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Academic writing Guidance on research and academic integrity
Dr Irene Glendinning Academic Manager for Student Experience Office of Teaching and Learning Workshop Presenter
• good study habits and writing skills • understanding referencing and citation conventions and using these appropriately • the importance of academic integrity • finding good quality information sources and assessing reliability of information • understanding the expectations and requirements of assessors What we will cover
Impact of policies for Plagiarism in Higher Education Across Europe http: //plagiarism. cz/ippheae/ South East Europe Project on Policies for Academic Integrity http: //plagiarism. cz/seeppai/ European Network for Academic Integrity http: //plagiarism. cz/enai/ Research into academic integrity
• Conduct – Ethical, honest, fair • Assessments – Representative, safe • Policies and processes – Reliable, consistent, transparent, proportional • Values, culture – Promoting good practice What is Academic Integrity?
Definitions • Using the work of someone else and presenting it as your own • Failing to correctly cite and reference the work of someone else • Not giving due credit for the contribution of someone else to your work What is plagiarism?
• • Deliberate plagiarism Exam cheating Impersonation Inappropriate collusion and sharing of work Copying text or programming code from others Buying essays or code to order Submitting work completed by someone else Submitting work you’ve submitted before (selfplagiarism) • Presenting someone else’s idea as your own • Fabrication, falsification, selectivity • Bribing lecturers for higher grades Academic Dishonesty
Certainly in a higher education context there are many factors that prevent rapid changes. Kolmos citation and de Graaff compare the management of a university faculty to “the navigation of a super tanker…. The inertia of mass precludes any abrupt change of course” (Kolmos & de Graaff 2007: p. 35). This analogy clearly reflects the experience of the SEE team. Kolmos, A. , De Graaff, E. (2007) Process of changing to PBL in De Graaff, E. and Kolmos, A. (eds. ) Management of Change Implementation of Problem-Based and Project. Based Learning in Engineering, Rotterdam / Taipei: Sense Publishers. Reference CUHarvard Referencing and Citation
• Have you had instruction about academic writing? – How to find academic sources – Identifying good sources – How to acknowledge sources • Referencing style requirements? • Referencing tools Ref. Works, Endnote, integral to MS Word Referencing and Citation
Read through the following scenarios and questions provided and decide whether or not you think these examples describe plagiarism and also think about what sanctions should be applied for such cases Exercise 1
If a student buys an essay from a web site and uses the text provided (a) just as it was provided or (b) with a few changes, is it: 1. Serious plagiarism 2. Plagiarism 3. Not sure 4. Poor academic practice 5. None of the above Exercise 1 Qu 1
If 40% of an essay is taken from other sources and the text is copied word for word into the student’s work with no quotation marks, references or in-text citations, is it: 1. Serious plagiarism 2. Plagiarism 3. Not sure 4. Poor academic practice 5. None of the above Exercise 1 Qu 2
If 40% of an essay or paper is from other sources and the text is copied with a few changes into the student’s work with no “quotation marks”, references or in-text citations, is it: 1. Serious plagiarism 2. Plagiarism 3. Not sure 4. Poor academic practice 5. None of the above Exercise 1 Qu 3
If 40% of an essay is from other sources and the text is copied with a few changes into the student’s work with no “quotation marks” or in-text citations, but has a list of references to sources used, is it: 1. Serious plagiarism 2. Plagiarism 3. Not sure 4. Poor academic practice 5. None of the above Exercise 1 Qu 4
If 40% of an essay is taken from other sources and the text is copied with a few changes into the student’s work with no “quotation marks”, but has references and intext citations, is it: 1. Serious plagiarism 2. Plagiarism 3. Not sure 4. Poor academic practice 5. None of the above Exercise 1 Qu 5
Reasons from Slovenian students (~2012) • 66% they think they will not get caught • 63% don’t want to learn just pass the exam • 61% run out of time • 53% easy to cut and paste • 45% don’t understand how to cite and reference • 42% not aware of penalties • 42% they have always written like that. Why do students plagiarise?
• • • By-passes learning Dishonest to claim credit for unoriginal work No credit for the originator of the work Damages university’s reputation Reduces reliability of assessment to measure learning • Consumes time to resolve dishonesty cases • Unfair advantage over honest students • Leads to low marks and failure Why is plagiarism and cheating a problem?
• • • Text matching software Writing styles Viva voce or presentation questions Search engines, Google Staff experience How do we detect Plagiarism?
