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Addressing Diversity in Rural Education Lynne Vernon-Feagans, UNC-CH Jill V. Hamm, UNC-CH Thomas W. Addressing Diversity in Rural Education Lynne Vernon-Feagans, UNC-CH Jill V. Hamm, UNC-CH Thomas W. Farmer, Penn State Univ.

The Targeted Reading Intervention: How Rural Diversity makes a difference for implementation Targeting instructional The Targeted Reading Intervention: How Rural Diversity makes a difference for implementation Targeting instructional match in every interaction… Lynne Vernon-Feagans Marnie Ginsberg Steve Amendum

NRCRES: TRI staff Lynne Vernon-Feagans, PI Steve Amendum Peg Burchinal Kate Gallagher Marnie Ginsberg NRCRES: TRI staff Lynne Vernon-Feagans, PI Steve Amendum Peg Burchinal Kate Gallagher Marnie Ginsberg Kirsten Kainz Steve Knotek Nathan Vandergrift Pam Winton Pledger Fedora Iris Padgett Megan Livengood Kelley Mayer Jason Rose Andrea Sauer Heather Ward Tim Wood

What is ‘Rural’ l US Census Bureau: Census Tracts http: //www. census. gov/geo/www/ua/ua_2 k. What is ‘Rural’ l US Census Bureau: Census Tracts http: //www. census. gov/geo/www/ua/ua_2 k. html l Population density Population size NCES: Locale Codes http: //nces. ed. gov/surveys/Rural. Ed/definitions. asp l l Population size Distance to an urbanized area

What makes Rural different from urban? l Promotive Factors l l l More two What makes Rural different from urban? l Promotive Factors l l l More two parent families Less population density Much less violent crime More homes owned by families Proportionately more children attending Head Start l l l Fewer behavior problems in school Smaller schools More experienced teachers

What makes Rural different from urban? l Risk Factors l Higher percentage of children What makes Rural different from urban? l Risk Factors l Higher percentage of children living in poverty, especially minority children l Outmigration of talented young people because of job losses l Fewer college graduates l More maternal depression and prescription drug abuse l Lower child achievement levels l Less educated teachers with lower salaries l Longer bus rides to school

The consensus intangibles in rural education l l l In a place at a The consensus intangibles in rural education l l l In a place at a distance from large cities Historical roots to agrarian culture Access to fewer resources Smaller communities and schools Ready to meet community needs Grounded in a “sense of place” and rooted in the lives of families

The TRI Study Cluster Randomized Clinical Trial to assess the effectiveness of the TRI The TRI Study Cluster Randomized Clinical Trial to assess the effectiveness of the TRI in Low Wealth Rural Schools. l Part of the National Research Center on Rural Education Support www. nrcres. org/TRI. htm l www. nrcres. org/TRI. htm Funded by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) l

Purpose The TRI is designed to improve the literacy teaching strategies of rural kindergarten Purpose The TRI is designed to improve the literacy teaching strategies of rural kindergarten and first grade teachers, using an individualized diagnostic teaching model, with a specific focus on strategies that are effective with struggling readers who do not make reading gains using traditional reading instruction.

Why focus on teacher training? l Research has shown that the first few years Why focus on teacher training? l Research has shown that the first few years of school are critical for children’s later school success, especially in the area of reading (Alexander& Entwisle, 1992; Juel, 1988). l Teachers in rural areas have more experience in teaching and knowledge about the background of their students but teachers have less access to professional development opportunities (GAO report, 2004; Lee & Burkham, 2003) l Teachers and parents are more satisfied with their schools in rural areas but children come to school with less formal and high quality preschool experiences

The TRI Strategies for Success The TRI Strategies for Success

The TRI Model of Reading The TRI Model of Reading

Examples of TRI Strategies: Teaching in the context of the word and text from Examples of TRI Strategies: Teaching in the context of the word and text from the beginning

Word Work Word Work

Guided Oral Reading Guided Oral Reading

TRI Materials TRI Picture Dictionary TRI Reference Tool TRI Professional Development Guide Posters • TRI Materials TRI Picture Dictionary TRI Reference Tool TRI Professional Development Guide Posters • Reading Model • Stages of Word Work TRI diagnostic map

TRI Summary l l l l Based on research based evidence Based on research TRI Summary l l l l Based on research based evidence Based on research in special education that emphasizes individualized diagnostic teaching Specifically geared to children considered struggling readers because they do not make progress with traditional reading approaches. Can be used with any reading curriculum and Reading First Teaching conducted by the classroom teacher in one on one teaching sessions between the teacher and child at least 4 times a week until the child makes rapid progress Teaching literacy that is always geared to the context of the word and text. Material developed to be extremely affordable by any school Delivered through a Collaborative Consultation Model, specifically geared to the needs of rural teachers

