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Active Coolers for cooling Infrared Detector on satellite payloads Stirling Cooler Presentation By Milind Active Coolers for cooling Infrared Detector on satellite payloads Stirling Cooler Presentation By Milind B Naik TIFR, MUMBAI

Types of coolers • Passive Coolers • Radiators • Stored Cryogens • Active Coolers Types of coolers • Passive Coolers • Radiators • Stored Cryogens • Active Coolers • • Stirling cycle (this presentation covers this cooler ) Pulse tube Joule-Thompson Brayton Adiabatic Demagnetization 3 He coolers Optical cooling Peltier effect coolers

 • Passive Coolers • Radiators – Radiators are panels radiating heat according to • Passive Coolers • Radiators – Radiators are panels radiating heat according to Stefan's Law – extremely high reliability – low mass and a lifetime limited only by surface contamination and degradation – limitations on the heat load and temperature (typically in the milliwatt range at 70 K ) – Multiple stages are often used • Stored cryogens. – Dewars containing a cryogen such as liquid helium or solid neon – excellent temperature stability with no exported vibrations – substantially increases the launch mass of the vehicle – limit the lifetime of the mission to the amount of cryogen stored

 • Active Coolers • Stirling cycle. – These coolers are based on causing • Active Coolers • Stirling cycle. – These coolers are based on causing a working gas to undergo a Stirling cycle which consists of 2 constant volume processes and two isothermal processes. – Devices consist of a compressor pump and a displacer unit with a regenerative heat exchanger, known as a `regenerator'. – Stirling cycle coolers were the first active cooler to be used successfully in space and have proved to be reliable and efficient. – Recent years have seen the development of two-stage devices which extend the lower temperature range from 60 -80 K to 1530 K.

Advantages/disadvantages of different types of cooler technology Advantages/disadvantages of different types of cooler technology

Some examples of missions using active coolers • Missions are listed as vehicle/instrument. • Some examples of missions using active coolers • Missions are listed as vehicle/instrument. • Design lifetime has been quoted if the instrument is yet to be launched or failed due to another component. • Excluding electronics. • STS/BETSE was a technology demonstrator. • UARS/ISAMS figures per cooler running at 83% stroke.

example of missions using active coolers example of missions using active coolers

Typical cryocooler to be used for satellite payload MOTOR COLD FINGER RICOR ( ISRAEL) Typical cryocooler to be used for satellite payload MOTOR COLD FINGER RICOR ( ISRAEL)

Set of cold-finger available for Cryocooler Set of cold-finger available for Cryocooler

Working of stirling cryocooler Hot side (with heat sink) Cold side (cold finger) Hot Working of stirling cryocooler Hot side (with heat sink) Cold side (cold finger) Hot side Cold side (cold finger)

Working of stirling cryocooler Working of stirling cryocooler

Test-dewar for cryocooler testing Cryocooler Test-dewar Test-dewar for cryocooler testing Cryocooler Test-dewar

Test-dewar for cryocooler testing Temperature Sensor Vacuum Test-dewar for cryocooler testing Temperature Sensor Vacuum

 • Various processes involved for testing Stirling cryocooler – Design, development of test-dewar • Various processes involved for testing Stirling cryocooler – Design, development of test-dewar with vacuum seal, feedthrough wires, optical window, temperature sensor integration with cold-finger etc. – Assembly , evacuation of test-dewar. Crcycooler assembly – Crycooler Fill and purge with Helium – Various leak tests – Functional tests – Calibrations – Others.

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