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Aim: How did the U. S. try to contain the Communist threat during the Cold War?
Aftermath of World War II • Formation of the United Nations • UN approves Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) • State of Israel established • Colonies gain independence
Stalin • • • Totalitarian Dictator Command Economy Great Purges (1930 s) Gulags (prison camps, people usually died within 2 weeks of being there) Five Year Plans (focused on heavy industry) Collectivization Millions starved to death Persecution of religious beliefs/people Women gained rights; had to work
The Gulag • http: //gulaghistory. org/nps/onlineexhibit/sta lin/living. php
A Soviet Textbook Justifies Stalin’s Purges (ca. 1936) • “These gentry were guided in their evaluation of the achievements of the workers and collective farmers not by the interests of the people, who applauded every such achievement, but by the interests of their own wretched and putrid faction, which had lost all contact with the realities of life. Since the achievements of Socialism in our country meant the victory of the policy of the Party and the utter bankruptcy of their own policy, these gentry, instead of admitting the obvious facts and joining the common cause, began to revenge themselves on the Party and the people for their own failure, for their own bankruptcy; they began to resort to foul play and sabotage against the cause of the workers and collective farmers, to blow up pits, set fire to factories, and commit acts of wrecking in collective and state farms, with the object of undoing the achievements of the workers and collective farmers and evoking popular discontent against the Soviet Government. And in order, while doing so, to shield their puny group from exposure and destruction, they simulated loyalty to the Party, fawned upon it, eulogized it, cringed before it more and more, while in reality continuing their underhanded subversive activities against the workers and peasants. ” Fordham. edu
Life Under Stalin (readings, pictures, and graphs) • http: //mrtrainor. sharepoint. com/Documents /W 5 G 30 BAD%20 Rise%20 of%20 Stalin%2 0 and%20 his%20 policies. pdf
Hymn to Stalin • http: //www. fordham. edu/halsall/mod/stalinworship. asp Q: What can we learn from this hymn about life in the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin?
A Comparison of the Cold War Rivals Soviet Union • Authoritarian government • Communist economic system (“command economy”) • Limits on civil liberties • Cycles of repression and freedom in social and cultural life • • United States Democratic government Capitalist economic system Guarantees of civil liberties Freedom in social and cultural life
The Rivalry Begins • The atomic bombing of Hiroshima on August 6 th made the disparity between the Soviet and American programs plain. A British journalist in Moscow wrote: "the news [of Hiroshima] had an acutely depressing effect on everybody. It was clearly realized that this was a New Fact in the world's power politics, that the bomb constituted a threat to Russia. " Within weeks, Stalin issued a decree that made the development of the atomic bomb a top priority. Joseph Stalin Pbs. org
The Soviet quest for the Atom Bomb • Stalin had told a British journalist that "Atomic bombs are meant to frighten those with weak nerves. " He went on to concede that the bomb did, of course, create a threat, but he warned, "monopoly ownership of the atomic bomb cannot last for long. " And he was right, it didn't. On August 29, 1949, at least a year before the American scientists expected, the Soviet Union tested its first atomic bomb. Pbs. org
Winston Churchill “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia; all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject, in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and in some cases increasing measure of control from Moscow. “ Winston S. Churchill: "Iron Curtain Speech", March 5, 1946
The Iron Curtain 1946
Truman Doctrine (1947) “The seeds of totalitarian regimes are nurtured by misery and want. They spread and grow in the evil soil of poverty and strife. They reach their full growth when the hope of a people for a better life has died. We must keep that hope alive. ” “The free peoples of the world look to us for support in maintaining their freedoms. ” “If we falter in our leadership, we may endanger the peace of the world -- and we shall surely endanger the welfare of our own nation. ”
The Marshall Plan • Billions of dollars in aid offered to Europe to help countries rebuild after World War II • Truman offered aid to the U. S. S. R and its satellites • Stalin viewed the offer as a trick to weaken Soviet influence in Eastern Europe • Stalin forbade satellites to accept aid and promised them that they would get financial help from the Soviet Union