Implementation : Diversity Issues in Rural Education Implementation : Diversity Issues in Rural Education

Examples of challenges l l l Teachers are often in classrooms with no aides Examples of challenges l l l Teachers are often in classrooms with no aides and no special services Teachers know the families of the children and have both positive and negative preconceptions about child learning Teachers are often weary of new families who have moved to the area Teachers have not been observed in their classrooms and may not be comfortable with in class consultation and the use of new reading strategies Children come to school with particularly poor readiness skills with respect to learning Children come to school with better behavior than urban children

Vernon-Feagans, Ginsberg & Amendum, 2006 Vernon-Feagans, Ginsberg & Amendum, 2006

How to create a Community of Practice (Buysse & Wesley, in press) l l How to create a Community of Practice (Buysse & Wesley, in press) l l Teacher responsibility and leadership l identify struggling learners l choose who to start working with l do not change their current curriculum l chart progress of students Teacher collaboration (Lesson Study) (Stigler & Hiebert, 1999) l exchange ideas with others l understand the value of observation l suggest the ideas for monthly workshops

Collaborative Structure for Rural Teachers l 3 Day Summer Institute l Teachers identify 5 Collaborative Structure for Rural Teachers l 3 Day Summer Institute l Teachers identify 5 struggling readers l Biweekly classroom visits from TRI Consultant. l Grade level meetings to discuss strategies and problem solve. l Daily consultation from the on-site TRI consultant l Bimonthly workshops on topics teachers choose.

TRI Design Year 1 Year 2 Control 1 st Grade 21 high risk (4 TRI Design Year 1 Year 2 Control 1 st Grade 21 high risk (4 teachers) 20 high risk (4 teachers) 30 high risk (6 teachers) 22 low risk 19 low risk 30 low risk 24 high risk (5 teachers) Experimental Kindergarten 25 high risk (6 teachers) 30 low risk 30 low risk 1 st Grade

Child Characteristics EXP CON Race Black White Other 61% 32% 7% 33% 37% 31% Child Characteristics EXP CON Race Black White Other 61% 32% 7% 33% 37% 31% Gender Male Female 73% 27% 63% 37% Parents Married 46% 54% Maternal Education M = 11. 8 yrs M = 13. 3 yrs

Teacher Characteristics # of years teaching M = 18 yrs Teacher Age M = Teacher Characteristics # of years teaching M = 18 yrs Teacher Age M = 43 yrs Teacher Race White Black Other 65% 30% 5% National Board Certification 5% Certification type Temp Regular Specific grade certification Masters Degree 10% 40% 50% 20%

Gain Scores over 4 months Outcome F-Test Word Attack 1. 67 C 27. 15 Gain Scores over 4 months Outcome F-Test Word Attack 1. 67 C 27. 15 35. 86 C 34. 12 E F(1, 151) = 4. 09* . 52 E (CTOPPS) C E Phonological awareness F(1, 69) =1. 29 Group LSMean 42. 22 C 1. 20 E 2. 32 (Woodcock Johnson) Letter/Word Identification F(1, 152) = 5. 25* (Woodcock Johnson) Vocabulary F(1, 120) = 0. 38 (PPVT)

Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement

Webcam technology l TRI consultation in remote rural classrooms in real time l TRI Webcam technology l TRI consultation in remote rural classrooms in real time l TRI grade level meetings across sites through web cam technology l Problem solving across sites to create a community of practice Future Directions

Summary l l l Rural Schools are different contexts for learning Need sensitivity to Summary l l l Rural Schools are different contexts for learning Need sensitivity to rural structure and beliefs in schools Need to break the barrier of access Need to break the barrier of isolation Individual consultation in real time using the TRI provides a major solution to these barriers while providing research based literacy strategies for struggling learners

Implementation and Evaluation of the Rural Early Adolescent Learning Project (REAL): Commonalities in Diverse Implementation and Evaluation of the Rural Early Adolescent Learning Project (REAL): Commonalities in Diverse Educational Settings Jill V. Hamm, Dylan Robertson, Kimberly Dadisman, Matthew Irvin, Allen Murray, Jana Thompson, Kelli O’Brien, & Jenny Westrick University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

General Aims of Project REAL • Professional development for rural teachers who serve middle General Aims of Project REAL • Professional development for rural teachers who serve middle level youth (5 th – 6 th grades) • Responsive to local resources, needs, and school configurations • Promote strategies that provide universal support for all students during early adolescence • Promote strategies that help teachers advance the learning of low-achieving students

Academics Behavioral Engagement Social Relations Academics Behavioral Engagement Social Relations

