outpourings of CO 2 from fossil fuel combustion have already demonstrated the extent to which human activity can affect total gaseous milieu. Ø Monetary cost of maintaining acceptable air quality can be expected to rise in exponential relationship to number of people & associated activities. Ø Emergence of air pollution as a regional or global phenomenon has already had significant impacts on governmental and administrative procedures.
Water is already bottled and sold at premium. Take care, lest the apprehension comes true