Скачать презентацию Academic assessment of the interference potential of PLC Скачать презентацию Academic assessment of the interference potential of PLC

a95511e200ded5ea1ba4a8427d80ac59.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 76

Academic assessment of the interference potential of PLC Prof. Dr. -Ing. Holger Hirsch Energy Academic assessment of the interference potential of PLC Prof. Dr. -Ing. Holger Hirsch Energy transport and –storage University of Duisburg-Essen Prof. Dr. John E. Newbury Power Communications Systems The Open University, Manchester The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester

University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de • Introduction • Theoretical approach • Radiation from phone line and mains using the same modem • Explanation of the similar measurement results • Present electromagnetic environment • Conclusions The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk Content The Open University Manchester

University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk Introduction

Electromagnetic Compatibility Definition from the IEV: Electromagnetic Compatibility EMC: The ability of an equipment Electromagnetic Compatibility Definition from the IEV: Electromagnetic Compatibility EMC: The ability of an equipment or system to function satisfactorily in ist electromagnetic environment without introducing intolerable electromagnetic disturbances to anything in that environment. EMC includes two aspects: emission and immunity ! Equipment or System Electromagnetic Environment Radio protection is just one part of EMC The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester

EMC-Co-Ordination: Risk-Management ! Co-Ordination of emission and susceptibility requirements with the aim: Disturbance-free operation EMC-Co-Ordination: Risk-Management ! Co-Ordination of emission and susceptibility requirements with the aim: Disturbance-free operation of an electrical apparatus or system Ideal Relation Real Relation Level Immunity Level (Series Variations, EMC Phenomena not considered ) Immunity Level Immunity Limit Compatibility Level Emission Limit Emission Level 100% Cumulative probability The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester

This academic assessment of EMC aspects deals only with the interference concerns EM-Phenomena Immunity This academic assessment of EMC aspects deals only with the interference concerns EM-Phenomena Immunity PLC Emission Conducted: Other Apparatus Radiated: Biological Effects Radiated: Other Apparatus (Radio Services) The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester

University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk Theoretical approach

How to assess unwanted radiation within the current EMC -environment? HF power on wires How to assess unwanted radiation within the current EMC -environment? HF power on wires Radiation How much radiation is permissible ? Limits derived from most sensitive radio receivers Limits derived from radiation of already operating equipment The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester

Characterisation of telecommunications signals - Physical Properties: Symmetric Signal, fed with about – 70. Characterisation of telecommunications signals - Physical Properties: Symmetric Signal, fed with about – 70. . -50 d. Bm/Hz Same as for x. DSL Ethernet: Higher Signal Level - Frequency Domain: Broadband Signal Same as for x. DSL, Ethernet and Other - Time Domain: Same for x. DSL Ethernet: Interface and at least one n-channel Hub/Switch 1 Transmitter Active During Operation, The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester Within a Subnetwork only One Modem Active at a Time x. DSL: One modem per connection - Probability of Usage: For Internet Access Mainly Used in the Evening Same as for x. DSL Ethernet: Higher Probability - Distribution: Same as for x. DSL, Ethernet and Other Due to Signal Attenuation in Dense Populated Areas Þ With reference to radio services PLC signals have same or lower disturbance potential than x. DSL or Ethernet signals

Characterisation of networks used for telecommunication Two-wire-system symmetrical mode or differential mode I I Characterisation of networks used for telecommunication Two-wire-system symmetrical mode or differential mode I I asymmetrical mode or common mode compensation of field produced by the two wires The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester no compensation of field produced by the two wires

Mains and telecom cables show similar cable symmetry Standard Mains Cable NYM Standard Telephone Mains and telecom cables show similar cable symmetry Standard Mains Cable NYM Standard Telephone Line J-YY Although differential mode characteristic impedance of mains cables are not defined, distance and twist allow good propagation for differential mode signals similar to telecommunication cables. While the energy flow of the differential mode is in the dielectric material, the energy flow of the common mode is in the environment of the cable, e. g. the plaster. For common mode signals the characteristic impedance and attenuation properties differ not much between the cable types. The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester

University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester Fed sym. signal Point of local asymmetry Radiation The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk Only unsymmetrical cause radiation for symmetric driven lines

