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Adam Behnke Marisa Greguoli Ryan Sikma Susan Theisen Voter ID Laws Team Phil-Is-Sophical Argumentation Adam Behnke Marisa Greguoli Ryan Sikma Susan Theisen Voter ID Laws Team Phil-Is-Sophical Argumentation and Persuasion

Agenda • • Introduction Audience Analysis Need, Remedy, Disadvantage Analysis Toulmin Model Analysis Affirmative Agenda • • Introduction Audience Analysis Need, Remedy, Disadvantage Analysis Toulmin Model Analysis Affirmative Negative Conclusion Introduction AA NRD Toulmin Affirmative Negative Conclusion

Case Introduction Affirmative Statement: “All voters should show a photo ID before voting” Burden Case Introduction Affirmative Statement: “All voters should show a photo ID before voting” Burden of Proof: Falls on those who believe photo ID should be required when voting Introduction AA NRD Toulmin Affirmative Negative Conclusion

Introduction Cont. • Arguments contained in USA Today editorial article – January 8 th, Introduction Cont. • Arguments contained in USA Today editorial article – January 8 th, 2008 – Affirmative case written by Thor Hearne • Attorney and lead counsel for bipartisan elections professionals – Negative case edited by Ken Paulson Introduction AA NRD Toulmin Affirmative Negative Conclusion

Assumptions • No right or wrong solution for debate • Both sides of argument Assumptions • No right or wrong solution for debate • Both sides of argument are based primarily on personal opinion/political affiliation • Only potential voters are affected by issue (age) • Cost or process of obtaining photo ID could prevent fair voting system Introduction AA NRD Toulmin Affirmative Negative Conclusion

Audience Analysis. USA Today Total Readers: 3, 882, 000 Average Age: 46 Gender: Men Audience Analysis. USA Today Total Readers: 3, 882, 000 Average Age: 46 Gender: Men Women 68% 32% Education: Any College B. A. /Post Grad Degree 71% 43% Occupation: Professional/Managerial Top/Middle Manager Employed 34% 25% 80% Introduction AA NRD Toulmin Affirmative Negative Conclusion

Audience Analysis So What? • Debate pertains to readers of USA Today because they Audience Analysis So What? • Debate pertains to readers of USA Today because they are of voting age • Interest in topic high because it’s an election year • Debate is nationwide, as is USA Today’s circulation Introduction AA NRD Toulmin Affirmative Negative Conclusion

NRD Affirmative Side Need for Change • • All voters should be required to NRD Affirmative Side Need for Change • • All voters should be required to show a photo id before voting to aid in fraud prevention, to build confidence in electoral fairness, and to protect the integrity of the vote. According to national polls, more than 80% of Americans support the requirements that people identify themselves with a photo id before casting a ballot. Remedy for Change: • By voters showing an id at the polls, they will ensure that they are who they are and that they have been registered so that fraud prevention and electoral fairness are more prevalent. Introduction AA NRD Toulmin Affirmative Negative Conclusion

NRD Affirmative Side cont. Disadvantage to Change: • • Cost of a photo id NRD Affirmative Side cont. Disadvantage to Change: • • Cost of a photo id ($26 -50 per id) could prevent some from voting. Mostly according to research the poor, elderly and minorities are likely to lack photo identification. Invasion of Privacy Devil: • Democrats who oppose using photo identification to vote, poor, some elderly and minorities who lack a photo id and therefore may be unable to vote and exercise one of their major rights as a US citizen. Introduction AA NRD Toulmin Affirmative Negative Conclusion

NRD Negative Side Need for Change • • Requiring voters to show photo identification NRD Negative Side Need for Change • • Requiring voters to show photo identification before voting brings up memories of poll taxes, and literacy tests once used to discourage blacks form voting. Using photo identification can be seen as an invasion of privacy. Photo identification is not required in all states to cast a vote. This may discourage some voters from voting and/or make them unable to cast a vote. Photo identification can be costly. Remedy for Change: • • • Develop a method in which photo identification can be provided free of charge. Utilize the current method that is being used of matching signatures in poll books. Make photo identification required in all states so that the dilemma is dealt with at a national level. Introduction AA NRD Toulmin Affirmative Negative Conclusion