Support for Conceptual Framework in Rural Areas Pilot Sites Research Participants • Recruited from Support for Conceptual Framework in Rural Areas Pilot Sites Research Participants • Recruited from all 5 th grade classrooms of eight public elementary schools in two states of the rural Appalachia region – 61% agreed to participate • 315 participating students (170 girls and 145 boys) • Over 95% White • Schools were eligible for U. S. Department of Education’s Rural and Low-Income School Program (RLISP) – locale code 6, 7, or 8 and at least 20% of students are from families living below the federal poverty level

Support for Conceptual Framework in Rural Areas Measures: Adjustment in Multiple Domains • Teacher-ratings Support for Conceptual Framework in Rural Areas Measures: Adjustment in Multiple Domains • Teacher-ratings on 18 -item questionnaire (ICS-T; Cairns, Leung, Gest, & Cairns, 1995) – Sub-scales/factors: • Aggression (α =. 84), Popularity (α =. 83), Academic competence (α = . 80), Affiliative (α =. 74), Internalizing (α =. 52), Olympian (α =. 78) Measures: Achievement • End-of-Year Grade Average – School records data for end of 5 th grade for: • math, English/reading, social studies/history and science – Mean across four subjects (in the form of a percentage) was obtained and used in analyses • State-level Standardized Achievement Test Scores – School records data for end of 5 th grade for similar subjects: • math, science, social studies and English – Mean across these four subjects was obtained and used in analyses • scaled scores were on different metrics by state; average standardized achievement score were standardized within state.

Support for Conceptual Framework in Rural Areas Data Reduction Techniques 4 unique patterns of Support for Conceptual Framework in Rural Areas Data Reduction Techniques 4 unique patterns of variables emerged in girls (i. e. , clusters, behavioral configurations) – Troubled: above average aggression and internalizing; below average academic competence, affiliative, popularity, and Olympian – Tough: well above average aggression; average popularity, academic competence, affiliative, and Olympian; below average internalizing – Sensitive: above average internalizing; below average affiliative; average aggression, academic competence, popularity, and Olympian – Model: above average academic competence, affiliative, and popularity; below average aggression and internalizing.

Support for Conceptual Framework in Rural Areas Data Reduction Techniques 5 unique patterns of Support for Conceptual Framework in Rural Areas Data Reduction Techniques 5 unique patterns of variables emerged in boys (i. e. , clusters, behavioral configurations) – – – Troubled: above average aggression and internalizing; below average academic competence, affiliative, popularity, and Olympian Low academic: below average academic competence and Olympian; above average affiliative; average aggression, popularity, and internalizing Tough: well above average aggression; above average affiliative, popularity, and Olympian; below average internalizing; average academic competence High academic: above average academic competence; below average aggression; average affiliative, popularity, Olympian, and internalizing Model: above average academic competence, affiliative, popularity, and Olympian; below average aggression and internalizing

Support for Conceptual Framework in Rural Areas Results from Pilot Sites Support for Conceptual Framework in Rural Areas Results from Pilot Sites

Support for Conceptual Framework in Rural Areas Results from Pilot Sites Support for Conceptual Framework in Rural Areas Results from Pilot Sites

Moving from Pilot Sites to Efficacy Sites: Research Design for Project REAL 8 intervention Moving from Pilot Sites to Efficacy Sites: Research Design for Project REAL 8 intervention and 8 control schools – 8 with middle school transition configuration – 8 alternative configuration (e. g. , k-8, k-12) • Baseline data collected in spring of 5 th grade; Process/transition data collected in fall and spring of 6 th grade • Outcome data on school adjustment and academic achievement collected in spring of 6 th grade

Implications of Rural Diversity for Interventions • Special needs by region, locale • Challenges Implications of Rural Diversity for Interventions • Special needs by region, locale • Challenges to delivery, implementation • Pinpointing transition

Academic Engagement Enhancement Positive Behavior Enhancement Social Dynamics Training Positive Behavior Enhancement – Academic Academic Engagement Enhancement Positive Behavior Enhancement Social Dynamics Training Positive Behavior Enhancement – Academic Engagement Enhancement – -General strategies that promote an instructional context that is responsive to the need of a broad and diverse range of students Social Dynamics Training – - Promoting teachers’ awareness of the impact of peers on motivation & achievement. - Recognizing peer groups and social roles - Identifying youth with social difficulties that interfere with their own or others’ learning - Strategies to use peer group dynamics to foster classroom engagement - Strategies to help students with social difficulties develop positive, supportive relationships - Strategies to create structure and consistency across classes - Encouraging self-directed behavior - Proactive approaches to prevent behavioral difficulties