Telecom and mains network behaviour are similar for common mode Differential mode: Ethernet: mostly Telecom and mains network behaviour are similar for common mode Differential mode: Ethernet: mostly point-to-point connections, well defined symmetry ISDN: bus structure, branches possible, but well defined terminations Analog phone line: branches and asymmetric connection points possible Mains: many branches, asymmetries due to switches distributor plug luminary switch Common mode: no termination both for mains and TC branches for mains branches for TC, if more than one pair of the cable is used for different apparatus or if an other cable is installed parallel to the TC cable The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester

University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk Radiation from phone line and mains using the same modem

Radiation from broadband signals on phone line and mains using the same modem Modem Radiation from broadband signals on phone line and mains using the same modem Modem under test: OFDM-based with separate supply and communication connections allowing connection to both power and phone lines, driven at a TC-line it would meet requirements of Conformity assessment method 1 and method 2 for Cat-3 and Cat-5 cabling according to EN 55022 Phone Antenna PC 1 2 b a PC 2 Test Receiver 1 House Communication (1) via modem on power line (2) via modem on phone line Measurement locations (a) inside the house (b) 3 m away from wall in the garden The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester

Similar measurement results inside the building Pegel [d. BµV/m] 120 Disturbances from Electronic Equipment Similar measurement results inside the building Pegel [d. BµV/m] 120 Disturbances from Electronic Equipment (Switched Power Supply) Shortwave Transmitters 100 80 60 40 20 150 k 300 k 500 k 1 M 2 M Frequenz [Hz] 3 M 4 M 6 M 10 M 30 M No modem active PLC-modem at mains PLC-modem at TC line Measured with Loop Antenna, Peak-Detector, Bandwidth 9 KHz, Measurement time: about 4 pm The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester

Equal measurement results outside the building Pegel [d. BµV/m] 120 Medium wave Transmitters Shortwave Equal measurement results outside the building Pegel [d. BµV/m] 120 Medium wave Transmitters Shortwave Transmitters 100 80 60 40 20 150 k 300 k 500 k 1 M 2 M 3 M 4 M 6 M 10 M 30 M Frequenz [Hz] No modem active PLC-modem at mains PLC-modem at TC line Measured with Loop Antenna, Peak-Detector, Bandwidth 9 KHz, Measurement time: about 6 pm, 3 m distance The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester

Measurement with VDSL-Modem inside the Pegel [d. BµV/m] building 120 Disturbances from Electronic Equipment Measurement with VDSL-Modem inside the Pegel [d. BµV/m] building 120 Disturbances from Electronic Equipment (Switched Power Supply) Shortwave Transmitters 100 80 60 40 20 150 k 300 k 500 k 1 M 2 M Frequenz [Hz] 3 M 4 M 6 M 10 M PLC at mains No modem active (other day) No modem active Measured with Loop Antenna, Peak-Detector, Bandwidth 9 KHz, PLC: Measurement time: about 4 pm, VDSL: Measurement time: about 7 pm 30 M VDSL at phone line The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester

Measurement with VDSL-Modem outside the building Pegel [d. BµV/m] 120 100 80 60 40 Measurement with VDSL-Modem outside the building Pegel [d. BµV/m] 120 100 80 60 40 20 150 k No modem 300 k 500 k PLC at mains 1 M 2 M Frequenz [Hz] 3 M 4 M No modem (other day) 6 M 10 M 30 M VDSL at phone line Measured with Loop Antenna, Peak-Detector, Bandwidth 9 KHz, Measurement time: about 6 pm, 3 m distance The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester

University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk Explanation of the similar measurement results

University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester Very low attenuation for CM-signals (less than 10 d. B!) The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk Justification of same conducted limits: Similar disturbance modells for all kind of ITE

Relation between Field Strength and Conducted Emissions (1) Back to the roots: Base for Relation between Field Strength and Conducted Emissions (1) Back to the roots: Base for the limits for conducted emissions from TC-equipment was a disturbance field strength of E=35 d. B(µV/m) @ 10 m for Class B, Average-Detektor (QP-Detektor: 10 d. B more) Interference model made use of an external antenna See: Amemiya, Kuwabara, Ideguchi: Estimation of Electromagnetic Interference Field Emitted from Telecommunications Lines, IEICE Trans. Commun. Vol E 78 -B, No. 2, Feb. 1995 With that the coupling factor for TC-lines and for frequencies above 0. 5 MHz is: C = 35 d. B(µV/m) - 64 d. B(µV) = -29 d. B(1/m) (measurement distance 10 m) Consequently the conducted limits in the harmonised product standard (EN 55022) can not fit to the limits for disturbance field strength as proposed in NB 30 (see also CISPR/G/WG 1(TF x. DSL)2000 -10) Fulfilling NB 30 limits on product level means reduction of TC-limits by around 28 d. B (@ 30 MHz) and 15 d. B (@ 1 MHz) The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester

Relation between Field Strength and Conducted Emissions (2) Back to the roots: Old German Relation between Field Strength and Conducted Emissions (2) Back to the roots: Old German standard for „Radio interference suppression of telecommunication systems and apparatus; General specification“ (VDE 0878 Part 1, December 1986) defines field strength limits of 34 d. B(µV/m) @ 30 m, Average Detector (Class B) or for a „simplified“ method with 3 m measurement distance around NB 30 + 10 d. B Average Detector (Class B) With a limit for disturbance voltage (Class B, symmetric driven TC-line, average, installations) of 76 d. B(µV) @ 1. 6 -30 MHz the coupling factor is given by: C = 44 d. B(µV/m) - 76 d. B(µV) = -32 d. B(1/m) (field strength recalculated to 10 m distance) This coupling factor is in line with the coupling factor of the CISPR-derivation ! The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester

University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk Present electromagnetic environment

Typical Disturbances from Computer-Networks NB 30 Emission measured with MV 05 -method inside a Typical Disturbances from Computer-Networks NB 30 Emission measured with MV 05 -method inside a building of the University of Dortmund. About 200 PCs and workstations are in operation in this building. Network: Ethernet with Cat 5 -Cabling. The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester

Noise Level of Measuring Equipment (1 m) Source: ANNEX 6 to CEPT ECC REPORT Noise Level of Measuring Equipment (1 m) Source: ANNEX 6 to CEPT ECC REPORT 24 „PLT, DSL, CABLE COMMUNICATIONS (INCLUDING CABLE TV), LANS AND THEIR EFFECT ON RADIO SERVICES, Figure 3 The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester

Noise Level of Measuring Equipment (3 m) Source: ANNEX 6 to CEPT ECC REPORT Noise Level of Measuring Equipment (3 m) Source: ANNEX 6 to CEPT ECC REPORT 24 „PLT, DSL, CABLE COMMUNICATIONS (INCLUDING CABLE TV), LANS AND THEIR EFFECT ON RADIO SERVICES, Figure 4 The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester

Radio Environment (3 m) Source: ANNEX 6 to CEPT ECC REPORT 24 „PLT, DSL, Radio Environment (3 m) Source: ANNEX 6 to CEPT ECC REPORT 24 „PLT, DSL, CABLE COMMUNICATIONS (INCLUDING CABLE TV), LANS AND THEIR EFFECT ON RADIO SERVICES, Figure 5 The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester

Typical Emissions from Tram Systems Measured in a distance of 10 m from middle Typical Emissions from Tram Systems Measured in a distance of 10 m from middle of track as given by the railway EMC-standard 100 E in d. B(µV/m) 90 80 70 60 50 NB 30 40 30 20 0, 1 1 10 f in MHz 100 The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester

Magnetic field from a TV set in an anechoic chamber at 3 meters Source: Magnetic field from a TV set in an anechoic chamber at 3 meters Source: ANNEX 6 to CEPT ECC REPORT 24 „PLT, DSL, CABLE COMMUNICATIONS (INCLUDING CABLE TV), LANS AND THEIR EFFECT ON RADIO SERVICES, Figure 9 The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester

University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de anechoic chamber Source: ANNEX 6 to CEPT ECC REPORT 24 „PLT, DSL, CABLE COMMUNICATIONS (INCLUDING CABLE TV), LANS AND THEIR EFFECT ON RADIO SERVICES, Figure 13 The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk The Open University Manchester Measured field from a grinding machine at 3 meters in an

8 120 100 E(3 m) / d. B(µV/m) University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 8 120 100 E(3 m) / d. B(µV/m) University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de 140 7 b 1 80 7 a 2 60 99 40 4 3 6 1: EN 55011, Gr. 2, Kl. A 2: EN 55011, Gr. 2, Kl. B 3: EN 55022, Kl. B 4: EN 55022, Kl. A 5: NB 30 6: MPT 1570 7 a: pr. EN 50121, train 600 V 7 b: pr. EN 50121, train 25 k. V 8: pr. EN 50121, substation 9: FCC Rules part 15 „Carrier current systems“ 5 20 0 0. 01 0. 1 1 10 100 f / MHz 10000 The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk Limits according to some standards The Open University Manchester Limits recalculated to 3 m measurement distance, if necessary

