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Advanced Manufacturing Systems Design © 2000 John W. Nazemetz Shop Floor Support Systems Lecture Advanced Manufacturing Systems Design © 2000 John W. Nazemetz Shop Floor Support Systems Lecture 10 Topic : Automatic Guided Vehicles - Concepts Segment A Topic: Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems

ADVANCED MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS DESIGN Shop Floor Support Automated Guided Vehicles Concepts Slide 2 © ADVANCED MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS DESIGN Shop Floor Support Automated Guided Vehicles Concepts Slide 2 © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

Overview • Overview of Material Handling Systems • Automated Guided Vehicles – – – Overview • Overview of Material Handling Systems • Automated Guided Vehicles – – – Slide 3 Components Types Guidance Routing and Control System Design © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

Material Handling Overview (1) • Concept – Best Material Handling is No Material Handling Material Handling Overview (1) • Concept – Best Material Handling is No Material Handling • Except for Delivery to Customer, Material Handling Adds No Value to Product • Can be 10 to 80% of Cost of Product • Goal – Least Cost Delivery of Undamaged Material in a Timely Manner Slide 4 Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

Material Handling Overview (2) • In–Plant Movement – On Machines/Equipment (NC) – Within and/or Material Handling Overview (2) • In–Plant Movement – On Machines/Equipment (NC) – Within and/or Between Cells/Machines • • • Fixed Path (Conveyors, Robots) Variable Path (AGVs, Forktrucks) Interface of Handling System and Equipment Location Information and Control System Hoists/Assists – Between Floor and Storage (WIP, Finished) • Location Information, Status, and Control Slide 5 Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

Material Handling Overview (3) • Outside of Plant Movement – Between Suppliers, Subcontractors • Material Handling Overview (3) • Outside of Plant Movement – Between Suppliers, Subcontractors • Generally Longer Distances • Unit Loads for Efficiency • Time Delays, Variance in Receipt Time – Between Plant and Customer • Generally Longer Distances • Multiple Destinations, Amounts to Move • Multiple Modes (Truck, Rail, Air, …) Slide 6 Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

Material Handling and Storage Principles (1) • Orientation Principle – Facilitate Next Operation • Material Handling and Storage Principles (1) • Orientation Principle – Facilitate Next Operation • Planning Principle – Establish Plan, Contingencies • Systems Principle – Integrate into Rational System • Unit Load Principle – Always transport is Largest Load Possible Slide 7 Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

Material Handling and Storage Principles (2) • Space Utilization Principle – Use All (Cubic) Material Handling and Storage Principles (2) • Space Utilization Principle – Use All (Cubic) Space • Standardization Principle – Maximize Similarity of Solutions • Ergonomic Principle – Make Human Compatible • Energy Principle – Minimize Energy (Potential/Kinetic) Slide 8 Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

Material Handling and Storage Principles (3) • Ecology Principle – Minimize Environmental Impact • Material Handling and Storage Principles (3) • Ecology Principle – Minimize Environmental Impact • Mechanization Principle – Mechanize Wherever Possible • Flexibility – Use Equipment Across Part Families • Simplification Principle – Eliminate/Simplify/Reduce Slide 9 Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

Material Handling and Storage Principles (4) • Gravity Principle – Use Gravity (Cheap!) Whenever Material Handling and Storage Principles (4) • Gravity Principle – Use Gravity (Cheap!) Whenever Possible • Safety Principle – Meet Codes, Capture Experience • Computerization Principle – Use Automation Wherever Applicable • System Flow Principle – Integrate Data and Material Flow Slide 10 Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

Material Handling and Storage Principles (5) • Layout Principle – Synchronize Processing and Layout Material Handling and Storage Principles (5) • Layout Principle – Synchronize Processing and Layout • Cost Principle – Investigate Alternatives • Maintenance Principle – Ability/Cost to Service and Maintain • Obsolescence Principle – Long Range Life Cycle Plan Slide 11 Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

Automatic Guided Vehicles (AGV’s) • Concepts – Utilization • Idle Labor = Problem (Wait Automatic Guided Vehicles (AGV’s) • Concepts – Utilization • Idle Labor = Problem (Wait for Delivery or Wait to Deliver) • Idle Equipment = Cost • Equipment Cost -> Spread over Multiple Shifts – Control -- Sequence/Discipline – Automatic “Knowledge” of Location – Conveying with Less Bulk/Blockage Slide 12 Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

