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Addressing the Mental Health Needs of Our Students: Exploring School-Based Behavioral and Cognitive Behavioral Programming Richard Van Acker, Ed. D. University of Illinois at Chicago College of Education (M/C 147) 1040 W. Harrison Chicago, Illinois 60607 [email protected] edu
Children’s Mental Health Impacts All Classrooms One in 5 (20%) of children and youth in U. S. have a diagnosable mental health disorder. -Surgeon General’s Report on Children’s Mental Health, 2000 Median age of onset for mental health disorders is 11 years of age. –National Comorbidity Study, 2005
Research Supporting Need The Great Smoky Mountain Study of Youth Methodology for Epidemiology of Mental Disorders in Children and Adolescents Study • 27% of children 9, 11, and 13 years of age have a diagnosable mental health impairment. • 13% of children and adolescents have anxiety disorders, • An additional 16% of children have impaired mental health but do not meet criteria for a disorder. • 6. 2% have mood disorders, • This study also found that only 21% of children with mental health problems receive mental health services. • 2% have substance abuse disorders, • 13% of children have one or both parents with MH concerns. • 10. 3% have disruptive disorders, and • for a total of 20. 9% having 1 or more mental health disorders.
Types of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Disorders • Disorders of Social Interaction – Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) - incorporates four disorders from the previous manual – Social Communication Disorder (SCD) is characterized by a persistent difficulty with verbal and nonverbal communication that cannot be explained by low cognitive ability • Externalizing Disorders – – • Internalizing Disorders – Anxiety Disorders – Depression – Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) includes a new subtype for children younger than 6. • Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder Oppositional Defiant Disorder Conduct Disorder Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD). It is characterized by severe and recurrent temper outbursts that are grossly out of proportion to the situation in intensity or duration. The outbursts occur, on average, three or more times each week for a year or more. – Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder • Other Disorders – Specific Learning Disorder - no longer limits learning disorders to reading, mathematics and written expression. – Intellectual Disability Disorder – Eating Disorders – Substance Abuse – Self-Harming Behavior – Tic Disorders Early Onset Major Mental Illness – Schizophrenia – Bipolar Disorder
Time of Initial Occurrence for Common Behavior Problems Learning Disorders Emotional and Behavioral Disorders Conduct Disorder Oppositional Defiant Disorder Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder Compliance Problems Bi-Polar Language Disorders Depression Autism Rett Syndrome Asperger’s Syndrome Reactive Attachment Disorder Birth 6 years Schizophrenia Drug abuse Bulimia Anorexia nervosa 12 years 18 years Wicks-Nelson & Israel, 2003
Contrasting Perspectives in School. Based Mental Health Education System Mental Health System Basis for Identification Individuals with Disabilities Diagnostic and Statistical Education Act (IDEA) Manual (DSM V) Conceptual Framework Emotional Disturbance, Behavioral Disorders. Challenging Behavior, Academic deficits Theoretical Influences Applied Behavior Analysis, Psychoanalytic Approaches, Behavior Theory, Cognitive Social Learning Theory Psychopathology. Abnormal Behavior, Impaired Functioning Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Biological/Genetic Perspectives, Psychopharmacology Focus of Intervention Behavior Management, Skill Development, Academic Improvement Insight, Awareness, Improved Functioning, Reduce Relapses Both systems want to improve social and adaptive functioning.
Seriousness of the Problem Prevalence of Emotional Behavioral Disturbance (EBD) Population Proportions (9 to 17 year-olds) 20% Youth with any diagnosable disorder (1 in 5 students in your classroom likely display a diagnosable mental health disorder). 9 -13% Youth with EBD, with substantial functional impairment. 5 -9% Youth with EBD & extreme functional impairment. 0. 8 -1% Youth identified as EBD in the public schools of this nation >1% 5 -9% 9 -13% 20%
Diagnostic Dilemma • Regardless of the presenting symptoms, children and adolescents are most often initially referred for an evaluation for ADHD. Curricular Demands Student Characteristics Teacher Behavior
ADHD Criteria • Symptoms must be present for 6 months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with the developmental level of the child. • Clear evidence of clinically significant impairment aligned with several symptoms present in two or more settings. • Onset of impairment must be before age 12 (was 7), even if it was not diagnosed until later.
ADHD – Inattentive Symptoms (Must display 6 of 9) • • • Frequent careless mistakes. Difficulty sustaining attention in task or play. Often fails to listen when spoken to directly. Fails to follow through on tasks or follow directions. Difficulty organizing tasks and activities. Avoids tasks that require sustained attention. Often loses things. Is easily distracted by extraneous stimuli. Forgetful in daily activities.
ADHD – Hyperactive Impulsive (Must display 6 of 9) • • • Often fidgets with hands or feet – squirms in seat Often leaves seat when required to sit Runs about or climbs excessively. Often has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly Is often ‘on the go’ or acts ‘as if driven by a motor’ Often talks excessively Blurts out answers before questions are completed Difficulty waiting his or her turn Often interrupts or intrudes on others
ADHD Diagnosis • ADHD- Primarily Inattentive Type – if 6 months of 6 or more inattentive symptoms. • ADHD – Primarily Hyperactive-Impulsive Type – if 6 months of 6 or more hyperactive-impulsive symptoms. • ADHD – Combined Type – if 6 months of displaying 6 or more inattentive symptoms AND 6 months of displaying 6 or more hyperactiveimpulsive symptoms. MOST COMMON
ADHD Epidemiology • Occurs in 3 – 12 % of school aged children and adolescents. • Boys are 4 to 9 times more likely to display ADHD than girls. Girls more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD Inattentive Type. • Thirty to 50% of individuals with ADHD display a co-morbid disorder (e. g. , ODD, CD, ASD, LD, Mood Disorders, Anxiety Disorders)
Adversity in Early Childhood • “Toxic stress” early in life can lead to fundamental changes in several regions of the brain, including those that subserve learning and memory (e. g. , hippocampus) and those that subserve executive functions (e. g. , various regions of the prefrontal cortex). • Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) Study Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Bremner JD, Walker JD, Whitfield C, et al. (2006) The enduring effects of abuse and related adverse experiences in childhood. A convergence of evidence from neurobiology and epidemiology. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 256: 174 -186.
Medication and ADHD • Often educators express frustration in a parent’s reluctance to employ medication when their child suffers from ADHD. – Two general classes of medications for ADHD • Methylphenidate –Ritalin, Vyvanse, Concerta • Atomoxeline – Straterra, Clonidine, Intuniv – Only about 1/3 of children respond effectively to medication (some of these children may not actually suffer from ADHD) – Parents concerned about side effects (sleep problems, weight gain, eating disorders, etc. ) • Goal of medication = improved ability to attend
ADHD and CBT • CBT programs have been developed specifically for individuals with ADHD. Some of these programs aim to help the person overcome their difficulties in everyday executive functions that are needed to effectively manage time, organize and plan in the short term and the long term. • Other programs focus on emotional self-regulation, impulse control and stress management. • The main techniques of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) involve – – challenging negative thoughts, examining the evidence for negative expectations, generating positive expectations, and reframing negative traits and expectations as positive
Co-Morbidity and ADHD • One of the most frequent co-morbid disorder found in children and adolescents with ADHD was Oppositional Defiant Disorder (34%). • Another 28% of children with ADHD displayed co-morbid anxiety disorders. • A large national study found: – 51% of adults with ADHD suffered from comorbid anxiety disorders, and – 32% suffered from co-morbid depression. -
Oppositional Defiant Disorder • A pattern of negativistic, hostile and defiant behavior lasting greater than 6 months of which you have 4 or more of the following: – – – – Extreme loss of temper Argues with adults Actively defies or refuses to comply with rules Often deliberately annoys people Blames others for his or her mistakes Often touchy or easily annoyed with others Often angry or resentful Often spiteful or vindictive
ODD and the Brain • The development of oppositional defiant disorder is associated with changes in the neurotransmitters of the brain. • Neurotransmitters are chemical transmitters of impulses between nerve cells. • Raising or lowering the level of neurotransmitters (i. e. , deviation from the norm) leads to a sudden change in mood and changes in the thinking process because of impaired transmission of nerve impulses. • That’s why people with ODD have: – a sense of irritation, – they have no fear of punishment, – they often cannot adequately perceive the reality and communicate normally,
External Factors Impacting the Development of ODD • The major familial external factors that contribute to the development of ODD disorder: – – domestic violence, abuse (physical or sexual abuse), indifference of parents, disastrous financial situation (poverty), or poor quality of life, – drug and alcohol use by parents. • The major school-based external factors include: – excessive punishment or punishment for behavior outside the control of the student, – abuse by adults and peers, and/or – Indifference on the part of teachers
Transition of ODD to Conduct Disorder • Oppositional Defiant Disorder in childhood years can develop into serious Conduct Disorder by adolescence. • Young students with ODD have a 2 to 3 fold likelihood of becoming juvenile offenders. • Conduct Disorder – Adolescent Onset – behaviorally typical until middle school – more favorable prognosis and more likely to respond to treatment.
Conduct Disorder • Repetitive behaviors that violate the rights of others and/or societal laws, with 3 or more of the following in the past 12 months, with one in the last 6 months: – – Aggression or cruelty to people or animals Destruction of property Theft Running away • Affects 12% of boys and 7% of girls
Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder Treatment • Clear, brief, rules and expectations • Consistent and predictable consequences – Frequent recognition and praise for the display of desired behavior • Family therapy • Behavior management training – Collaborative Problem Solving (Ross Greene) • Social skills intervention • Social problem solving skill instruction
Anxiety Disorders • Incredibly strong feelings that situations are dangerous or threatening – These feelings have been demonstrated over an extended period of time – These feelings are triggered by ordinary things that don’t pose significant risk
Types of Anxiety Disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorder • Children with a generalized anxiety disorder, or GAD, worry excessively about a variety of things such as grades, family issues, relationships with peers, and performance in sports. • Children with GAD tend to be very hard on themselves and strive for perfection. They may also seek constant approval or reassurance from others. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) • OCD is characterized by unwanted and intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and feeling compelled to repeatedly perform rituals and routines (compulsions) to try and ease anxiety. • Most children with OCD are diagnosed around age 10, although the disorder can strike children as young as two or three. Boys are more likely to develop OCD before puberty, while girls tend to develop it during adolescence. Panic Disorder • Panic disorder is diagnosed if a student suffers at least two unexpected panic or anxiety attacks—which means they come on suddenly and for no reason—followed by at least one month of concern over having another attack, losing control, or "going crazy. " Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) • Children with posttraumatic stress disorder, or PTSD, may have intense fear and anxiety, become emotionally numb or easily irritable, or avoid places, people, or activities after experiencing or witnessing a traumatic or life-threatening event.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder • Excessive anxiety or worry that is difficult to control, lasts at least 6 months and creates impairment in functioning. Accompanied by at least one of the following: – – – Restlessness Fatigue Difficulty concentrating Irritability Muscle tension Sleep disturbances • Mean age of onset between 10– 13 years of age.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder • Excessive anxiety or worry that is difficult to control, lasts at least 6 months and creates impairment in functioning. Accompanied by at least one of the following: – – – Restlessness Fatigue Difficulty concentrating Irritability Muscle tension Sleep disturbances Worry themes: - Academics - Natural Disasters - Social Life - Physical Assault • Mean age of onset between 10– 13 years of age.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Core Treatment Elements • Information • Applied Relaxation • Cognitive Restructuring (probability estimates, coping estimates) • Cue-Controlled Worry (worry times + problem solving) • Worry Exposure (including existential topics) • Mindfulness • Medication – selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotoninnorepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines, and tricyclic antidepressants [Fluxetine, Bur. Spar, Xanax, Ativan]
OCD – Medication and CBT • In a study of the glucose metabolism associated with the hyperactive neuronal activity associated with OCD found that treatment with medication (Prozac Family of Medications) and involvement in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy demonstrated essentially identical outcomes on PET scans. (Aboujaoude, 2009)
Depression Criteria • Depressed mood, feels sad or empty, (irritability in children) by self report or observation. • Diminished interest or pleasure in most activities. • Weight gain or loss – in children failure to make expected weight gain. • Insomnia or hyper-somnia nearly every day. • Psychomotor agitation or retardation nearly every day, observable by others. • Fatigue or loss of energy. • Feelings of worthlessness or guilt (which may be delusional). • Inability to concentrate; inattentiveness. • Recurrent thoughts of death (not just fear of dying), recurrent suicidal ideation without a specific plan, or a suicide attempt or a specific plan.
Depression • At least 5 of 9 symptoms for a 2 week period, representing a change in previous functioning. • At least one of the symptoms must be depressed mood (irritable in children) or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. • The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment. • Impacts 3 -8% of children and adolescents.
Depression Symptoms • Symptoms that Increase with Age: – Sleep/Appetite changes – Fatigue – Boredom (Anhedonia) – Psychomotor retardation – Hopelessness – Delusions • Symptoms that Decrease with Age: – – Somatic complaints Behavioral problems Guilt, irritability Hallucinations
Common Symptoms of Depression (Consistent across age Groups) • Depressed Mood • Impaired concentration • Suicidal ideation
Suicide • Fourth (4 th) leading cause of death in children aged 10 -15 years. • Third (3 rd) leading cause of death in adolescents and young adults (aged 15 -25 years). – Rates of suicide attempts are 3 times higher in females. – Rates of completed suicides are 5 times higher in males.
Etiology of Depression • Psychosocial models • Life stressors • Organic etiologies – infections, medications, endocrine disorders, neurological disorders. • Lifetime risk of depression in children of depressed parent(s) is 15 -45%. – Pre-pubertal depression onset – 30% become bi-polar – Adolescent onset depression – 20% become bipolar
Treatment for Depression • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy – identifying negative automatic thoughts, – recognizing distorted thinking, and – cognitive restructuring • Family therapy • Medication – Reserved for moderate to severe depression • Fluoxetine is FDA approved anti-depressant for child and adolescent depression (down to age 8) • Escitalopram is approved for treatment of depression in 12 -17 year olds.
Challenge of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Disorders • Symptoms of the disorder often worsen the disorder. • Impact development and overall skill acquisition. • Affect and symptoms are affected by family relationships and family behavior. • Early recognition and early effective treatment significantly reduce mortality and morbidity. • Sources of resilience and risk strongly influence the occurrence and course of child and adolescent mental health problems.
Treatment • Typically multimodal treatment involving: – Effective Academic and Social Emotional Instruction – curriculum and instruction must be designed to motivate and promote success. – Behavioral Interventions – clear expectations and predictable contingencies designed to reduce problem behaviors and to facilitate student success. – Cognitive Behavioral Interventions – (e. g. , selfregulation, attributional retraining, cognitive restructuring) – Medication – (e. g. , anti-depressants, mood elevators, anti-anxiety medications, stimulant medications).
Children and Youth Receiving Needed Mental Health Service • More than 70% of children and adolescents with mental health disorders fail to receive mental health services. • Minorities have less access to mental health services and are less likely to receive needed care. Minorities in treatment often receive a poorer quality of mental health care. Sources: RAND Health Research Highlights. Calculations are based on data from the National Health Interview Study, 1998. US DHHS. Executive Summary. Mental Health: Culture, Race, and Ethnicity. A supplement to Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
Why the School? • Achievement-focused school reform = increasing accountability for student performance, the prominence of psychosocial barriers to learning, and the gap between need and service delivery gained increased attention from the education system (Adelman & Taylor, 1998). • Catron and Weiss (1994) found that when mental health services were implemented in schools, 98% of referred students entered service, while only 17% of similar students who were referred to traditional clinic-based programs entered treatment.
Building a Partnership with Community Service Providers • The goal of building partnerships with community mental health providers is held by many school districts, but often difficult to achieve due to limited resources. • One effective model employed by some school districts involves seeking policy changes from local community funding organizations (e. g. , United Way) – The United Way added a requirement that agencies seeking funding for children and youth services needed to report how they were working with their local public schools.
Student Diversity Sheet Student Reading Decoding Reading Comp. Writing Math Comp. Other Jason C. 4. 3 3. 7 3. 2 8. 4 SLD Ay’vion A. 6. 9 7. 3 4. 5 8. 3 ADHD/ODD Maria H. 5. 3 5. 0 5. 1 3. 2 ED/Anxiety Damon W. 8. 1 8. 3 5. 5 7. 7 Autism Aaron P. 2. 4 2. 0 1. 7 5. 5 ED/SLD Teachers need a clear understanding of the academic and social strengths and needs of the students in their care. Special Education Teachers – ALL students on their caseload General Education Teachers (Elementary) – ALL students in the class General Education Teachers (Middle and High) – Four most ‘at-risk’ students in each class.
Clear Expectations • A very high percentage of challenging behaviors arise out of verbal reprimand re-direction of students. • Clear expectations will reduce the need for re-direction/reprimand. 0 Raise Hand 1 2 3 4 5 Shoulder Buddy Talk Speak Politely Do Not Interrupt
We Learn Behavior Just Like We Learn Academics: It is a process not an event 4 + 4 = ____ Do we use: Warnings Threats / Embarrassment Escalating Consequences Removal of Instruction / Practice
Provide Frequent Positive Feedback on Desired Behavior BEHAVIOR I am following directions. I am in my seat. I am doing my work. I completed my work. Unfortunately, most educators provide far less positive feedback and acknowledgement for the display of desired behavior than given to reprimanding undesired behavior. Efforts to direct frequent attention to the display of desired behavior should be a primary consideration in any intervention plan for students with challenging behavior.
Simple and Instructional Consequences • It is not the power of the consequence that matters but the predictability with which it is delivered. • Simple clear consequences are more effective. • Consequences should instruct in the desired response Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) http: //www. colorado. edu/cspv/blueprints/model/programs/PATHS
Cognitive Behavioral Interventions Emotion Trigger Thoughts Behavior It is not simply what happens to you that causes your reactions. Rather, it is the meaning that is attached to an experience that leads a person to feel and behave in certain ways.
Self-Regulation/Self-Control • Self-monitoring – the ability to collect data or otherwise identify one’s own thoughts and behavior. • Self-evaluation – to be able to judge one’s performance accurately against some standard of performance. • Self-reinforcement – the ability to deliver self-praise or a reward contingently on the display of a specified desired behavior.
Stress Management • Techniques to control symptoms of emotional distress. – Relaxation Activities – Yoga – Mindfulness Programming – Exercise/Movement – Meditation – Music – Scented Candle
Problem- Solving Training • Problem Identification – component skills involve problem sensitivity or the ability to “sense” the presence of a problem by identifying “uncomfortable” feelings. • Alternative Thinking – the ability to generate multiple alternative solutions to a given interpersonal problem situation. • Consequential Thinking – the ability to foresee the immediate and more long-range consequences of a particular alternative and to use this information in the decision-making process. • Means-Ends Thinking – the ability to elaborate or plan a series of specific actions ( a means) to attain a given goal (ends), to recognize and devise ways around potential obstacles, and to use a realistic time framework in implementing steps towards the goal.
Attribution Retraining • Needed when student displays dysfunctional maladaptive or irrational explanations for why he or she is performing well or poorly. • These explanations have implications for behavioral persistence, expectancies for future performance, and emotional reactions to success and failure. • Two phases to the process: – Student is set up to experience some degree of failure (care must be taken here). – Student is taught to make statements that attribute the contrived failure to insufficient effort (student must have the skill required to be successful)
Cognitive Restructuring Altering irrational, dysfunctional or maladaptive patterns of thought. • Process: – Identify and understand the triggering events causing the student difficulty. – Identify and understand the student’s thoughts in response, and – Help the student alter the irrational, dysfunctional or maladaptive thoughts.
Five Common Irrational /Dysfunctional Thoughts • Arbitrary Inference – the drawing of a conclusion when evidence is lacking or actually supports a contrary conclusion. • Magnification – exaggeration of the meaning of an event. • Cognitive deficiency – disregard for an important aspect of a life situation. • Dichotomous Reasoning – overly simplified and rigid perception of events as good or bad, right or wrong. • Overgeneralization – taking a single incident such as a failure as a sign of total incompetence and in this way generalizing a fallacious rule.
Commonly used materials and resources Cognitive techniques: Background • Goal: Target maladaptive thoughts 1. Negative view of themselves (e. g. , inadequate) 2. Negative view of the world (e. g. , unfair) 3. Negative view of the future (e. g. , I will always fail) • Examples of maladaptive thoughts – When things do not go the way I would like, life is awful, terrible, horrible, or catastrophic – Unhappiness is caused by uncontrollable external events – I must have sincere love and approval from all significant people in my life
Self-Instruction Training (Meichenbaum & Goodman 1971) • Cognitive Modeling – the teacher performs a task • • while talking aloud; the student observes. Overt External Guidance – The student and teacher both perform the task while talking aloud together. Overt Self-Guidance – The student performs the task using the same verbalizations as the teacher (talk together). Faded Self-Guidance – The student whispers the instructions (often in an abbreviated form) while going through the task. Covert Self-Guidance – The student performs the task, guided by self-speech.
