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ADMINISTRATIVE DOCTRINES: FROM THE NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT TO GOOD GOVERNANCE Unit 9 ADMINISTRATIVE DOCTRINES: FROM THE NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT TO GOOD GOVERNANCE Unit 9

ADMINISTRATIVE DOCTRINES o New public management o Good governance ADMINISTRATIVE DOCTRINES o New public management o Good governance

New public management: definition o A management philosophy used by governments since the 1980 New public management: definition o A management philosophy used by governments since the 1980 s to modernise the public sector. o The wave of public sector reforms throughout the world since the 1980 s.

New Public Management o The main hypothesis in the NPM-reform: more market orientation in New Public Management o The main hypothesis in the NPM-reform: more market orientation in the public sector will lead to greater cost-efficiency for governments, without having negative side effects on other objectives and considerations

New Public Management o NPM, compared to other public management theories, is more oriented New Public Management o NPM, compared to other public management theories, is more oriented towards outcomes and efficiency through better management of public budget.

New Public Management o achieved by applying competition, as it is known in the New Public Management o achieved by applying competition, as it is known in the private sector, to organizations in the public sector, emphasizing economic and leadership principles. o addresses beneficiaries of public services like customers, and citizens as shareholders.

NPM: later developments o splitting large bureaucracies into smaller, more fragmented ones, o competition NPM: later developments o splitting large bureaucracies into smaller, more fragmented ones, o competition between different public agencies, and between public agencies and private firms o incentivization on more economic lines

Characteristics of NPM o Orientation towards economy, efficiency and effectiveness o Market principles o Characteristics of NPM o Orientation towards economy, efficiency and effectiveness o Market principles o Effort to impose values and techniques of private sector management into the public sector

The new public management o New Zealand, the UK, Australia, Canada, the USA o The new public management o New Zealand, the UK, Australia, Canada, the USA o International organizations: World Bank, International Monetary Fund

Problems o Muddled lines of political accountability o Poor contacts with the public o Problems o Muddled lines of political accountability o Poor contacts with the public o Decreased transparency o Corruption o Additional expenses o Neglect of citizens’ rights, etc.

New developments o Digital era governance: 3 key elements – 1) reintegration (bringing issues New developments o Digital era governance: 3 key elements – 1) reintegration (bringing issues back into government control); o 2) needs-based holism (reorganizing government around distinct client groups);

New developments o 3) digitalization (fully exploiting the potential of digital storage and Internet New developments o 3) digitalization (fully exploiting the potential of digital storage and Internet communications to transform governance).

Good governance: definition o Governance: process of decision-making and the process by which decisions Good governance: definition o Governance: process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented). o Hereby, public institutions conduct public affairs, manage public resources, and guarantee the realization of human rights.

Good governance o Good governance accomplishes this in a manner essentially free of abuse Good governance o Good governance accomplishes this in a manner essentially free of abuse and corruption, and with due regard for the rule of law

Good governance o Openess o Participation o Responsibility o Effectiveness o coherency Good governance o Openess o Participation o Responsibility o Effectiveness o coherency

Characteristics of good governance Characteristics of good governance

Participation o Participation by both men and women - a key cornerstone of good Participation o Participation by both men and women - a key cornerstone of good governance. o Participation: direct or through legitimate intermediate institutions or representatives.

Participation o Participation: informed and organized. o Freedom of association and expression; an organized Participation o Participation: informed and organized. o Freedom of association and expression; an organized civil society

Rule of law o Good governance requires: o fair legal frameworks that are enforced Rule of law o Good governance requires: o fair legal frameworks that are enforced impartially. o protection of human rights, esp. those of minorities.

Rule of law o Impartial enforcement of laws requires an independent judiciary and an Rule of law o Impartial enforcement of laws requires an independent judiciary and an impartial and incorruptible police force.

Transparency o Decisions taken and their enforcement done in a manner that follows rules Transparency o Decisions taken and their enforcement done in a manner that follows rules and regulations.

Transparency o information is freely available and directly accessible to those who will be Transparency o information is freely available and directly accessible to those who will be affected by such decisions and their enforcement. o enough information provided; o information provided in easily understandable forms and media.

Responsiveness o Good governance requires that institutions and processes try to serve all stakeholders Responsiveness o Good governance requires that institutions and processes try to serve all stakeholders within a reasonable timeframe.

Consensus oriented o Good governance requires mediation of the different interests in society to Consensus oriented o Good governance requires mediation of the different interests in society to reach a broad consensus in society on what is in the best interest of the whole community and how this can be achieved.

Good governance o It also requires a broad and long-term perspective on what is Good governance o It also requires a broad and long-term perspective on what is needed for sustainable human development and how to achieve the goals of such development. This can only result from an understanding of the historical, cultural and social contexts of a given society or community

Equity and inclusiveness o A society’s well-being depends on ensuring that all its members Equity and inclusiveness o A society’s well-being depends on ensuring that all its members feel that they have a stake in it and do not feel excluded from the mainstream of society.