AGV’s - Components • Components (Same as All Mat’l Handl. ) – The Vehicle AGV’s - Components • Components (Same as All Mat’l Handl. ) – The Vehicle • Device and Power System – The Path • Routing and Alternatives – Control Unit • Monitor and Control Vehicle and Path • Collision Avoidance/Reroute – The Computer/Info System Interface • Link to Rest of Production System/World Slide 13 Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

AGV’s – Types/Guidance • Types – – – Slide 14 Towing Unit Load Pallet AGV’s – Types/Guidance • Types – – – Slide 14 Towing Unit Load Pallet Truck Fork Truck Light Load Assembly Line • Guidance – – – Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems Wire Optical Inertial Infrared Laser Teaching © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

AGV’s – System Analysis (1) • Vehicle Design and Selection – Size/Cost/Maintenance – Height/Load/Width/ AGV’s – System Analysis (1) • Vehicle Design and Selection – Size/Cost/Maintenance – Height/Load/Width/ – Maneuverability/ Interface/Off-Path • Path/Vehicle Design Considerations – Unidirectional, Bi-directional, Branches – Loading/Unloading, Variety of Load – Safety/Clearances Slide 15 Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

AGV’s – System Analysis (2) • Number of Vehicles – Analytical (p. 274 Singh) AGV’s – System Analysis (2) • Number of Vehicles – Analytical (p. 274 Singh) • Single Cycle (Empty, Loaded Travel Percentage) • Multiple Cycle (Probabilistic) – Simulation – Breakdown/Replacement Slide 16 Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

AGV’s – Analysis (1) • Path – – Slide 17 Routing/Flow of Product Type AGV’s – Analysis (1) • Path – – Slide 17 Routing/Flow of Product Type of Guidepath/Vehicle Location of Pickup/Dropoff Points Storage/Buffer Locations Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

AGV’s – Analysis (2) • Number of Vehicles – Distances Between Points – To/From AGV’s – Analysis (2) • Number of Vehicles – Distances Between Points – To/From Volume Between Points • Recycling/Returns • Alternate Branches – – – Slide 18 Required Deliveries/Hour Loading and Unloading Time Vehicle Travel Speed Traffic Factor Operation concept (Single/Bi-Directional – One Cart per Path Segment) Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

AGV’s – Example • Slide 19 Will Show Next Segment Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems AGV’s – Example • Slide 19 Will Show Next Segment Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

Advanced Manufacturing Systems Design © 2000 John W. Nazemetz Lecture 10 Topic : Shop Advanced Manufacturing Systems Design © 2000 John W. Nazemetz Lecture 10 Topic : Shop Floor Support Systems Segment A Topic: Automated Guided Vehicles - Concepts END OF SEGMENT Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems

Advanced Manufacturing Systems Design © 2000 John W. Nazemetz Lecture 10 Topic : Shop Advanced Manufacturing Systems Design © 2000 John W. Nazemetz Lecture 10 Topic : Shop Floor Support Systems Segment B Topic: Automated Guided Vehicles – Example, ASRS Systems Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems

ADVANCED MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS DESIGN Shop Floor Support Automated Guided Vehicles – Example Automated Storage ADVANCED MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS DESIGN Shop Floor Support Automated Guided Vehicles – Example Automated Storage and Retrieval Slide 22 © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

Overview • AGV Design Example • Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems – Principles and Overview • AGV Design Example • Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems – Principles and Concepts – Design and Analysis • AGV and ASRS Rationalization Slide 23 © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

AGV’s – Example Def’n • Primarily “Straight Line” Flow with Rework Returns • Routing AGV’s – Example Def’n • Primarily “Straight Line” Flow with Rework Returns • Routing – Whse -> A -> B -> C -> D -> Whse – A and B are Machining – C and D are Assembly • Load – 100 Units Per Hour Slide 24 Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

AGV’s – Example Layout A B C Warehouse Slide 25 D Computer Integrated Manufacturing AGV’s – Example Layout A B C Warehouse Slide 25 D Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

AGV’s – Example Flows (1) A 100 B 10 8 100 50 100 Warehouse AGV’s – Example Flows (1) A 100 B 10 8 100 50 100 Warehouse Slide 26 100 C 150 12 D 150 Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