University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk Conclusions

All Concerned Parties must be included in the Process for the Definition of Compatibility All Concerned Parties must be included in the Process for the Definition of Compatibility Level Increase of compatibility level means - smaller coverage area - higher transmitter power - use of digital technology working at lower SNR for radio systems, which -> produces costs Costs for the society Total costs Costs for TC-systems based on lines and other products Decrease of the compatibility level means - higher repeater density - use of digital technology working at lower SNR for transmission line based TC-equipment, which -> produces costs Decrease of the compatibility level means -higher effort for filter for other equipment, which -> produces costs Best compromise The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester Costs for radio systems working in the relevant frequency range Compatibility level

Coexistence between Radio and PLC is possible • Theoretical and practical approaches show that Coexistence between Radio and PLC is possible • Theoretical and practical approaches show that the radiation characteristics of telecommunications and mains networks are quite similar • We tried to find explanations for this unforeseen phenomena –Similar common mode characteristics of the wiring –Existing coupling between telecommunications and mains networks due to modern devices • Comparison with other TC-equipment, usual household gear and the general noise floor show that PLC fits into the present EM-environment • Compatibility level and limits must be found in a way that –offers equal opportunities for all technologies against minimum costs for the society –similar technologies must be subjected to the same requirements and regulatory treatment –measurement can be carried out with commonly available measurement equipment • Field strength limit of 55 d. B(µV/m) at 3 m as proposed in ETSI/CENELEC JWG questionaire (option 2, QP) fits to present disturbance voltage limits for TC-equipment (in EN 55022) The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester

Results of PUA Measurements • 80% of the measured values are below 55 d. Results of PUA Measurements • 80% of the measured values are below 55 d. BµV/m (for both indoor and outdoor measurement points) • 94% of the measured outdoor values are below the JWG CENELEC/ETSI currently proposed limit (55 d. BµV/m) • 60% of the outdoor measurements are lower than the surrounding noise The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester

Proposal for Limits 140 E(3 m) / d. B(µV/m) 120 100 80 55 d. Proposal for Limits 140 E(3 m) / d. B(µV/m) 120 100 80 55 d. B (option 2) 60 40 NB 30 (option 3) 20 0 0. 01 0. 1 1 10 100 f / MHz 10000 Notches possible in case of crisis situations Protection requirements for immunity should also be applied on radio equipment on ports not intended for signal transmission The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester

University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk RA Summary on measurements presented by RA The Open University Manchester

Flexibility of Synchronous Orthogonal frequency Division multiplexing This is a variation of OFDM and Flexibility of Synchronous Orthogonal frequency Division multiplexing This is a variation of OFDM and has the following advantages in case of need for immediate interference resolution: • Very flexible bandwidth: SOFDM has the ability to fill in the available spaces in the fragmented spectrum in small bandwidth chunks Online adaptation may help resolve immediate interference problems in critical situations • Narrow bandwidth sub-carriers can be much closer • the transmit power is set independently on each sub-carrier to not exceed the emission requirements at all frequencies • the data rate is set independently for each sub-carrier(bits/Hz) based on the SNR at that frequency The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester

Current Investigations • Relationship of Radiated emission from wired TC-networks with respect to distance Current Investigations • Relationship of Radiated emission from wired TC-networks with respect to distance • Injected Signal power and correlation to differential mode and common mode signal • Radiated emission and cable type for both PLC and other wired TC-networks The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester

University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk Additional Information

University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk PLC networks

Mains network topology Medium voltage network DPL Cell Low voltage network Secondary Substation Transformer Mains network topology Medium voltage network DPL Cell Low voltage network Secondary Substation Transformer To High voltage network Primary Substation Transformer 50 single phase services off each distributor = Data terminal 250 m The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester

University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de • Underground & overhead distribution Armoured Cable • Armoured cable • Conditioning units (CU) may be used Conditioning Unit (CU) Network MV network LV network CU SUBSTATION Data network Internal mains network LV network CU Data port The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk Physical structure of LV network The Open University Manchester