Equity and inclusiveness o This requires that all groups, particularly the most vulnerable, have Equity and inclusiveness o This requires that all groups, particularly the most vulnerable, have opportunities to improve or maintain their well-being.

Efectiveness and efficiency o Good governance means that processes and institutions produce results that Efectiveness and efficiency o Good governance means that processes and institutions produce results that meet the needs of society while making the best use of resources at their disposal.

Efectiveness and efficiency o The concept of efficiency in the context of good governance Efectiveness and efficiency o The concept of efficiency in the context of good governance also covers the sustainable use of natural resources and the protection of the environment.

Accountability o Accountability - key requirement of good governance. o Not only governmental institutions Accountability o Accountability - key requirement of good governance. o Not only governmental institutions but also the private sector and civil society organizations must be accountable to the public and to their institutional stakeholders.

Accountability o An organization or an institution is accountable to those who will be Accountability o An organization or an institution is accountable to those who will be affected by its decisions or actions. Accountability cannot be enforced without transparency and the rule of law.

Focus o The role of citizens and civil society o Transparency o Legitimacy o Focus o The role of citizens and civil society o Transparency o Legitimacy o Efficiency o Human and citizens’ rights

Focus o The rule of law o Better quality of public services o Modern Focus o The rule of law o Better quality of public services o Modern information and communication technologies o Better human resources management

Citizens o Partners who contribute to results of activities in public administration o Should Citizens o Partners who contribute to results of activities in public administration o Should be informed and consulted o Participate in the creation of public policies and administrative and other public processes

Legal terms o Coherency o Dosljednost, razumljivost, povezanost o Legitimacy o Zakonitost Legal terms o Coherency o Dosljednost, razumljivost, povezanost o Legitimacy o Zakonitost

Abbreviations o UN o United Nations o EU o European Union o OECD o Abbreviations o UN o United Nations o EU o European Union o OECD o Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development

Abbreviations o IMF o International Monetary Fund o WB o World Bank Abbreviations o IMF o International Monetary Fund o WB o World Bank

Put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate forms o The first practices of Put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate forms o The first practices of New Public Management ________ (emerge) in the United Kingdom under the leadership of Prime Minister Margaret Thacher. Thatcher _____(play) the functional role of “policy entrepreneur" and the official role of prime minister. Thatcher ______(drive) changes in public management policy in such areas as organizational methods, civil service, labor relations, expenditure planning, financial management, audit, evaluation, and procurement. o

Key o The first practices of New Public Management emerged in the United Kingdom Key o The first practices of New Public Management emerged in the United Kingdom under the leadership of Prime Minister Margaret Thacher. Thatcher played the functional role of “policy entrepreneur" and the official role of prime minister. Thatcher drove changes in public management policy in such areas as organizational methods, civil service, labor relations, expenditure planning, financial management, audit, evaluation, and procurement.

Put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate forms o Thatcher's successor, John Mayor, Put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate forms o Thatcher's successor, John Mayor, _____(keep) public management policy on the agenda of the Conservative government, ____(lead) to the implementation of the Next Steps Initiative. Mayor also _____(launch) the programs of the Citizens Charter Initiative, Competing for Quality, Resource Accounting and Budgeting, and the Private Finance Initiative.

Key o Thatcher's successor, John Mayor, kept public management policy on the agenda of Key o Thatcher's successor, John Mayor, kept public management policy on the agenda of the Conservative government, leading to the implementation of the Next Steps Initiative. Mayor also launched the programs of the Citizens Charter Initiative, Competing for Quality, Resource Accounting and Budgeting, and the Private Finance Initiative.

Put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate forms o The term _______(coin, passive) Put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate forms o The term _______(coin, passive) in the late 1980 s to denote a new (or renewed) stress on the importance of management and ‘production engineering’ in public service delivery, which often _______(link, passive) to doctrines of economic rationalism. During this timeframe public management _______(become) an active area of policy-making in numerous other countries, notably in New Zealand, Australia, and Sweden

Key o The term was coined in the late 1980 s to denote a Key o The term was coined in the late 1980 s to denote a new (or renewed) stress on the importance of management and ‘production engineering’ in public service delivery, which often linked to doctrines of economic rationalism. During this timeframe public management became an active area of policy-making in numerous other countries, notably in New Zealand, Australia, and Sweden

Put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate forms o NPM ____(accept, passive) as Put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate forms o NPM ____(accept, passive) as the "gold standard for administrative reform"[ in the 1990 s. The idea for ______(use) this method for government reform was that if the government guided private-sector principles ____(use, passive) rather than rigid hierarchical bureaucracy, it would work more efficiently. NPM _____(promote) a shift from bureaucratic administration to business-like professional management. NPM _____(cite, passive) as the solution for management ills in various organizational context and policy making in education and health care reform. o access accountable advantage, effective governance, law, participation political rights, term, tolerance

Key o NPM was accepted as the Key o NPM was accepted as the "gold standard for administrative reform" in the 1990 s. The idea for using this method for government reform was that if the government guided private-sector principles were used rather than rigid hierarchical bureaucracy, it would work more efficiently. NPM promotes a shift from bureaucratic administration to business-like professional management. NPM was cited as the solution for management ills in various organizational context and policy making in education and health care reform.