"It's the same thing without mechanical problems"
A Divided Germany • Soviets dismantled factories and other resources in its occupation zone, using them for Russia instead • Allies united their occupation zones and sought to rebuild German industries • East Germany controlled by the Soviet Union (communist) • West Germany wrote a constitution and regained self-government
Berlin Airlift • Although it was in the Soviet zone, the Allies still occupied Berlin, the former German capital • In 1948 Stalin tried to force them out of Berlin by sealing off all railroads and highways that led to West Berlin • For nearly a year the western powers airlifted food and fuel to West Berlin • The Soviets were forced to end the blockade http: //progress-is-fine. blogspot. com/2012/07/sunderland-andberlin-blockade. html
Military Alliances • In 1949, the U. S. , Canada, and 9 Western European countries formed a military alliance called NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization). Its members pledged to help one another if any one of them was attacked. • Warsaw Pact (1955 -1991) was formed by the U. S. S. R. and its satellite nations
NONALIGNMENT • Not all nations wanted to get involved in the rivalry between the superpowers during the Cold War • India was a leader in the nonaligned movement • Indonesia hosted the Bandung Conference in 1955 for nonaligned nations
War in Korea and its aftermath • At the end of World War II both the U. S. and U. S. S. R. had withdrawn troops from Korea • Soviets supplied North Korea with money and ammunition in an attempt to take over the peninsula • At the Security Council’s meeting the Soviets were absent • UN troops sent an international force to Korea (1950) • 1953 the Korean War ended resulting in the continued division at the 38 parallel (38 degrees north latitude) • North Korea remained communist • South Korea finally became a democracy in 1987
Soviet Leadership in the Last Half of the 20 th Century • • Nikita Khrushchev (1956 -1964) Leonid Brezhnev (1964 -1982) Mikhail Gorbachev (1986 -1991) Boris Yeltsin (1991 -1999)
Nikita Khrushchev (r. 1956 -1964) • Suppressed Hungarian Revolution; built the Berlin Wall; Cuban Missile Crisis, denounced Stalin’s crimes; tried to increase production of consumer goods and agriculture Global History and Geography Star Review Xtimeline. com
Political Unrest in Eastern Europe • Three years after Stalin’s death, Nikita Khrushchev spoke out against Stalin’s crimes • Caused a series of revolts in the Eastern European satellite nations, where leaders demanded more freedom from the U. S. S. R • Hungary (1956) • Czechoslovakia (1968) four months of brief freedom (“Prague Spring”) until the Soviet invasion • U. S. S. R. harshly put down the revolts with tanks and troops
The Space Race of the 1960 s USA • 1961 First American in space (Alan Shepard) • 1962 First American orbits the earth (John Glenn, Jr. ) • 1969 First manned lunar landing (Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin) USSR • 1959 Luna 2 probe reaches the moon • 1961 First human orbits the earth (Yuri Gagarin) • 1963 First woman in space (Valentina Tereshkova)
The World Held its Breath… John F. Kennedy Nikita Krushchev
Cuban Missile Crisis • 1962 Soviet leader Nikita Krushchev began building 42 missile sites in Cuba • After this was discovered by U. S. spy planes, John F. Kennedy demanded the removal of the missiles • U. S. troops moved in place to attack Cuba but the removal of the missiles averted a potential World War III
Leonid Brezhnev (r. 1964 -1982) • SALT-Brezhnev and Gerald Ford (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks); signed Helsinki Accords, invaded Czechoslovakia; Brezhnev Doctrine (Warsaw Pact forces would intervene if Soviet domination was compromised); increased quality of consumer goods but quantity remained insufficient; harsh policy against dissidents Global History and Geography Star Review Xtimeline. com
The Vietnam War • After World War II France was not willing to give up its colony, Vietnam • Ho Chi Minh was a nationalist who was a communist • The Vietnamese nationalists and communists joined to fight the French • The United States supported the French but the French lost to Ho in 1954 at Dien Bien Phu
A Divided Nation • The U. S. saw communism as a rising threat in Asia (Domino Theory) • After France’s defeat, an international conference divided Vietnam at 17 north latitude • North Vietnam was governed by Ho’s communist forces • South Vietnam was controlled by Ngo Dinh Diem under the leadership of the U. S. and France