AGV’s – Example Volumes. From To. A B C D 50 100 Whse 100 AGV’s – Example Volumes. From To. A B C D 50 100 Whse 100 A - 100 B 10 - 100 8 - 150 12 - Whse C D Slide 27 Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems 150 © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

AGV’s – Assumed Path 100 B 100 A C Warehouse D Slide 28 Computer AGV’s – Assumed Path 100 B 100 A C Warehouse D Slide 28 Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

AGV’s – Path Volumes (Unidirectional). From To. A B C D Whse 50 100 AGV’s – Path Volumes (Unidirectional). From To. A B C D Whse 50 100 Whse 100 A - 100 B 10 - 100 8 - 150 12 - C D W -> A (110)+8+(50+12)+(100)=280 150 0 A -> B 0+108+62+100=272 8 B -> C 10+0+162+100 = 272 8 C -> D 10+8+(100+150) = 268 D -> W 10+8+12+150 = 180 Slide 29 Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems 12 100 © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

AGV’s – Path Volumes (Bi-directional). From To. A B C D 50 100 Whse AGV’s – Path Volumes (Bi-directional). From To. A B C D 50 100 Whse 100 A - 100 B 10 - 100 8 - 150 12 Whse - C D 150 W <-> A (100)+ (0) + (50) + (100) = 250 +12 A <-> B 10+ (100) + (50) + (100) = 260 +10 +2 B <-> C 0 + 8+ (50+100) + (100) = 258 + 8 +4 C <-> D 0 + 12+ (100+150 ) = 262 +12 * D <-> W 0+0+ 150 = 150 Slide 30 Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems + 112 © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

AGV’s – Analysis • Measure of Performance – Number of Vehicles Needed Slide 31 AGV’s – Analysis • Measure of Performance – Number of Vehicles Needed Slide 31 Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

AGV’s – Sensitivity • Different Paths – Dedicated Loops – Different Equipment Positions – AGV’s – Sensitivity • Different Paths – Dedicated Loops – Different Equipment Positions – Different Vehicles • Loads/Speeds – Different Traffic Factors • Higher for Bi-directional, Larger Segments – Breakdowns Slide 32 Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

Automatic Storage And Retrieval Systems (1) • Concepts – – – Space Efficiency Utility Automatic Storage And Retrieval Systems (1) • Concepts – – – Space Efficiency Utility Savings (Lights, Heat, . . . ) Knowledge of Location Safety (Elimination of Labor) Zoned Storage Distributed/Multiple Locations of Items • Breakdown of System • Rsponse Time – Less Breakage, Pilferage Slide 33 Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

Automatic Storage And Retrieval Systems (2) • Terminology – Storage Volume/Cube • Space of Automatic Storage And Retrieval Systems (2) • Terminology – Storage Volume/Cube • Space of Warehouse – Bay • Vertical Column of Storage Locations – Row • Series of Bays (One Side of Aisle) – Aisle • Space Between Rows Slide 34 Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

Automatic Storage And Retrieval Systems (3) • Terminology – Storage Racks • Structure comprising Automatic Storage And Retrieval Systems (3) • Terminology – Storage Racks • Structure comprising storage locations, bays, and rows – Storage/Retrieval Unit • Machine capable of storing/retrieving items from storage locations – Input Output Stations • Area/Equipment at end of aisles that interfaces with factory floor distribution and receiving system Slide 35 Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

Automatic Storage And Retrieval Systems (4) • Terminology – Storage Modules/Bins • Media for Automatic Storage And Retrieval Systems (4) • Terminology – Storage Modules/Bins • Media for holding parts in a storage location – Pick-up and Delivery Stations • Same as Input-Output Stations – Transfer Stations • End of Aisle Equipment Used to effect transfer of parts between rows (Same as Pick-up and Delivery/Input-Output Stations) Slide 36 Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

Automatic Storage And Retrieval Systems (5) • Why Use ? – Space Efficiency (Height/Cube) Automatic Storage And Retrieval Systems (5) • Why Use ? – Space Efficiency (Height/Cube) • No Need to Allocate Space so Human can Remember Location/Find – Improved Inventory Management • Accuracy of Counts • Knowledge of Location(s) • Aging/Security – Quick Storage/Retrieval – Eliminate Manual Operations – Interface with Other Automated Systems Slide 37 Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