PLC Generic Model High Voltage Xmission Equipment pt to multi-pt CPE Phone(s) pt to PLC Generic Model High Voltage Xmission Equipment pt to multi-pt CPE Phone(s) pt to pt Fibre Network PC Internet Medium Voltage Grid (“Last Mile”) Low Voltage (“Last 100 m”) * CPE - Customer Premise Equipment In-Premise (“Last Inch”) The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester

PLC Model Medium voltage transformer High voltage Low voltage transformer Medium voltage Connection with PLC Model Medium voltage transformer High voltage Low voltage transformer Medium voltage Connection with telecommunication s network Data rates: about 2 Mbps Point to Point Backhaul In-House Low voltage Bus structure Shared medium Data rates: 1 - 3 Mbps and more Local Loop Demonstrations of products with data rates up to 25 Mbps Home Networking The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester

Access Band Communications • Communication between Sub-station and Customers • Distances involve 50 metres Access Band Communications • Communication between Sub-station and Customers • Distances involve 50 metres to 250 metres according to Urban or Rural location • Urban Customers number 50 to 250 • Rural Customers number 1 to 20 • Subject to varying noise levels • Frequency range 1 MHz to 10 MHz The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester

In-House Communications • Limited to inside buildings of all types; • Industrial • Commercial In-House Communications • Limited to inside buildings of all types; • Industrial • Commercial • Residential • Different electrical structures: single and 3 phase • wide range of services • Frequency range 10 to 30 MHz The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester

Maximum Capacity of the network Dependent on the following electrical and communication parameters of Maximum Capacity of the network Dependent on the following electrical and communication parameters of the network • Communication channel bandwidth • noise level • signal level • Robustness of the modulation system • Shannon’s law The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester

Power, Bandwidth and Reach Lower emissions from lower power: –reach and/or bandwidth are reduced Power, Bandwidth and Reach Lower emissions from lower power: –reach and/or bandwidth are reduced or –costs increase through need to use repeaters –must achieve REASONABLE standards for levels and measurement The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester

Prime Source of Noise at H. F. Ingress noise arising due to H. F. Prime Source of Noise at H. F. Ingress noise arising due to H. F. broadcast stations reception by the power network behaving as an antenna: • This is dependent on the number of users • the average noise level varies as the square of the wavelength • hence there is more noise in the LF band • Noise level will increase at night on average by 20 d. B The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester

University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk Immunity of PLC

University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de Requirements defined in harmonised product standard EN 55024 (CISPR-24): - Electrostatic discharge (ESD) immunity test acc. EN 61000 -4 -2 (4 k. V contact discharge, 8 k. V air discharge) - Radiated, radio-frequency, electromagnetic field immunity test acc. EN 61000 -4 -3 (80 -1000 MHz, 3 V/m, amplitude modulated 80% 1 k. Hz) - Electrical fast transient/burst immunity test acc. EN 61000 -4 -4 (1 k. V, impulse times 5 ns/50 ns, 5 k. Hz repetition frequency) - Surge immunity test acc. EN 61000 -4 -5 (1 k. V between conductors, 2 k. V between conductor and earth, impulse times 1. 2µs/50µs) - Immunity to conducted disturbances, induced by radio-frequency fields acc. EN 61000 -4 -6 (150 k. Hz-80 MHz, 3 V (EMK), amplitude modulated 80% 1 k. Hz) - Voltage dips, short interruptions and voltage variations immunity test acc. EN 61000 -4 -11 As far as no exception is defined by the manufacturer in the product documentation the customer can assume that all requirements are fulfilled by the product. Back The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk Immunity of PLC The Open University Manchester

University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk Conducted EMC

University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de Mains 1, 6 -30 MHz -60. . -50 dbm/Hz Special treatment of broadband sources is under investigation e. g. for CDMA based mobile radio systems ! -30. . -20 dbm @ 1 k. Hz bandwidth (according to 1 k. Hz modulation of susceptibility test) 0. 01 V. . 0. 04 V @ 150 symmetrical less in the asymmetric mode Immunity requirements acc. to IEC 61000 -4 -6 and generic standards: 0. 15 - 80 MHz residential: 1. 5 V ( 3 V EMF) industrial: 5 V (10 V EMF) Conducted emissions caused by PLC are by far below the standard limits. Þ Other devices will not be disturbed by conducted emissions caused by PLC! Back The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk Conducted EMC The Open University Manchester

University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk Biological Effects