NRD Negative Side cont. Disadvantage to Change: • • • Utilizing older polling methods NRD Negative Side cont. Disadvantage to Change: • • • Utilizing older polling methods are slow and somewhat outdated. Without using photo identification, you can not ensure the integrity of the vote. This means that one person can vote several times using a different name. Photo identification does assist in fraud prevention. Devil: • Republicans and those who support using photo identification to vote. Several states do require using photo identification to vote. Introduction AA NRD Toulmin Affirmative Negative Conclusion

c Former president Jimmy Carter, civil rights leader, Andrew Young and many others (including, c Former president Jimmy Carter, civil rights leader, Andrew Young and many others (including, according to a number of national polls, more than 80% of Americans) support the requirement that people identify themselves with photo ID before casting a ballot.

E 1 Measures aimed at upholding the fairness and honesty of our election process, E 1 Measures aimed at upholding the fairness and honesty of our election process, such as photo identification requirements increase public confidence. E 2 Photo ID is used everyday by Americans E 3 …using photo ID eliminates the older, subjective method of identifying voters by having an election judge recognize a voter or match a voter’s signature with one on file in a poll book. c Former president Jimmy Carter, civil rights leader, Andrew Young and many others (including, according to a number of national polls, more than 80% of Americans) support the requirement that people identify themselves with photo ID before casting a ballot.

E 1 Measures aimed at upholding the fairness and honesty of our election process, E 1 Measures aimed at upholding the fairness and honesty of our election process, such as photo identification requirements increase public confidence. Since fraud prevention would increase public confidence W Because making voters show a photo ID, would prevent fraud, prevents non-Americans from voting, and prevents people from voting more than once. SW Introduction AA NRD Toulmin Affirmative Negative Conclusion

E 2 Photo ID is used everyday by Americans Since the majority of voters E 2 Photo ID is used everyday by Americans Since the majority of voters have and use photo ID on an everyday basis W Because we use our ID daily to buy alcohol, board a plane, enter a federal building, and cash a check (including welfare checks) SW Introduction AA NRD Toulmin Affirmative Negative Conclusion

E 3 …using photo ID eliminates the older, subjective method of identifying voters by E 3 …using photo ID eliminates the older, subjective method of identifying voters by having an election judge recognize a voter or match a voter’s signature with one on file in a poll book. Since the older way of voting is outdated and not as reliable W Because there are ways of getting around the old voting system SW Introduction AA NRD Toulmin Affirmative Negative Conclusion

c Make standards too onerous, and some eligible voters will inevitably be unable to c Make standards too onerous, and some eligible voters will inevitably be unable to exercise democracy’s most fundamental right.

E 1 E 2 E 3 Voter ID laws raise ugly memories of poll E 1 E 2 E 3 Voter ID laws raise ugly memories of poll taxes, literacy tests and other barriers once used to discourage blacks from voting There’s also very little evidence that voter fraud impersonation is a significant problem c Make standards too onerous, and some eligible voters will inevitably be unable to exercise democracy’s most fundamental right. All of this suggests that while photo IDs can be useful tools for building confidence in electoral fairness, they are hardly foolproof. If required, they must be made easily available at no cost to those who qualify – and with aggressive outreach to those who have difficulty traveling

E 1 Voter ID laws raise ugly memories of poll taxes, literacy tests and E 1 Voter ID laws raise ugly memories of poll taxes, literacy tests and other barriers once used to discourage blacks from voting Since history shows voters have been previously turned away W Because previous standards have made eligible voters unable to vote SW Introduction AA NRD Toulmin Affirmative Negative Conclusion

E 2 There’s also very little evidence that voter fraud impersonation is a significant E 2 There’s also very little evidence that voter fraud impersonation is a significant problem Since research has been unable to prove this a problem W Because little on fraud prevention has been documented SW Introduction AA NRD Toulmin Affirmative Negative Conclusion

E 3 All of this suggests that while photo IDs can be useful tools E 3 All of this suggests that while photo IDs can be useful tools for building confidence in electoral fairness, they are hardly foolproof. If required, they must be made easily available at no cost to those who qualify – and with aggressive outreach to those who have difficulty traveling Since the availability and cost of a photo ID would prevent a fair voting process W Because acquiring a photo ID can be potentially difficult SW Introduction AA NRD Toulmin Affirmative Negative Conclusion

Toulmin Model So What? • Warrants of both sides include – Authoritative (ethos) – Toulmin Model So What? • Warrants of both sides include – Authoritative (ethos) – Substantive (logos) – Motivational (pathos) • Negative Side – Claim is a question of fact • Affirmative Side – Claim is a question of policy Introduction AA NRD Toulmin Affirmative Negative Conclusion

Affirmative Side 1. Supporters of ID laws believe requirements are necessary to prevent fraud Affirmative Side 1. Supporters of ID laws believe requirements are necessary to prevent fraud Evidence: The need to show an ID prevents voter fraud attempts (Discovery Institute) 2. Advocates argue a law would restore voter confidence, therefore increasing participation (newsmax) Evidence: Supporters argue perception just as important as reality (MSNBC) Introduction AA NRD Toulmin Affirmative Negative Conclusion

Affirmative Side 3. Indiana has ID law, and 99% of voters there have a Affirmative Side 3. Indiana has ID law, and 99% of voters there have a photo ID -Evidence: “In five years, the whole nation is going to be like Indiana. A majority of people want this in their elections. ” (newsmax) -Evidence: Not one single case was brought against The State of Indiana claiming the law inhibited their ability to vote (USA Today) 4. Participation increased in groups previously believed to be burdened by ID laws -Evidence: Thor Hearne, writer of the USA Today article, is the lead counsel for bipartisan elections professionals and Republican members of Congress who filed Supreme Court briefs supporting Indiana’s voter ID law. Introduction AA NRD Toulmin Affirmative Negative Conclusion

Affirmative Side 5. ID law could be phased in over consecutive years, lessening possible Affirmative Side 5. ID law could be phased in over consecutive years, lessening possible complications Evidence: A 2005 report found that ID laws themselves are not the issue, but a plan to slowly phase in the law would increase- not decrease- voter participation (Jimmy Carter, New York Times) Introduction AA NRD Toulmin Affirmative Negative Conclusion

Negative Side 1. Cost for a photo ID may inhibit the poor/elderly Evidence: Opponents Negative Side 1. Cost for a photo ID may inhibit the poor/elderly Evidence: Opponents argue the cost of an ID ($26 -$50), is too costly for those who can’t afford to acquire on simply for voting (MSNBC) 2. No hard evidence of fraud at the polls Evidence: There are no statistically significant cases of proven voter fraud (The AP) 3. ID laws raises memories of poll taxes and literacy taxes previously used to discourage African Americans from voting Evidence: "The fee that is required to obtain a five-year state ID card is tantamount to a poll tax, which was abolished by the Twenty. Fourth Amendment to the Constitution. “-Neil Bradley, Associate Director of the Atlanta-based American Civil Liberties Union Voting Rights Project Introduction AA NRD Toulmin Affirmative Negative Conclusion

Negative Side 4. Invasion of Privacy Evidence: Is seen as conflicting with voters’ privacy Negative Side 4. Invasion of Privacy Evidence: Is seen as conflicting with voters’ privacy rights and the Voting Rights Act 5. Many states won’t allow voting without an ID Evidence: 19 states require voters to show a photo ID (Wisconsin, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, etc. ) 6. Laws are made at the state level, when the issue of voting is a national event Evidence: The way our country is run Introduction AA NRD Toulmin Affirmative Negative Conclusion

Conclusion. Summary • Either side lacks “hard” factual evidence • Debate is generally split Conclusion. Summary • Either side lacks “hard” factual evidence • Debate is generally split along partisan lines – Affirmative=Republican, Negative=Democratic • Issue predicted to become a major debate nationwide in the coming months – Already a hot topic in Wisconsin, Georgia, and Indiana Introduction AA NRD Toulmin Affirmative Negative Conclusion

Conclusion. Evaluation Negative Side Out of 10 Affirmative Side Out of 10 Introduction AA Conclusion. Evaluation Negative Side Out of 10 Affirmative Side Out of 10 Introduction AA NRD Toulmin Affirmative Negative Conclusion

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