Automatic Storage And Retrieval Systems (6) • Types – Unit Load – Mini-Load • Automatic Storage And Retrieval Systems (6) • Types – Unit Load – Mini-Load • Location Precision • Must be in Trays, Standard Containers – Person on Board • Kitting • Small Items – Deep Lane – Automated Item Slide 38 Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

Automatic Storage And Retrieval Systems (7) • Design, Modeling, and Analysis – Minimize Number Automatic Storage And Retrieval Systems (7) • Design, Modeling, and Analysis – Minimize Number of Spaces • Dedicated Storage – Contamination/Special Requirements • “Random” Storage – Rules applied so not Totally random – Maximize Throughput/$ • Single Cycle • Dual Cycle • Number of Aisles vs. Response Time Slide 39 Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

ASRS Design (1) • Determine Load/Storage Bin Sizes – Distribution of Sizes (Unit Multiples) ASRS Design (1) • Determine Load/Storage Bin Sizes – Distribution of Sizes (Unit Multiples) • Determine Number of Each Size Needed – Dedicated • Sum of Maximum Needed in Any Period – Random • Maximum Aggregate, Any Period Slide 40 Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

ASRS Design (2) • Determine Number of Store/Retrieve Needed per Hour • Determine Number/Length ASRS Design (2) • Determine Number of Store/Retrieve Needed per Hour • Determine Number/Length of Rows and Bays – Base on Random or Dedicated Storage – Available Footprint Restrictions – Common Sense • Maximum Practical Length – Cycle Time – Available Height Slide 41 Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

ASRS Design (3) • Determine Cycle Times – Dependant on • Aisle Length/Height, Ratio ASRS Design (3) • Determine Cycle Times – Dependant on • Aisle Length/Height, Ratio • Size/Number of Storage Locations • S/R Speed – Single Cycle • Only Stores or Only Retrieves per cycle – Dual Cycle • Stores and Retrieves (after store) each cycle Slide 42 Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

ASRS Design (4) • Determine Cycle Times Slide 43 Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems © ASRS Design (4) • Determine Cycle Times Slide 43 Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

ASRS Design (5) • Determine Cycle Times Slide 44 Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems © ASRS Design (5) • Determine Cycle Times Slide 44 Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

ASRS Design (6) • Determine Cycle Times Slide 45 Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems © ASRS Design (6) • Determine Cycle Times Slide 45 Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

ASRS Design (7) • Determine Cycle Times Slide 46 Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems © ASRS Design (7) • Determine Cycle Times Slide 46 Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

ASRS Design (8) • Assess Alternatives – Vary Length/Height – Vary Single/Dual Command Cycles/Ratio ASRS Design (8) • Assess Alternatives – Vary Length/Height – Vary Single/Dual Command Cycles/Ratio – Calculate System Cost for Various Configurations – Select “Best” • Expandability • Match to Other Automated Systems Slide 47 Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

Advanced Manufacturing Systems Design © 2000 John W. Nazemetz Shop Floor Support Systems Lecture Advanced Manufacturing Systems Design © 2000 John W. Nazemetz Shop Floor Support Systems Lecture 10 Topic : Segment B Topic: AGV Example and ASRS END OF SEGMENT Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems

Advanced Manufacturing Systems Design © 2000 John W. Nazemetz Shop Floor Support Systems Lecture Advanced Manufacturing Systems Design © 2000 John W. Nazemetz Shop Floor Support Systems Lecture 10 Topic : Segment C Topic: Quality Assurance Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems

ADVANCED MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS DESIGN Shop Floor Support Quality Assurance/Engineering Slide 50 © 2000 John ADVANCED MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS DESIGN Shop Floor Support Quality Assurance/Engineering Slide 50 © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

Overview • Defining Quality – Meaning – Dimensions – Costs • • Taguchi Loss Overview • Defining Quality – Meaning – Dimensions – Costs • • Taguchi Loss Function Failure Mode and Analysis Control Charts Anticipatory Quality Control Slide 51 © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

Defining Quality • “The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service Defining Quality • “The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy a given need” ANSI/ASQC Standard A 3 -1987 Slide 52 © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