• How common is student cheating here? 0=never 1=sometimes 2=fairly often 3=frequently 4=everyone does it • What is the process if a student is accused of cheating? • What penalties can be applied? • How often are penalties applied? 0=never 1=sometimes 2=fairly often 3=frequently 4=every time • How much cheating is not penalised? Cheating: process and penalties
• Different levels of response eg – University entry – Final year undergraduate – Postgraduate student • Learning outcomes: expectations • Bloom’s Taxonomy defines the criteria distinguishing different levels Markers’ expectations
Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Remember previously learned information Demonstrate understanding of the facts Apply knowledge to real situations Break down objects or ideas and find evidence to support generalisation Compile several ideas to create new useful solutions Make and defend judgements based on evidence or criteria Arrange Define Describe Identify List Name Rank Recall Select Classify Convert Defend Discuss Estimate Infer Predict Review Summarise Apply Change Compute Illustrate Produce Relate Sketch Solve Use Analyse Appraise Calculate Criticise Discriminate Examine Infer Model Question Arrange Categorise Compose Design Develop Rearrange Reorganise Revise Synthesise Appraise Argue Critique Contrast Defend Evaluate Judge Predict Value Bloom’s Taxonomy & verbs
• Does text-matching software tell you whether text is plagiarised? • No, results need interpretation • Shows where text matches with other sources in the repository • But may not show the source that was accessed • What percentage match indicates problems? • Depends, needs interpretation • Can correctly referenced work show a high % match? • Yes, but this would suggest poor scholarship • What could I do to reduce a high % match? • Understand how sources add value to your work! Software text-matching tools
Your views please: Why do you have to acknowledge sources? Why do you have to use sources? Why use academic sources?
Why do you have to acknowledge sources? To give due credit to the author To allow your readers to follow up on your work and research To show you are building on the “body of knowledge” on which your own work is based Why do you have to use sources? To add the academic value and credibility of your work To demonstrate that you are aware of previous related research Exercise 2: Feedback
• Quality not quantity: – Good journal papers, peer reviewed conference papers, authority, relevance, currency • Primary, Secondary, Tertiary sources • Literature search – Defining parameters, – Generating key words • Recording your findings • Referencing and citation Quality of sources
Assessing quality and relevance • Dates, currency of information • Focus, context appropriate • Citations from other sources? • Supports or contradicts your arguments? • Demonstrates bias or poor technique? • Degree of precision of findings • Record, index all sources as you find them Sources of information
• • • Relevance to the research question Understanding, explaining Applying, designing Analysing, synthesising, innovation Critically evaluating, abstraction, justifying Referencing and quality of sources Quality of writing and expression Structure and focus, vocabulary Answering the “question” Assessment Criteria
• • Quotations Paraphrasing or rewriting same idea? Reference or bibliography References alphabetic (CU Harvard) Quotations and paraphrasing
Read the quotation from Lindquist (1999) provided and try to paraphrase or rewrite this in your own words by referring to the source In E. E. Masters’ study of lifestyles in a workingclass bar in a Midwestern town, for example, the author concludes early on that “the tavern in this small community was the centre of social life”, to the extent that “the proprietor had an amazing amount of knowledge about the residents of the town” such that “he could predict election results with great accuracy”. (Le Masters 1975) Exercise 3 – Paraphrasing
Compare your answers Sample solution E. E. Masters’ reported in his study of lifestyles in a working class bar that the tavern was so central to communications of the local community that the bar owner was able to confidently guess the result of elections (Le Masters, 1975). Exercise 3 – Feedback
www. plagiarism. org/index. html www. wok. mimas. ac. uk (citation index, Web of Knowledge) www. qaa. ac. uk http: //www. qaa. ac. uk/Publications/Information. And. Guidance/Documents/computing 07. pdf www. plagiarism. org/index. html Citation index, Web of Knowledge: www. wok. mimas. ac. uk Bloom’s Taxonomy verbs: http: //www. clemson. edu/assessmentpractices/referencematerials/documen ts/Blooms%20 Taxonomy%20 Action%20 Verbs. pdf Scimago Journal rankings: http: //www. scimagojr. com/ IPPHEAE project: http: //Iplagiarism. cz/ippheae/ SEEPPAI project: http: //plagiarism. cz/seeppai/ Lindquist, Julie. Class Ethos and the Politics of Inquiry: What the Barroom Can Teach Us about the Classroom. CCC 51. 2 (1999): 225 -247. Further Information
Subject-related cognitive abilities and skills Computational thinking and relevance to everyday life Knowledge and understanding of concepts, facts, principles, theories… Modelling, requirements, critical evaluation and testing Methods and tools, reflection and communication, professional issues Subject related practical abililty to: Specify, design, construct computer-based systems Evaluate systems. . . and possible trade-offs within the given problem Recognise risks or safety aspects… Deploy effectively tools used for construction & documentation, . . Understand whole process. . computers to solve practical problems Operate computing equipment effectively. . logical and physical properties Additional transferable skills Info-retrieval, numeracy, literacy, IT, team-work, time-management, CPD Extracts from QAA subject benchmarks for Computing 2007 Bachelor level skills
Three levels: Threshold, Typical and Excellence On graduating with honours degree students should be able to Excellence: such students will be Creative and innovative in their application of the principles covered in the curriculum and may relish the opportunity to engage in entrepreneurial activity Able to contribute significantly to the analysis, design or the development of systems which are complex and fit for purpose, recognising the relationship between these Able to exercise critical evaluation and review of both their own work and the work of others Extracts from QAA subject benchmarks for Computing 2007 Bachelor level capabilities
Students will have demonstrated: (Assessment) • A systematic understanding …and a critical awareness. . • A comprehensive understanding of techniques. . • Originality in the application of knowledge, together with. . • Conceptual understanding that enables. . . And will be able to: (Outcomes) • Deal with complex issues… • Demonstrate self-direction… • Continue to advance their knowledge. . And will have: (Employability) • The qualities and transferable skills necessary for. . Adapted from QAA Benchmarks for Master’s degrees Master’s level capabilities