- Количество слайдов: 17
ADB-UNICEF Workshop on Non-state Provision of Social Services From Theory to Practice: Implementing Education PPPs Jouko Sarvi (ADB) and Cliff Meyers (UNICEF)
Growth of Non-State Provision Non-government primary enrolment increased from 39 million to 62 million between 1991 and 2004 (58 percent), n While public enrolment grew from 484 million to 530 million (10 percent) during the same period (UNESCO 2007). n Both developed and developing countries exhibit hybrids (mixed) of public or private financing and/or management in the provision of education. n
Scale of private providers in education (selected countries) Percentage of students in private schools: pre-school, primary, and secondary…
But From a Rights perspective, how can we work with Private Sector? Article 4: “…undertake such measures to the maximum extent of available resources…” n Obligation to RESPECT n n Obligation to PROTECT n n requires States to refrain from interfering directly or indirectly with the enjoyment of the right to education. requires States to take measures that prevent third parties from interfering with the enjoyment of the right (such as girls being forbidden to study). Obligation to FULFILL n The Obligation to Fulfill requires States to adopt appropriate legislative, administrative, budgetary, judicial, promotional and other measures towards the full realization of the right, or itself directly provide assistance or services for the realization of that right.
Changing role of the State to Regulator of from Direct Provider of Basic Services & the related Infrastructure Services provided by the Private Sector to Purchaser of Services/Infrastructure provided by the Private Sector
Finance and Provision
Classification of Pro-Poor Education PPPs Education Service Delivery Initiatives n Professional and Support Services n Voucher and Voucher-like Initiatives n Infrastructure Initiatives n Philanthropic Initiatives n 7
Approaches to Partnership – Give and Take Partner to support the State Partner supported by the State Deliver teacher training for the State Receive teacher training from the State Develop curriculum, textbooks and reading materials for the State Receive free textbooks and reading materials from the State Assist the State in inspecting and monitoring schools Special policies to govern standards and registration of private schools targeting the poor/disadvantaged Private schools required to provide free seats to disadvantaged children Private schools receive State stipend per poor/disadvantaged children enrolled Contractors responsible for repairing schools and constructing toilets/water facilities Private schools eligible for free water/toilet facilities if 50% of students are from disadvantaged groups
Finance and Oversight n Contracts can improve service delivery when all stakeholders are accountable to each other: n n n Assign clear responsibilities Clear guidance on expected outputs, outcomes and minimum standards of performance Systems in place for monitoring and reporting Flexibility from bureaucratically designed operating procedures of traditional school based learning Allow more autonomy in management of staff, budget and educational planning n Means to enforce contractual provisions n State supervision and capacity building of non-state partners.
PPPs in ADB Education Sector Assistance ADB Education Policy (2002), p. 37, 40: “…. ADB will help mobilize resources for sustainable education delivery, in particular facilitating the role of the private sector, while protecting access by the poor to affordable basic education. . . ADB will support private sector education institutions and educationrelated industries and services … when this is clearly the more cost-effective alternative. " ADB Strategy 2020 (2008), p. 20: “…. Across all these [education] areas, ADB will explore opportunities for new approaches and instruments involving publicprivate partnerships. ” ADB Strategic Study - Education and Skills: Strategies for Accelerated Development in Asia and the Pacific (2008): ØFurther identified scope for innovative partnerships in technical and vocational education and training, and in higher education. Education by 2020: A Sector Operations Plan (2010): ØOperationalizes the above strategic directions 10
PPP in Education - Strategy n Guides PPPs in ADB’s operations in education: – – Explores ADB’s potential future role in PPPs – Focuses on operational requirements and provides guidance to support PPPs in the various subsectors of education – 11 Reviews trends and rationale for partnerships in education Provides specific recommendations in four areas: (i) capacity development; (ii) project operations; (iii) knowledge management; and (iv) finance
Current ADB Initiatives Ø Study of PPP dimensions in ADB education projects about 40% of all projects in 2000 -2009 included one or several of the following design aspects: – Contracting for the delivery of education services Private management of public schools Education support services/capacity development Vouchers/scholarships Ø Case studies – Lessons from country contexts Ø Preparation of a operational tool for design and assessment of PPPs in education Ø Latest lessons learned from international experience with PPPs in education – – – 12
UNICEF Engagement with NSPs UNICEF far more engaged with NGOs, Civil Society and Faith based Organizations than with Private Sector n UNICEF Global Education Policy (2005 -2015) clearly identifies expanding PPP engagement, especially with Early Childhood and adolescent education n UNICEF EAP Adolescent Education Strategy (2009) identifies importance of supporting private sector, in the areas of association/network strengthening, policy revision, and equivalency/alternative delivery systems. n 13
UNICEF Engagement with NSPs: Building Partnerships n Ensure PPP providers are Key Stakeholders in Sector Planning and Review processes invited as members of ESWG (esp. faith based and NGO) n n 14 Providing funds for NGO Umbrella organizations, represent PPP providers in Sector Planning process (eg. , KAPE in Cambodia) EFA Mid Decade Reporting (UN) – 47 Countries submitted Nat’l EFA MDA Reports on Theme: Reaching the Unreached – Identifying Disparities. PPP providers were members of Nat’l EFA Committee – and data was disaggregated by PPP providers.
UNICEF Engagement with NSPs: Building Partnerships n Corporate Social Responsibility: Strategic engagement on many levels on behalf of children and education. Corporate partnership and funding of projects n Guidelines for rights based business practice n Policy advice on responsible CSR and adopt-a-school regulations n Emergency response support to schools through PPP n 15
Conclusions - (1) 1. 2. 3. 4. Rationale for PPPs can differ – increase access, improve service, increase transparency, overcome public sector operating restrictions, service innovations Wide range of possible programs – can be contextualized Broad definition of private sector – NGO, for-profit, community Not privatization or nationalization – hybrid
Conclusions - (2) 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Government remains responsible for education – but plays different role Good design is key – policy, targets, roles and responsibilities (contracts), address risks Capacity of implementing body is critical – management, staff, financial mechanisms, etc More country level studies required on the impact of PPPs on poor, disadvantaged students PPPs not a panacea, but has potential for innovation for improving access and education outcomes