Dimensions of Quality (1) • Dimensions (All Products Subsets of) – Performance • Job Dimensions of Quality (1) • Dimensions (All Products Subsets of) – Performance • Job it Does – Features • Secondary Characteristics – Time • Time to Receive/Time to Use – Reliability • Meant Time to Failure Slide 53 © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

Dimensions of Quality (2) • Dimensions (All Products Subsets of) – Durability • Amount Dimensions of Quality (2) • Dimensions (All Products Subsets of) – Durability • Amount of (Ab)Use to Maintenance or Repair – Uniformity • Variation between Instances – Consistency/Accuracy • Specifications Conformance – Serviceability • Response to Complaints/Ability for Owner Service Slide 54 © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

Dimensions of Quality (3) • Dimensions (All Products Subsets of) – Aesthetics • Psychological/Sensual Dimensions of Quality (3) • Dimensions (All Products Subsets of) – Aesthetics • Psychological/Sensual Appeal – Personal Interface • People to People Interaction Quality – Harmlessness • To User, To Environment – Perceived Quality • Purchaser Perception/Inference Slide 55 © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

Costs of Quality (1) • Prevention Costs – Avoiding Costs of Failure/Degraded Performance • Costs of Quality (1) • Prevention Costs – Avoiding Costs of Failure/Degraded Performance • Appraisal Costs – Cost of Measurement/Testing to Assure Quality • Internal Failure Costs – Cost of Scrapping/Repairing Defects prior to Customer Receipt of Product Slide 56 © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

Costs of Quality (2) External Failure Costs – Cost of Repairing/Replacing Defects after Customer Costs of Quality (2) External Failure Costs – Cost of Repairing/Replacing Defects after Customer Receipt of Produc t – Suits for Damages as a Result of Lack of Merchantability • Life Cycle Costs – – Slide 57 Designing Quality In Products, Processes Quality Production Quality Maintenance/Repair Disposal © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

Taguchi Loss Function (1) • Concept – Loss increases with deviation from Target Value Taguchi Loss Function (1) • Concept – Loss increases with deviation from Target Value (Quadratically) – Nominal is Best: Slide 58 © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

Taguchi Loss Function (2) • Concept – Loss increases with deviation from Target Value Taguchi Loss Function (2) • Concept – Loss increases with deviation from Target Value (Quadratically) – Smaller is Better: Slide 59 © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

Taguchi Loss Function (3) • Concept – Loss increases with deviation from Target Value Taguchi Loss Function (3) • Concept – Loss increases with deviation from Target Value (Quadratically) – Larger is Better: Slide 60 © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

Taguchi Loss Function (4) • Concept – Average Loss can be Determined Based on Taguchi Loss Function (4) • Concept – Average Loss can be Determined Based on Target, Functional Limits, and Variation – Based on Average Loss • Different Processes can be Evaluated • Different Definitions of Functional Limits can be Explored – Controllable, Uncontrollable, Noise Factors Slide 61 © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

Failure Mode Analysis • Concept – Recognize and evaluate potential failure modes and effects Failure Mode Analysis • Concept – Recognize and evaluate potential failure modes and effects • Mode -- Occurrence/Severity/Detection – Identify actions that can eliminate or reduce the chance of potential failure occurring – Document the process Slide 62 © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

Control Charts (1) • Attributes – X bar and R – P charts • Control Charts (1) • Attributes – X bar and R – P charts • Use to Identify Unlikely Events – Presume Process Has Changed Slide 63 © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

Control Charts (2) • Record Out-of-Control Events/Causes – – Slide 64 Histograms Pareto Charts Control Charts (2) • Record Out-of-Control Events/Causes – – Slide 64 Histograms Pareto Charts Cause and Effect Diagrams Scatter Diagram © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

Anticipatory Quality Control • “Look Ahead Control Charts” – Results not Random, Autocorrelated UCL Anticipatory Quality Control • “Look Ahead Control Charts” – Results not Random, Autocorrelated UCL Mean LCL Slide 65 x x x x x © 2000 John W. Nazemetz

Advanced Manufacturing Systems Design © 2000 John W. Nazemetz Shop Floor Support Systems Lecture Advanced Manufacturing Systems Design © 2000 John W. Nazemetz Shop Floor Support Systems Lecture 10 Topic : Segment C Topic: Quality Assurance END OF SEGMENT Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems