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Access to Cars: Employment and Family Well-being Making Connections Ten-Site Survey December 2005 Margy Access to Cars: Employment and Family Well-being Making Connections Ten-Site Survey December 2005 Margy Waller, Brookings Institution

Facts about the Survey • National survey includes the following ten places: Denver, Des Facts about the Survey • National survey includes the following ten places: Denver, Des Moines, Hartford, Indianapolis, Louisville, Milwaukee, Oakland, Providence, San Antonio, and Seattle • Survey conducted 2002 – 2004 • 7496 respondents in the MC neighborhoods

Facts about MC Respondents Gender Nearly two-thirds of Making Connections neighborhood respondents were female Facts about MC Respondents Gender Nearly two-thirds of Making Connections neighborhood respondents were female 65% Female Male 35% Noncitizens 13% Citizenship Nearly 90 percent of Making Connections neighborhood respondents were United States citizens 87% Citizens

Facts about MC Respondents Employment Just over half of Making Connections neighborhood respondents were Facts about MC Respondents Employment Just over half of Making Connections neighborhood respondents were employed Income More than half of Making Connections neighborhood respondents live in households with income under $20, 000/year 53% Employed 47% Unemployed 54% Less than $20 k/year More than $20 k/year 46%

Facts about MC Respondents Education College Grad Race/Ethnicity Other 9% < High school 13% Facts about MC Respondents Education College Grad Race/Ethnicity Other 9% < High school 13% 28% Black 48% White 33% 51% 21% High school Hispanic Living arrangements Not living with spouse or partner 7% 2% Asian Native American 40% 60% Living with spouse or partner

Facts about MC Respondents Household Car Reliability Unreliable No car Own car 29% 7% Facts about MC Respondents Household Car Reliability Unreliable No car Own car 29% 7% 71% 93% Drivers License No valid license Reliable 31% 69% Has valid license

In the Making Connections neighborhoods, respondents in a household with a vehicle were significantly In the Making Connections neighborhoods, respondents in a household with a vehicle were significantly more likely to… Have high school or GED credential Live with a spouse or partner 70% 49% 48% 18% Own car No car Own car Live in a household with income over $20, 000 37% Own car 5% No car

School Activities In the Making Connections neighborhoods, respondents with a child who lived in School Activities In the Making Connections neighborhoods, respondents with a child who lived in a household with a vehicle… Were more likely to say the child participated in school activities 56% Own car Were significantly less likely to cite a transportation-related reason for why the child did NOT participate 45% No car 30% 22% Own car No car

Isolating Effects of Car Ownership Controlling for effects of race, education, income, gender, citizenship, Isolating Effects of Car Ownership Controlling for effects of race, education, income, gender, citizenship, and marital status, survey data show that respondents without cars were significantly: • Less likely to be employed • Unemployed for longer periods, on average • More likely to have a temporary or seasonal job • Less likely to have received a raise in the previous year • Less likely to use services like a bank, recreation center, or after school programs • Less likely to attend community college • Less likely to have a savings or checking account • Less likely to be saving for education, retirement, or a home

Employment Outcomes After controlling for demographic factors, respondents without cars were…. Significantly less likely Employment Outcomes After controlling for demographic factors, respondents without cars were…. Significantly less likely to be employed Unemployed for significantly longer periods of time, on average 25 wks/yr 64% 34% Own car No car 13 wks/yr Own car No car

Employment Outcomes After controlling for demographic factors, respondents without cars…. Were significantly more likely Employment Outcomes After controlling for demographic factors, respondents without cars…. Were significantly more likely to have a temporary or seasonal job 25% Were significantly less likely to have received a raise in the previous year 62% 46% 17% Own car No car

Use of Services After controlling for demographic factors, respondents without cars were significantly less Use of Services After controlling for demographic factors, respondents without cars were significantly less likely to use…. A bank After-school programs Comm. college or adult ed A recreational center A library

Access to Services Those without cars reported significantly more difficulty using the supermarket Respondents Access to Services Those without cars reported significantly more difficulty using the supermarket Respondents without cars were significantly less satisfied with recreational centers Reasons for Non-Use Respondents without cars were significantly more likely to report a transportation-related problem as the reason for not using: – The supermarket – ATMs – Recreational Centers

Financial Assets and Status After controlling for demographic factors, respondents without cars significantly less Financial Assets and Status After controlling for demographic factors, respondents without cars significantly less likely to…. To have a phone that works, use a computer, or access to the internet at home Phone 92% vs. 80% Education 18% vs. 8% Computer 53% vs. 22% House 20% vs. 9% Internet 78% vs. 60% Retirement 38% vs. 11% To have a checking account or a savings account Checking Account 72% vs. 37% Savings Account 62% vs. 31%

Financial Assets and Status After controlling for demographic factors, respondents without cars significantly less Financial Assets and Status After controlling for demographic factors, respondents without cars significantly less likely to…. Have a phone that works 92% Use a computer at home 53% 80% 22% Own car No car Own car Access the internet at home 78% 60% Own car No car

Financial Assets and Status After controlling for demographic factors, respondents without cars significantly less Financial Assets and Status After controlling for demographic factors, respondents without cars significantly less likely to be saving for…. Education Retirement 17% 36% 7% Own car No car 11% A house 19% 9% Own car No car

Financial Assets and Status After controlling for demographic factors, respondents without cars significantly less Financial Assets and Status After controlling for demographic factors, respondents without cars significantly less likely to…. Have a checking account 72% 37% Own car Have a savings account No car 62% 32% Own car No car

Community Involvement After controlling for demographic factors, respondents without cars were significantly less likely Community Involvement After controlling for demographic factors, respondents without cars were significantly less likely to have volunteered in the community in the last year Vehicle in Household No Vehicle 23% Volunteered 30% 70% Did not volunteer Volunteered 77% Did not volunteer

Safety and Neighborhoods After controlling for demographic factors, respondents without cars… Were significantly less Safety and Neighborhoods After controlling for demographic factors, respondents without cars… Were significantly less likely to feel safe alone in the neighborhood during the day 80% Own car Were significantly less likely to believe their neighborhood was safe for children 75% 36% No car Own car Were significantly less likely to report people that from outside the neighborhood came there to shop or do business 41% Own car 33% No car 36% No car