Biological effects Germany: Regulation in the 26. BIm. Sch. V covers noise, air pollution, Biological effects Germany: Regulation in the 26. BIm. Sch. V covers noise, air pollution, etc. 100 Limits for human exposure German law (26. BIm. Sch. V) 10 Limits for human exposure ICNIRP Guidelines equivalent to: Recommendation 1999/519/EC E / V/m 1 0. 1 PLC 0. 01 Typical radiation by wires (e. g. DSL, PLC, LAN) 0. 001 0. 0001 1 e-005 0. 01 The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester 0. 1 1 10 f / MHz 1000 ICNIRP: International commission on non-ionizing radiation protection Radiation by PLC is by factor 1. 000 lower than the limits. Þ Biological effects are improbable. Back

University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk Same Requirements for PLC and other wired TC-networks

Coupling in and at a Radio Receiver Classical Receiver RFCircuit Merging of PC and Coupling in and at a Radio Receiver Classical Receiver RFCircuit Merging of PC and Receiver Antenna Terminal Multimedia-PC Modemcard Analog Circuit and Control Interfaces Ethernetcard Power Supply Coupling from mains to antenna terminal can be neglected, if external antenna is used! Connection to Mains SAT/TV/Radio Receivercard Power Supply Connection to Mains ISDN, x. DSL Phone line STP or UTP Ethernet cable Antenna Terminal PLC modem card No reasons for different limits regarding asymmetric voltages! Back The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester

TC- to Mains-port decoupling is too low and unstable 0 Modem 1 TC - TC- to Mains-port decoupling is too low and unstable 0 Modem 1 TC - AC mains TC - DC connector TC - RS 232 -shield Modem 3 TC - USB-port Coupling / d. B Modem 2 TC - AC mains TC - DC connector TC - RS 232 -shield -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 Phone with answering machine -60 TC - AC mains 5 10 15 20 25 f / MHz Higher frequencies: only a few db attenuation between TC and shield of data cable 30 The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester

d. B 20 40 15 30 H(EN)/H(TK) 10 H(EN)/H(TK) University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, d. B 20 40 15 30 H(EN)/H(TK) 10 H(EN)/H(TK) University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de A common mode signal is fed into power lines resp. a TC-line. The figures show the quotients of radiation from energy net to radiation from TC-lines. 5 0 -5 -10 20 10 0 -15 -10 -25 0 1 10 0 10 1 10 f [MHz] Measurement in 3 m distance to the building Measurement inside the building The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk The Open University Manchester Radiation levels of mains and telecommunications are quite the same

University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk Standards and Measurement Conditions

University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de • CISPR 22 (CISPR/I) • MPT 1570 from UK to cover ADSL • NB 30 from Germany : not an EEC or International Standard, withdrawn June 2002 BUT maintained as an Enforcement Standard • European Mandate M 313 • FCC 15 • CENELEC EN 50083 -8 cable TV networks The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk Emission Standards The Open University Manchester

Regulation • Commercially and technically proven • Able to deploy under EMC Directive, but Regulation • Commercially and technically proven • Able to deploy under EMC Directive, but still regulatory issues for future – emission vs performance vs cost – level of emissions permitted • Certainty needed for investment – by customers – by utilities – by manufacturers The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester

University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de Ethernet Levels Typical PLC Emission Levels The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk Emission Levels and Standards The Open University Manchester

Measuring Radiated Emissions from Power lines • Measurements made in the Near and/or Far Measuring Radiated Emissions from Power lines • Measurements made in the Near and/or Far field • Distance from power line measured as wavelength for accuracy • Absolute distance in metres less accurate as it does not account for frequency range • Standard distances used include 1 metre, 5 metres , 10 metres , 20 metres , and 30 metres The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester

University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de 10 K Wave impedance Ω 1 K 377 Electric Field predominates: low current, high voltage radiator Far Field Near Field Plane Wave Z=377Ώ Wave Impedance=E/H Z=(μ/є)½ High current, low voltage, low impedance 100 Magnetic Field predominates d<λ/2 D >λ/2 1 D=λ/2 Distance metres The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk The Open University Manchester Near and Far Field Radiated Impedance Measurements

University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk PUA Measurements The Open University Manchester

University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk Disturbance Voltage Measurement

Networks for the Measurement of Conducted Disturbances Conducted disturbance (IEV 161 -03 -27) Electromagnetic Networks for the Measurement of Conducted Disturbances Conducted disturbance (IEV 161 -03 -27) Electromagnetic disturbance for which the energy is transferred via one or more conductors. Electromagnetic disturbance (IEV 161 -01 -05) Any electromagnetic phenomenon which may degrade the performance of a device, equipment or system, or adversely affect living or inert matter. Note. - Any electromagnetic disturbance may be an electromagnetic noise, an unwanted signal or a change in the propagation medium itself. Unwanted signal (IEV 161 -01 -03) A signal that may impair the reception of a wanted signal. Non PLC-equipment: symmetric voltage / current: unintended asymmetrc voltage / current: unintended EMC-standards => method, where both signal components are measured, yields to successful assessment of protection requirement regarding conducted emission => Use of V-AMN sufficient for non-PLC equipment. TC-equipment: The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester symmetric voltage / current: intended asymmetrc voltage / current: unintended EMC-standards => only unintended signal has to be measured for a successful assessment of protection requirement regarding conducted emission. Intended signal level has to be defined in a product standard for the TC technology. => T-ISN must be used for TC-equipment.

Asymmetric signals have the main influence on radio services Usym Non-PLC Equipment: immunity level Asymmetric signals have the main influence on radio services Usym Non-PLC Equipment: immunity level unintended Usym Influence on other equipment operated at same power net possible but not probable f unintended Uasym permittable emission E Influence on radio services due to radiation possible receiver sensitivity permittable radiation => CISPR-22 limits conducted disturbances in general f The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester

T-ISN is used for assessing telecommunications products and thus for PLC as well telecommunications-equipment: T-ISN is used for assessing telecommunications products and thus for PLC as well telecommunications-equipment: intended level defined in appropriate product standards Usym unintended Uasym E Influence on radio services due to radiation possible receiver sensitivity permittable radiation => Only signals relevant for radiation (asymmetric) shall be measured according to an EMC standard => Use of T-ISN or -ISN T-ISN already defined in CISPR 22 for TC-ports f The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester

Design of a T-ISN for PLC 150 Ohm T-ISN with LCL=30 d. B 2*71 Design of a T-ISN for PLC 150 Ohm T-ISN with LCL=30 d. B 2*71 m. H cascaded EUT Mains L Power plug PE N Runsym 2*470 n. F 2*200 (corr acc. Runsym for Rasym=150 ) 100 90 80 70 Results of Measurements in and near Dortmund P% 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 10 100 Z asy / Ohm 10000 The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester

Product Assessment with V-AMN and T-ISN (1) Desktop-PC V-NNB, CISPR-22, Class B Mains Distance Product Assessment with V-AMN and T-ISN (1) Desktop-PC V-NNB, CISPR-22, Class B Mains Distance to Limit Line: AV, 0. 3 MHz: -14. 3 d. B AV, 0. 6 MHz: -13. 4 d. B T-ISN, LCL=30 d. B CISPR-22, Class B TC Distance to Limit Line: AV, 0. 3 MHz: -13. 5 d. B AV, 0. 6 MHz: -11. 8 d. B The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester

Product Assessment with V-AMN and T-ISN (2) Small Drill Machine V-NNB, CISPR-22, Class B Product Assessment with V-AMN and T-ISN (2) Small Drill Machine V-NNB, CISPR-22, Class B Mains Distance to Limit Line: QP, 0. 22 MHz: -2. 4 d. B QP, 0. 89 MHz: 8. 1 d. B T-ISN, LCL=30 d. B CISPR-22, Class B TC Distance to Limit Line: QP, 0. 6 MHz: 17 d. B The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester

Product Assessment with V-AMN and T-ISN (3) Switching Power Supply of a notebook V-NNB, Product Assessment with V-AMN and T-ISN (3) Switching Power Supply of a notebook V-NNB, CISPR-22, Class B Mains Distance to Limit Line: AV, 0. 41 MHz: 8. 5 d. B AV, 3. 505 MHz: 12. 5 d. B T-ISN, LCL=30 d. B CISPR-22, Class B TC Distance to Limit Line: AV, 0. 47 MHz: 9. 8 d. B AV, 3. 5 MHz: 12. 7 d. B The Open University Manchester, 351 Altincham Rd, Sharstron, Manchester M 22 4 UN, United Kingdom, tel: +44 161 9987272 68157, email: j. e. [email protected] ac. uk University Duisburg-Essen, Energytransport and –sforage, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg, Germany, Tel: +49 203 379 -3373, Fax -2833, email: Holger. [email protected] uni-duisburg. de The Open University Manchester