: Fill in the missing words access, accountable, advantage, effective, governance, law, participation, political, : Fill in the missing words access, accountable, advantage, effective, governance, law, participation, political, rights, term, tolerance o There is no single and exhaustive definition of “good ____, ” nor is there a delimitation of its scope, that commands universal acceptance. The ______is used with great flexibility; this is an ______, but also a source of some difficulty at the operational level. Depending on the context and the overriding objective sought, good governance has been said at various times to encompass: full respect of human ____, the rule of ____, effective _______, multi-actor partnerships, ______pluralism, transparent and ______ processes and institutions, an efficient and ______public sector, legitimacy, ____to knowledge, information and education, political empowerment of people, equity, sustainability, and attitudes and values that foster responsibility, solidarity and ________.

Key o There is no single and exhaustive definition of “good governance, ” nor Key o There is no single and exhaustive definition of “good governance, ” nor is there a delimitation of its scope, that commands universal acceptance. The term is used with great flexibility; this is an advantage, but also a source of some difficulty at the operational level. Depending on the context and the overriding objective sought, good governance has been said at various times to encompass: full respect of human rights, the rule of law, effective participation, multi-actor partnerships, political pluralism, transparent and accountable processes and institutions, an efficient and effective public sector, legitimacy, access to knowledge, information and education, political empowerment of people, equity, sustainability, and attitudes and values that foster responsibility, solidarity and tolerance.

Translation o Suvremeni razvoj uprave karakteriziraju dvije utjecajne doktrine: nov javni management i dobro Translation o Suvremeni razvoj uprave karakteriziraju dvije utjecajne doktrine: nov javni management i dobro upravljanje.

Translation o Doktrina novog javnog menadžmenta vrlo je utjecajna od 1980. Karakterizira je orijentacija Translation o Doktrina novog javnog menadžmenta vrlo je utjecajna od 1980. Karakterizira je orijentacija prema ekonomiji, uspješnosti i učinkovitosti, nastojanja da se državna uprava i javni sektor podvrgnu tržišnim načelima i metodama koje razvijaju poduzetničko ponašanje te, općenito, nastojanjem da se “većina vrijednosti i tehnika upravljanja privatnim sektorom nametne javnom sektoru.

Translation o Mjere i učinci menadžerskih reformi javne uprave su strukturalni, funkcionalni, usmjereni prema Translation o Mjere i učinci menadžerskih reformi javne uprave su strukturalni, funkcionalni, usmjereni prema osoblju i drugi (financijski, politički, usmjereni prema osoblju itd. )

Translation o Nova javna uprava široko je prihvaćena na Novom Zelandu, Ujedinjenom kraljevstvu, Australiji, Translation o Nova javna uprava široko je prihvaćena na Novom Zelandu, Ujedinjenom kraljevstvu, Australiji, Kanadi i SAD-u. Menadžerski pristup proširio se u Europi i drugim kontinentima različitom brzinom i u različitom stupnju. Međunarodne organizacije kao Svjetska banka i Međunarodni monetarni fond zagovaraju menadžerski pristup.

Translation o No, od 1990 -ih godina primjećuju se i neki nepovoljni učinci minimalizirajućih Translation o No, od 1990 -ih godina primjećuju se i neki nepovoljni učinci minimalizirajućih i tržištu usmjerenih reformi javne uprave. Nejasne linije političke odgovornosti, loši kontakti s javnošću, smanjena transparentnost, korupcija, dodatni troškovi, ponovno jačanje regulacije, zanemarivanje prava građana su neki od njih.

Translation o Pod tim uvjetima, UN, EU, OECD, Međunarodni monetarni fond i Svjetska banka Translation o Pod tim uvjetima, UN, EU, OECD, Međunarodni monetarni fond i Svjetska banka počeli su zagovarati dobro upravljanje.

Translation o Među načelima dobrog upravljanja, EU naglašava otvorenost, sudjelovanje, uspješnost i razumljivost. Nova Translation o Među načelima dobrog upravljanja, EU naglašava otvorenost, sudjelovanje, uspješnost i razumljivost. Nova doktrinarna orijentacija naglašava ulogu građana i civilnog društva, transparentnost, legitimitet, učinkovitost, ljudska i građanska prava, pravnu državu, bolju kvalitetu javnih službi, uvođenje moderne informacijske i komunikacijske tehnologije i bolje upravljanje ljudskim resursima.

Translation o Građani se smatraju partnerima koji značajno pridonose krajnjim rezultatima aktivnosti javne uprave. Translation o Građani se smatraju partnerima koji značajno pridonose krajnjim rezultatima aktivnosti javne uprave. Građane treba informirati i konzultirati, moraju sudjelovati u stvaranju javne politike i upravnim i drugim javnim procesima. o Sve u svemu, “dobro upravljanje je…kombinacija demokratskog i učinkovitog upravljanja”