Rising tensions • Opposition to Ngo Dinh Diem’s corrupt dictatorship • North Vietnamese trained guerillas (Vietcong) • South Vietnamese generals planned a coup with the help of the U. S. Diem was assassinated • Future leaders were just as bad • The U. S. continued to supply South Vietnam militarily
American Troops Move In…then out! • 1964 - Gulf of Tonkin incident • Lyndon Johnson told Congress that North Vietnamese attacked two American destroyers • U. S. troops were authorized to go to Vietnam • As the War grew more unpopular Nixon began to remove troops from 1969 -1973 • North Vietnam overran South Vietnam
Vietnam’s Post-War Progress • Vietnam had to recover from the war with little foreign aid • 5 Year Plans and command economy did not help the economy • 1988 - Vietnam adopted some market system economic reforms (but it is still communist) • Vietnamese economy is strong today, poverty rate has fallen, GDP has more than doubled between 2006 and 2013 http: //www. huffingtonpost. ca/daniel-d-veniez/vietnam-economicgrowth_b_2867804. html Global History and Geography Star Review
Mikhail Gorbachev (r. 19861991) • Repealed Brezhnev Doctrine; withdrew Soviet troops from Afghanistan; increased power of republics within U. S. S. R; Warsaw Pact ended; Glasnost (increased political freedoms); Perestroika (moved toward a free market system); allowed development of prodemocracy Global History and Geography Star Review Xtimeline. com
Boris Yeltsin (r. 1991 -1999) • Moved closer to western powers with agreements with EU and NATO; bloody rebellion in Chechnya province (declared independence in 1993); rampant crime and corruption; government revenue declined Global History and Geography Star Review Xtimeline. com
Timeline of the Fall of the Soviet Union http: //www. paulrittman. com/USSRTimeline. pdf
Attempts to Control the Nuclear Threat (U. S. -U. S. S. R) • 1963 - Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Prohibited testing in the atmosphere, later space and underground tests forbidden • 1968 - Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty- nations willing to forego nuclear weapons promised aid in case of attack and help in development of peaceful uses of atomic energy • 1972, 1979 SALT (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks)- decreased some missiles and warheads • 1991, 1993 - START (Strategic Arms Reduction Talks)- continued process of limiting nuclear weapons and missile delivery systems
Cold War in Latin America • 1959 Dictator Fidel Castro seizes power • Castro proved to be a harsh dictator • Nationalized the Cuban economy- including U. S. owned industries • 1961 U. S. backed Bay of Pigs invasion by anti. Castro exiles living in Florida, results in failure
Civil War in Nicaragua • The United States had supported the Nicaraguan dictatorship of Anastasio Somoza since 1933 • 1979 Communist rebels, (Sandanistas) led by Daniel Ortega, toppled the dictatorship • The Sandanistas had aided socialists in nearby El Salvador • To help the El Salvadoran government, the U. S. supported Nicaraguan anti-communist rebel forces (Contras) • Civil War lasted for ten years in Nicaragua. In 1990 Ortega agreed to have free elections (he was defeated by Violeta Chamorro)
Cambodia (Southeast Asia) • 1975 Communist rebels known as Khmer Rouge set up a brutal regime under Pol Pot • Collective farms, forced labor projects • Approximately two million Cambodians were killed under Pol Pot’s leadership (25% of the population) Skulls of Khmer Rouge Victims
Time Magazine Photo Essay of the Cambodian Genocide • http: //www. time. com/time/photogallery/0, 293 07, 1948150_2013753, 00. html
Comparing Colonial Legacies and Patterns of Economic Development in Africa and Latin America AP ALERT!!
Making an Annotated Timeline Directions: Using the timeline that you will be given, use the information in Appendix II to make annotations on the timeline below that explain the significance of these events for the effects of the Cold War in Latin America and Africa.
Comparing Different Points of View • Read Kennedy’s and Khrushchev statements from Appendix III and IV and compare:
What is each man’s perspective on the role of Latin America (especially Cuba) and Africa in the Cold War contest between the United States and the Communist Bloc? Khrushchev • Latin America Kennedy • Latin America • Africa
• Analyze the excerpt from Lumumba’s letter to his wife and determine his point of view on how the Cold War is affecting his country, Congo. • The letter was written to his wife, Pauline, before his assassination.
Analyze the excerpt from Allende’s last speech and determine how the Cold War affects his country, Chile.
Q: What is the Soviet point of view on the arrest of Lumumba?
The Comparative Essay • Compare the impact of the Cold War in Latin America and in Sub-Saharan Africa