- Количество слайдов: 59
Adopted from Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY
Essential Question: Champion of the “Common Man”? OR “King” Andrew?
Voting Requirements in the Early 19 c
Voter Turnout: 1820 - 1860
Campaigning “on the Stump”
Why Increased Democratization? 3 White male suffrage increased 3 Party nominating committees. 3 Voters chose their state’s slate of Presidential electors. 3 Spoils system. 3 Rise of Third Parties. 3 3 Popular campaigning (parades, rallies, floats, etc. ) Two-party system returned in the 1832 election: § Dem-Reps Natl. Reps. (1828) Whigs (1832) Republicans (1854) § Democrats (1828)
The “Common Man’s” Presidential Candidate
Jackson’s Opponents in 1824 Henry Clay [KY] John Quincy Adams [MA] William H. Crawford [GA] John C. Calhoun [SC]
Results of the 1824 Election A “Corrupt Bargain? ”
Opposition to John Quincy Adams 3 3 Some believed he allowed too much political control to be held by elites. Some objected to his support of national economic development on constitutional grounds. § Adams believed a strong, active central government was necessary. Ø A national university. Ø An astronomical observatory. Ø A naval academy. 3 Many Americans saw Adams’ vision of a might nation led by a strong president as a threat to individual liberties.
Tariff Battles 3 3 3 Tariff of 1816 on imports of cheap textiles. Tariff of 1824 on iron goods and more expensive woolen and cotton imports. Tariff of 1828 higher tariffs on imported raw materials [like wool & hemp]. § Supported by Jacksonians to gain votes from farmers in NY, OH, KY. § The South alone was adamantly against it. Ø As producers of the world’s cheapest cotton, it did not need a protective tariff. Ø They were negatively impacted American textiles and iron goods [or the taxed English goods] were more expensive!
Votes in the House for the “Tariff of Abomination”
Land & Indian Policies 3 John Quincy Adams: § His land policies gave westerners another reason to dislike him. Ø He attempted to curb speculation for public lands his opponent accused him of denying their individual rights and freedoms to expand westward! § He supported the land rights of Native Americans against white settlers. Ø 1825 govt. officials negotiated a treaty with a group of Creek Indians to cede their land rights to GA. ü The Creek Indians appealed to Adams to renounce the treaty. ü Congress sided with the governor of GA.
The 1828 Election 3 Jackson’s campaign was engineered by Senator Martin Van Buren of NY § He wanted to recreate the old Jeffersonian coalition of: Ø Northern farmers and artisans. Ø Southern slave owners. Ø Farmers with small land holdings. § He created the Democratic Party from the remains of Jefferson’s old party: Ø Created oversaw a national committee that local and state party units. Ø Mass meetings, parades, picnics. § A lot of political mudslinging on both sides.
Rachel Jackson Final Divorce Decree
Jackson in Mourning for His Wife
1828 Election Results
The Center of Population in the Country Moves WEST
The New “Jackson Coalition” 3 The Planter Elite in the South 3 People on the Frontier 3 3 Artisans [competition from factory labor]. State Politicians spoils system Ø To the victor belong the spoils of the enemy! [William Marcy of NY] 3 Immigrants in the cities.
Jackson as Satan Dangles the Spoils of Victory over his Supporters
Jackson’s Faith in the “Common Man” 3 3 3 Intense distrust of Eastern “establishment, ” monopolies, & special privilege. His heart & soul was with the “plain folk. ” Belief that the common man was capable of uncommon achievements.
The Reign of “King Mob”
Andrew Jackson as President
The “Peggy Eaton Affair”
The Webster-Hayne Debate Sen. Daniel Webster [MA] Sen. Robert Hayne [SC]
1830 Webster : Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable. Jackson : Our Federal Union—it must be preserved. Calhoun : The Union, next to our liberty, most dear.
Calhoun Ascends the Platform that Leads to Despotism
1832 Tariff Conflict 3 1832 --> new tariff 3 South Carolina’s reaction? 3 Jackson’s response ? 3 Clay’s “Compromise” Tariff ?
Clays Sews Up Jackson’s Mouth (1834)
Indian Removal 3 Jackson’s Goal? 3 1830 Indian Removal Act 3 3 3 Cherokee Nation v. GA(1831) * “domestic dependent nation” Worcester v. GA (1832) Jackson: John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it!
The Cherokee Nation After 1820
The Grand National Caravan Moving West
Trail of Tears (1838 -1839)
Jackson’s Professed “Love” for Native Americans
Jackson’s Use of Federal Power VETO 1830 Maysville Road project in KY [state of his political rival, Henry Clay]
The National Bank Debate Nicholas Biddle [an arrogant aristocrat from Philadelphia] President Jackson
nd B. U. S. Opposition to the 2 “Soft” (paper) $ 3 3 state bankers felt it restrained their banks from issuing bank notes freely. supported rapid economic growth & speculation. “Hard” (specie) $ 3 3 3 felt that coin was the only safe currency. didn’t like any bank that issued bank notes. suspicious of expansion & speculation.
The “Monster” Is Destroyed! 3 3 “Pet Banks” 1832 Jackson vetoed the extension of the 2 nd National Bank of the United States. 1836 the charter expired. 1841 the bank went bankrupt!
The Downfall of “Mother Bank”
The Bank & the 1832 Election 3 Jackson saw Biddle’s pushing forward a bill to renew the Bank’s charter earlier as an attempt to block his re-election! § Biddle & his associates preferred Clay. § Jackson refused to sign the bill to recharter. Ø The Bank is trying to destroy me, but I will destroy it! § Jackson drops Calhoun and runs with Martin Van Buren. § BUT, both parties [Democrats & Whigs] had contradictory positions regarding their party principles, to many of the issues of the day!
An 1832 Cartoon: “King Andrew”?
Positions on the Key Issues of 1832 WHIGS DEMOCRATS • Less concerned about the • Felt the widening gap • • • widening gap between rich and poor. Opposed “liberal capitalism” because they believed it would lead to economic chaos. Strong national govt. to coordinate the expanding economy was critical. Opposes Indian removal. Favored tariffs. Supported a National Bank. • • • between rich and poor was alarming. Believed that bankers, merchants, and speculators were “non-producers” who used their govt. connections to line their own pockets. Govt. should have a handsoff approach to the economy to allow the little guy a chance to prosper. For Indian removal. Oppose tariffs. States’ rights. Oppose federal support for internal improvements. Opposed the National Bank.
1832 Election Results
The 1836 Election Results Martin Van Buren “Old Kinderhook” [O. K. ]
The Specie Circular (1836) 3 Speculators created “wildcat banks” that fueled the runaway inflation. 3 So, buy future federal land only with gold or silver. Ø This move shocked the system. 3 Jackson’s goal to curb the land speculation.
Results of the Specie Circular $ Banknotes loose their value. $ Land sales plummeted. $ Credit not available. $ Businesses began to fail. $ Unemployment rose. The Panic of 1837!
The Panic of 1837 Hits Everyone!
The Panic of 1837 Spreads Quickly!
Andrew Jackson in Retirement
Photo of Andrew Jackson in 1844 (one year before his death) 1767 - 1845