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Agile Adoption A Corporate Retrospective Alan J. Bartnik – The Vanguard Group Inc. Agile Adoption A Corporate Retrospective Alan J. Bartnik – The Vanguard Group Inc.

Why Agile? Continuous improvement – – DMAIC (Process Measurement & Optimization) Innovation Market forces Why Agile? Continuous improvement – – DMAIC (Process Measurement & Optimization) Innovation Market forces – – – Time-to-Market Speed of Change Build & Deploy Highest Value Features Workforce Demands – – Less micro-management More flexibility Cost – – >2 Pay-as-you go Pay for what you need; not what you think you want

Agile! The next big thing “Yeah I know about Agile” … • It’s about Agile! The next big thing “Yeah I know about Agile” … • It’s about being faster • …there’s no planning • It’s about being better • …there’s no control • It’s about being cheaper • …there’s no managers It’s about… >3

Agile @ Vanguard The ship turns slowly – Vanguard is an appropriately conservative Organization Agile @ Vanguard The ship turns slowly – Vanguard is an appropriately conservative Organization – Initial Agile success was scrutinized ironically because… Cycle Time decreased dramatically Productivity increased dramatically Quality increased dramatically Crew Morale (never-go-back to waterfall feedback) >4

Cycle-Time Improvement (≅ 2 x) >5 Cycle-Time Improvement (≅ 2 x) >5

Productivity Improvement (≅ 2 x) >6 Productivity Improvement (≅ 2 x) >6

Quality Improvement (≈ 25%) >7 Quality Improvement (≈ 25%) >7

Crew Morale ü Self Organization ü Sustainable Pace ü Empowerment ü Predictability ü Accountability Crew Morale ü Self Organization ü Sustainable Pace ü Empowerment ü Predictability ü Accountability O Death Marches O Finger-pointing >8 O NVA Documentation

What’s not to like? ol? r cont in I don’t like t he current What’s not to like? ol? r cont in I don’t like t he current p rocess; but I know what’s expe Sponsors have to engage – daily!!! cted an? ? No R I don’t have time for a daily meeting!!! oles equir R emen No C ared I’m skeptical… ts? Sh hang e Co ntrol? Who will te ll me dule? e what No Sch to do I work ed har d to be I’m lost ? come in a man Pace fall beh now m ble ager; anage I’m confused taina nless we rs are I’m af Sus ht! u not ne raid eded? - Rig … ce Self-Organizing Team? … e pa th ed et ish Too ri es s off Sustainable Pace? n ye sky… pu mplo ll slack e - Sounds like authorizing laziness e e let they’ fw ll b I ’ we I’ve worked hard to become a project manager; l fai It’s to now project managers are not needed? e o loo I’m unsure fw sie-g I oosie No Status Reports? ’s Who No Pl Sponsor Controls Scope! Change! >9

The Big challenge… Giving up our Command & Control Infrastructure – – – > The Big challenge… Giving up our Command & Control Infrastructure – – – > 10 …Of course - let’s be Agile (but) don’t change our organizational status quo …I’m totally onboard except that part about changing “my” process Sponsor/Product Owner delegation …delegate engages & make daily decisions (sounds good) …I’ll reserve the right to reverse decisions made (now I’m comfortable) Team Empowerment (walking the walk) …team decides; unless (until? ) Leadership disagrees …team decides; but command & control is ready - if the Team might fail Re-orienting our “best & brightest” …I’m the expert in the current process …I’m skeptical of empowerment …Agile is too risky for my comfort level …I’ll become less important than I am in the current organization

Where’s your Organization? Pilot: Resistance is low and decreases as “pilot” team adapts to Where’s your Organization? Pilot: Resistance is low and decreases as “pilot” team adapts to Agile Rollout: Organizations, People & Processes resist change; try to adapt Agile to existing environment Adoption: Stakeholders embrace the innovative force unleashed; emphasize Agile improvement, team empowerment and maximization of benefits ar s Change Resistance PILOT: Limited Organizational Awareness Vanguard is about here Time > 11 Agility Risk Zone Ye 2 ROLLOUT: Rising change resistance & Organizational Conflict Agile Experience ≈ # of Stakeholders ADOPTION: Organizational Internalization

Vanguard Retrospective What are we doing well? People • Executive Management Support • Business’s Vanguard Retrospective What are we doing well? People • Executive Management Support • Business’s eagerness to give Agile a try • Supporting Infrastructure • Team Adoption Practices • Co-Location (effect on Agile Team) • Adaptation to Agile: Stories & Front-burner • Release-level burn-up: multiple teams • Continuous Integration & Regression Automation Outcomes • Co-location reduces integration issues • Employee Morale - better with Agile > 12

What’s gone well? Leadership & Organization • • • Executive Leadership sees the value What’s gone well? Leadership & Organization • • • Executive Leadership sees the value and supports adoption Support infrastructure: Process Owner, Expert, and Advocate, Consulting Coaches Most Teams quickly adopt Agile Business Receptiveness: • • • Some very real buy-in on the business side Some very engaged in Sprint 0, Sprint Planning, eager to try and succeed Some have: set-up war rooms, co-located teams, manage a front-burner with stories and tasks via stories, use SCRUM, etc. Agile Practices • • • Co-location is the initial “bitter pill” for team members; fades within a sprint or two After initial “hunting & pecking” for their “type” of task, team learns to move L 2 R Initial pilot efforts toward Automated Testing and Continuous Integration > 13