REAL Intervention: Universal Components • Summer Institute – 15 modules completed between fall and REAL Intervention: Universal Components • Summer Institute – 15 modules completed between fall and spring by teachers – On-line articles and activities – Topics include: • • • Early adolescent development Motivation and academic engagement Instruction for low-achieving students School and classroom social dynamics Information processing Literacy support REAL Intervention: Targeted Components – Bimonthly videoconferences with Project REAL staff • Directed Consultation Model: Focused on issues salient to the site, addressed through REAL intervention framework • Supporting struggling writers

Pilot Sites Findings of Intervention Effects • Participants included 448 students (239 girls) who Pilot Sites Findings of Intervention Effects • Participants included 448 students (239 girls) who transitioned from 5 th to 6 th grade – Transitioned from 11 public elementary schools – Transitioned into 4 6 -8 middle schools (2 intervention, 2 control) – Over 95% White • Schools were eligible for U. S. Department of Education’s Rural and Low-Income School Program (RLISP) – locale code 6, 7, or 8 and at least 20% of students are from families living below the federal poverty level • Data collected: 5 th grade spring, 6 th grade early fall, 6 th grade late spring

Social Impact of Intervention Results: Pilot Sites Social Impact of Intervention Results: Pilot Sites

Social Impact of Intervention Results: Pilot Sites Social Impact of Intervention Results: Pilot Sites

Summary of Pilot Site Findings • In control classrooms, students’ perceptions of the classroom Summary of Pilot Site Findings • In control classrooms, students’ perceptions of the classroom social context evidence a significant decline across the transition year. • In intervention classrooms, students’ perceptions of the classroom social context remain stable and positive across the transition year. • If teachers use strategies to enhance social, behavioral, and academic adjustment, they can maintain a positive social context for learning. • Future analyses will examine the implications of these patterns for students' achievement in intervention versus control sites. • Future analyses will investigate these patterns across a larger and diverse sampling of sites, and in relation to differences in student risk pre-transition and school characteristics, and using HLM.

Implications for Analyses of Diverse Locales • Representing School Differences in Meaningful Ways – Implications for Analyses of Diverse Locales • Representing School Differences in Meaningful Ways – Configuration differences – Concentrations of students at-risk • Cross-state Comparisons – State differences in achievement tests

Conducting Educational Interventions in Diverse Rural Contexts: Issues, Challenges, and Lessons Learned Thomas W. Conducting Educational Interventions in Diverse Rural Contexts: Issues, Challenges, and Lessons Learned Thomas W. Farmer Pennsylvania State University

Common Issues In Diverse Rural Areas • Educational needs of at-risk youth • Issues Common Issues In Diverse Rural Areas • Educational needs of at-risk youth • Issues of critical mass and geographical isolation • Limited resources and professional development • Commitment to local issues and concept of “place”

Diversity in Issues Faced by Rural Areas • Different types of at-risk youth • Diversity in Issues Faced by Rural Areas • Different types of at-risk youth • Different school structures and approaches for addressing isolation and issues of critical mass • Different levels and configurations of providing supports and professional development • Local values, expectations, and support for education differ from community to community

Challenges for Developing and Evaluating Standardized Interventions • Must include universal and targeted interventions Challenges for Developing and Evaluating Standardized Interventions • Must include universal and targeted interventions that can be adapted to both the general and unique populations of each district while maintaining standardization • Must accommodate different configurations of grouping students and supporting teachers while guarding against biases that may be introduced by these differences • Intervention must complement existing curricula • Must be responsive to the fact that each community views themselves as unique and not fitting a standard curriculum or model of support

Lessons Learned: Rural Intervention Research • There is more than one “rural” – Intervention Lessons Learned: Rural Intervention Research • There is more than one “rural” – Intervention design must be responsive to different contexts – Research design can be challenging and identifying comparable sites for randomization is very difficult • Increased research costs – Variability in district and school configurations, critical mass – Isolation increases both staffing and travel costs • “Place” matters – Pride, loyalty, and identity linked to the land or the community – Expectation that curriculum and instruction is linked to place – School is viewed as a primary anchor of the community

General Lessons Learned: Developing Interventions that can be “Scaled-Up” • Anticipate highly varied contexts General Lessons Learned: Developing Interventions that can be “Scaled-Up” • Anticipate highly varied contexts in the intervention development phase • Assess the degree to which the intervention is “instruction dependent” and “context dependent” – Instruction (e. g. , reading, writing) – Context (e. g. , social, behavioral) • Create a delivery format that promotes flexibility and “local tailoring” in preparing teachers for implementation – Directed consultation (standard content and aims) – Embedded in the local curricula and instructional philosophies