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Adaptive scaffolding and self-regulated learning from hypermedia: A developmental study 指導教授 : 陳明溥 研 究 生 : 王麗君 Azevedo, R. , Cromley, J. G. , Winters, F. I. , Moos, D. C. , Levin, D. M. , & Fried, D. (April, 2004). Adaptive scaffolding and self-regulated learning from hypermedia: A developmental study. Poster to be presented at the Annual Conference of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, CA. ( Retrived August 16, 2004, from Web site: http: //www. azevedo-lab. umd. edu/ctl/research. html )
1. Adaptive scaffolding and self-regulated learning with hypermedia a. Scaffolds are tools, strategies, and guides that can support students in regulating their learning of complex topics with hypermedia. b. Hypermedia environment : what to learn, how to learn it, how much to learn, how much time to spend on it, how to access other instructional materials, whether he or she understands the material, when to abandon and modify plans and strategies, and when to increase effort c. Self-regulated learning : students need to analyze the learning situation, set meaningful learning goals, determine which strategies to use, assess whether the strategies are effective in meeting the learning goal, evaluate their emerging understanding of the topic, and determine whether the learning strategy is effective for a given learning goal. They need to monitor their understanding and modify their plans, goals, strategies, and effort in relation to contextual conditions
2. The Role of Scaffolding in Facilitating Students’ Learning with Hypermedia a. helping students build competence through increased understanding b. engaging students in learning while supporting their socioemotional needs c. helping students build and exercise autonomy as learners.
3. The Effectiveness of Different Scaffolding Conditions on Students’ Learning with Hypermedia a. significant learning gains from pretest to posttest b. regulated their learning by using effective strategies c. planning their learning by creating sub-goals d. activating prior knowledge e. monitoring their emerging understanding f. planning their time and effort.
Research Hypotheses a. Do different scaffolding conditions lead to significant learning? b. Are there significant differences in middle school, high school, and college students’ posttest scores on each of the four learning measures? c. Is there an interaction between the three scaffolding conditions and the three developmental levels on each of the four learning measures?
Method a. Participants = 179 b. - Middle School (n=58) - High School (n=53) - Undergraduate (n=68) b. Measures : Pretest/Posttest (four parts of pretest : labeling 、matching、 flow 、 essay) c. Hypermedia environment : CD-ROM d. Coding and scoring -Mental models (Table 2) -Matching task and heart diagram -Inter-rater agreement
Research Variables a. Adaptive scaffolding (AS) -provided with an overall learning goal -human tutor (planning their learning, monitoring their emerging understanding, using different strategies to learn about the circulatory system, handling task difficulties and demands, and assessing their emerging understanding ) b. Fixed scaffolding (FS) -provided with an overall learning goal -a list of 10 domain-specific questions(Table 1) c. No scaffolding (NS) -provided with an overall learning goal
Table 1 Sub-goals used in the fixed scaffolding (FS) condition 1. Name the components of blood 2. Describe the function of each type of cell found in blood 3. Draw and describe the path one drop of blood takes as it travels through the heart 4. Describe the location and function of the major (mechanical) valves in the heart 5. List the support structures of the heart 6. The heart is a pump that requires electrical impulses to keep it beating. Name the hearts four major electrical structures 7. Describe the follow of electricity through the heart 8. The heart is only one part of the circulatory system. Name all the structures involved in circulating blood 9. Describe the movement of blood through the circulatory system, naming all the organs involved. You may use paper and pencil to assist if necessary 10. Identify at least three major functions of the circulatory system
Table 2 Necessary features for each type of mental model 1. No understanding 2. Basic global concepts ‧ Blood circulates 3. Global concepts with purpose ‧ Blood circulates ‧ Describes ‘‘purpose’’—oxygen/nutrient transport 4. Single loop—basic ‧ Blood circulates ‧ Heart as pump ‧ Vessels (arteries/veins) transport 5. Single loop with purpose ‧ Blood circulates ‧ Heart as pump ‧ Vessels (arteries/veins) transport ‧ Describe ‘‘purpose’’—oxygen/nutrient transport 6. Single loop—advanced ‧ Blood circulates ‧ Heart as pump ‧ Vessels (arteries/veins) transport ‧ Describe ‘‘purpose’’—oxygen/nutrient transport ‧ Mentions one of the following: electrical system, transport functions of blood, details of blood cells … 12. Double loop—advanced ‧ Blood circulates ‧ Heart as pump ‧ Vessels (arteries/veins) transport ‧ Describe ‘‘purpose’’—oxygen/nutrient transport ‧ Describes loop: heart–body–heart–lungs–heart ‧ Structural details described: names vessels, describes. ow through valves ‧ Mentions one of the following: electrical system, transport functions of blood, details of blood cell
ANCOVA(二因子共變數分析 ) a. pretest scores as the covariate b. homogeneity of regression slopes and significance of the covariate for all dependent variables(組內迴歸係數同質性考驗 , 各組斜 率一樣才能進行 ANCOVA) c. 共變數分析 (各組平均數是否有顯著 ) d. 調整後平均數
Table 3 Means (and Standard Errors) for Adjusted Posttest Scores Across Scaffolding Conditions and Developmental Levels Scaffolding conditions No scaffolding (n=61) Fixed scaffolding (n=59) Adaptive scaffolding (n=59) 7. 04(0. 32) 6. 23(0. 33) Matching 68. 04(2. 34) Labeling Flow Measures Essay (mental models) Developmental Levels Middle School (n=58) High School (n=53) Undergra duate (n=68) 8. 73(0. 32) 6. 02(0. 33) 7. 44(0. 35) 8. 53(0. 30) 60. 86(2. 38) 77. 13(2. 39) 60. 17(2. 33) 70. 96(2. 59) 74. 90(2. 18) 38. 64(2. 88) 20. 76(3. 22) 53. 96(2. 94) 27. 67(2. 96) 36. 72(4. 21) 48. 98(2. 61) 3. 67(0. 28) 2. 55(0. 28) 4. 76(0. 29) 3. 38(0. 30) *網底部分代表有顯著差異 *α=. 05 Mean adjusted 3. 05(0. 32) 4. 13(0. 26)
Results and discussion a. Adaptive scaffolding led to significant increases in students’ learning of the circulatory system and was more effective than providing students with no scaffolding b. The levels of variability in their performance on all four learning measures obscured any development differences in learning c. we failed to find an interaction between scaffolding conditions and developmental levels