Vanguard Retrospective What could be better? People • Departmental & Line Manager Adaptation • Vanguard Retrospective What could be better? People • Departmental & Line Manager Adaptation • “Team” mentality; not fired up to achieve sprint goals Practices • • • Sponsor & Business Partner Education Debunking Agile Myths & Water-fallacies Providing adoption flexibility; adhering to the Manifesto Busting Organizational Impediments; Managing Up Infrastructure (Environments, CI & Test Automation) Adoption of XP / LEAN practices Target Outcomes • Less “work as usual”; Team view rather than individual view • Eliminate (impact on) “sub-contractors” • Highly responsive IT; enabling business to meet Client’s Needs and Exceed expectations > 14

What can we do better? Leadership & Teams • • Prevent adaptation of Agile What can we do better? Leadership & Teams • • Prevent adaptation of Agile to current Process (redefine Agile NOT embrace Manifesto) Overcome resistance of leaders who perceive Agile as a threat (use transparency) Decrease time required for teams to “gel”; (not every PM is a born Scrum Master) Reduce Business Sponsor micromanagement (educate and build trust) Operational Impediments • Vanguard faces headwinds providing UNIX DEV environments; impedance when migrating from windows to UNIX; causes friction in release process (need more? ) • • Test Automation is making progress locally (federate to scale) • Cross-skilled crew are less common than we’d like; many get conflicting direction from management: stick to their role tasks NOT become adept at any task (paradigm shift) Role-aligned delivery model is not XP & Lean friendly; limit flexibility and productivity potential of our crew (paradigm shift, HR involvement) • Not enough TDD (training and paradigm shift) • Teams don't really “get” XP, LEAN enough to try radical things (training) “I've had to make it a personal objective for everyone on my team (to "drive” them) to think / act innovatively when it comes to doing their work in the Agile Framework” > 15

Where are we Headed? How? What? 1. Internalize Skills 2. Realize Benefits 3. Adapt Where are we Headed? How? What? 1. Internalize Skills 2. Realize Benefits 3. Adapt & Improve 4. repeat steps (1 – 3) > 16 • • Track Results Respond to Feedback Apply Lessons Learned Inventory & Share “Best Practices” Manage “Up” Foster Lean Principles Implement Lean Practices Trust & Support the “Team”

Change Resistance Group discussion topics q Isn’t Resistance futile? q Why do people (and Change Resistance Group discussion topics q Isn’t Resistance futile? q Why do people (and Organizations) resist? q Can resistance be avoided? q Can active resistance be overcome? > 17

Is Resistance Futile? v Top-down Ø “They said so …we have to comply” v Is Resistance Futile? v Top-down Ø “They said so …we have to comply” v Bottom-up Ø “They demand it … we have to comply” > 18

Change Resistance q Isn’t resistance futile? q Why do people (and Organizations) resist? q Change Resistance q Isn’t resistance futile? q Why do people (and Organizations) resist? q Can resistance be avoided? q Can active resistance be overcome? > 19

Logically - Why Resist? The algebra of change resistance…. A=B=C Change = Risk = Logically - Why Resist? The algebra of change resistance…. A=B=C Change = Risk = Survival Threat Change = Survival Threat!!! > 20

Change Resistance q Isn’t resistance futile? q Why do people (and Organizations) resist? q Change Resistance q Isn’t resistance futile? q Why do people (and Organizations) resist? q Can resistance be avoided? q Can active resistance be overcome? > 21

Avoiding Resistance Can we talk? • If people know – they fear less • Avoiding Resistance Can we talk? • If people know – they fear less • If people understand – they can make informed decisions How (do we) educate? • Agile Manifesto → Sponsor/Product Owner buy-in • Co-locate Business & Technical (paired-learning) > 22

Change Resistance q Isn’t resistance futile? q Why do people (and Organizations) resist? q Change Resistance q Isn’t resistance futile? q Why do people (and Organizations) resist? q Can resistance be avoided? q Can active resistance be overcome? > 23

Overcoming Resistance v It’s cliché…WIIFM • Emphasize and quantify the benefits to those affected Overcoming Resistance v It’s cliché…WIIFM • Emphasize and quantify the benefits to those affected • Business Outcomes (time-to-market, customization) • Technical Growth (learning, versatility, satisfaction) v Results Count • Perseverance and determination through challenges • Let the results speak for themselves • Conscript “antis” as “scorekeepers” > 24

Change Resistance q Isn’t resistance futile? q Why do people (and Organizations) resist? q Change Resistance q Isn’t resistance futile? q Why do people (and Organizations) resist? q Can resistance be avoided? q Can active resistance be overcome? > 25

Comments, Observations, Questions > 26 Comments, Observations, Questions > 26