• Programs to Address Anger and Aggression – The Anger Coping Program http: //www. emstac. org/registered/topics/posbehavior/early/anger. htm The Anger Coping Program is a school-based intervention that focuses on developing anger management skills through group intervention. Groups of four to six students and two co-leaders from the school, one of which should be a pupil services professional, meet weekly to improve perspective taking, problem solving skills, recognition of emotions associated with anger arousal, and strategies for managing conflicts.
– Helping Schoolchildren Cope with Anger: A Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention J. Larson and J. Lochman (2002). New York: Guilford Press http: //www. researchpress. com/product/item/8488/ This book presents an empirically supported group intervention for 8 - to 12 -year-olds with anger and aggression problems. The Anger Coping Program has been demonstrated effective in reducing teacher- and parent-directed aggression and enhancing students’ classroom behavior, social competence, and academic achievement. In one volume, the authors provide a session-by-session cognitive-behavioral treatment manual, a clear rationale for the program, and instructions for implementation.
– Coping Cat Program for Anxious Youth (ages 8 -13) Philip C. Kendall, Ph. D. , ABPP, Temple University, & Kristina A. Hedtke, M. A. , Temple University Child and Adolescent Anxiety Disorders Clinic – http: //www. promisingpractices. net/program. asp? programid=153#progra minfo – The Coping Cat program is a cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention that helps children recognize and analyze anxious feelings and develop strategies to cope with anxiety-provoking situations. The program focuses on four related components: 1) recognizing anxious feelings and physical reactions to anxiety; 2) clarifying feelings in anxiety-provoking situations; 3) developing a coping plan (e. g. , modifying anxious self-talk into coping self-talk, or determining what coping actions might be effective); and 4) evaluating performance and administering selfreinforcement. By incorporating adaptive skills to prevent or reduce feelings of anxiety, therapist uses a workbook to guide the child through consideration of previous behavior in situations in which the child felt anxious, as well as the development of expectations for future behavior in anxious situations. The workbook is used for children aged 8 to 13 years and the CAT Project workbook is used for children aged 14 to 17 years. The CAT Project differs from Coping Cat only in the use of developmentally appropriate pictures and examples for older ages.
• Programs for Depression and Anxiety – Think Good - Feel Good: Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Workbook for Children and Young People Stallard, P. (2002). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons Think Good – Feel Good is an exciting and pioneering new practical resource in print and on the Internet for undertaking cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with children and young people. The materials have been developed by the author and field-tested in clinical work with children and young people presenting with a range of psychological problems. Paul Stallard introduces his resource by covering the basic theory and rationale behind CBT and how the workbook should be used. An attractive and lively workbook follows which covers the core elements used in CBT programs but conveys these ideas to children and young people in an understandable way and uses real life examples familiar to them. The concepts introduced to the children can be applied to their own unique set of problems through the series of practical exercises and worksheets.
– Taking Action Program for Depressed Youth Kevin Stark, Ph. D. , University of Texas at Austin, Philip C. Kendall, Ph. D. , ABPP, Temple University, with Mary Mc. Carthy, Mary Stafford, Rachel Barron, and Marcus Thomeer, University of Texas at Austin. https: //www. msu. edu/course/cep/888/Depression/taking. htm Taking Action is a manual-based treatment program for children ages 9 to 13 who have unipolar depressive disorder, dysthymia, or depressed mood. Although the treatment model and procedures are appropriate for all ages of youth, the presentation method used in this program is developmentally appropriate for 9 to 13 -year-olds and would have to be altered to address the developmental needs of younger or older children.
Strategies: What Works for Primary Care …is a set of principles, strategies and tools that are theory - based, evidence - driven, and systems - oriented, that can be used to improve the health and well-being of all children Hagan JF, Shaw JS, Duncan PM, eds. 2008. Bright Futures: Guidelines for Health Supervision of Infants, Children, and Adolescents, Third Edition. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics
Strategies: What Works for Primary Care Strategies for System Change in Children’s Mental Health: A Chapter Action Kit Strategies to: • Partner with Families • Assess the Service Environment • Collaborate with MH Professionals • Educate Chapter Members • Partner with Child-Serving Agencies • Improve Children’s MH Financing Available at www. aap. org/mentalhealth