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“Adapting to a Cognitive Approach to Training” Kuala Lumpur 15 Sept 2010 Capt Cor “Adapting to a Cognitive Approach to Training” Kuala Lumpur 15 Sept 2010 Capt Cor Blokzijl Mandala Airlines

An observational study 1. Introduction 2. Recruitment & observations 3. Causes for gap between An observational study 1. Introduction 2. Recruitment & observations 3. Causes for gap between schooling product and Airline 4. Negative influences on pilot behavioural pattern 5. Conclusion 6. Proposal Flight operations

Introduction: “Good Old times”: • 200 hrs piston • Big prop or turbo-prop 1000 Introduction: “Good Old times”: • 200 hrs piston • Big prop or turbo-prop 1000 -1500 hrs • Basic conventional jet for several years • Either Highly Automated Cockpit or “Big Bird” 2010: • 200 hrs piston • A-320 as introduction into airline Change from “barely” knowing how to fly small aircraft => managing a F. B. W aircraft Flight operations

Introduction: Min requirement for F/O‘s for the adapted A-320 type-rating according the manufacturer = Introduction: Min requirement for F/O‘s for the adapted A-320 type-rating according the manufacturer = 450 hrs Average amount of hours of the cadet candidates = 200 hrs Manufacturer provides prep-course, but focussed on the type-training only Therefore: Highly automated cockpit course + Extra LOFT sessions to prepare for daily ops becomes necessary Flight operations

Recruitment: Airline needs: 1/ 1. Culture of the airline 2. Continuation Ideally: 1. Candidates Recruitment: Airline needs: 1/ 1. Culture of the airline 2. Continuation Ideally: 1. Candidates have same values, same background 2. Training in airline environment 3. MCC & Type-rating according customers SOP‘s Difficult to obtain when recruited from all walks of life. Integration and standard difficult!! Flight operations

Observations Cadet candidates: 1. MCC was weak „The more I talk about it, the Observations Cadet candidates: 1. MCC was weak „The more I talk about it, the better is my crew-coordination“ 2. Conflict of interest with Highly Automated cockpit 3. Continuous role change between CM 1 and CM 2 4. Difficulties dividing the work-load 5. System knowledge below average 6. Situation Awareness not developed Flight operations

Causes for gap btwn schooling and airline 1. Passive mind-set 2. Professional pride 3. Causes for gap btwn schooling and airline 1. Passive mind-set 2. Professional pride 3. Inexperience The Highly Automated cockpit proves to be more a cognitive than a flying challenge. Flight operations

Influences on behavioural pattern : Passive mind-set behaviour: • Response to stimuli was of Influences on behavioural pattern : Passive mind-set behaviour: • Response to stimuli was of non conception • No acceptance of negative stimuli • No intuitive initiative: „Not told = not done“ • Thinking skills domain dependant • No structured self monitoring • Low communication receptiviness during high workload Flight operations

Influences on behavioural pattern : . Professional pride: • Self concept • Denial of Influences on behavioural pattern : . Professional pride: • Self concept • Denial of Human weakness • Group unrealistic attitudes • No identification with new company yet Above might be caused by lack of social context. Flight operations

Influences on behavioural pattern Inexperience: • Training acft vs. a 89 Tons MTOW full Influences on behavioural pattern Inexperience: • Training acft vs. a 89 Tons MTOW full computerised aircraft, flying M. 80 at FL 390 • Training environment vs. world-wide, high density airports 210 passengers to take care of with a multi-crew. Flight operations

Observations Sim/Line training: Clear lack of basic aircraft system knowledge NOT related to the Observations Sim/Line training: Clear lack of basic aircraft system knowledge NOT related to the Airbus Lack of knowledge of high-altitude flying Geography Orientation = Disaster. . . ! Candidates came from all over Asia (except China) Flight operations

Training results : • Declarative knowledge S • Procedural knowledge S but not implemented Training results : • Declarative knowledge S • Procedural knowledge S but not implemented • Operational knowledge Si normal at this stage • Geographical/Terrain/Envir. U • Flight routes knowledge Si normal at this stage • Human performance knowledge U • Situation Awareness U Flight operations

Conclusion : • Provided F/O candidates from recognised schools • Very motivated and hard Conclusion : • Provided F/O candidates from recognised schools • Very motivated and hard working • Airline style and environment very succesful • Not ready for the „Big World“ • Too big gap between training and airline environment Flight operations

Proposal: • The cadet provider designs with the airline a modular Highly Automated Cockpit Proposal: • The cadet provider designs with the airline a modular Highly Automated Cockpit course which emphasises the cognitive processes consisting of: 1. Theory module integrated in phases a. s. a. p after written CPL/ATPL whatever is applicable MPL would be the ideal platform 2. Simulator module, can be integrated with MCC & type rating. Implementing SOP‘s for future airline concurrently Flight operations

Theory module • Cognitive acceleration learning according CASE method • Basic jet aircraft systems Theory module • Cognitive acceleration learning according CASE method • Basic jet aircraft systems and (Mach) flying • High performance jet engines • Meteorology for high performance aircraft • Human Performance and its limitations • Geography/Terrain/Environment Flight operations

Simulator module • City-shuttle : High frequency/High density short haul sectors 3 sessions with Simulator module • City-shuttle : High frequency/High density short haul sectors 3 sessions with 10 hrs rest time in between • Sessions based on daily duties of F/O + DM and TM Flight operations

Unique opportunity : To create an integrated end product, without clear bounderies between training Unique opportunity : To create an integrated end product, without clear bounderies between training institute and the airlines Flight operations

Any Questions ? Thank you for your attention Any feedback to hactrng@gmail. com Flight Any Questions ? Thank you for your attention Any feedback to [email protected] com Flight operations