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Abstr. 422 Harnessing automatic data collection to enhance genetic improvement programs G. R. Wiggans, Abstr. 422 Harnessing automatic data collection to enhance genetic improvement programs G. R. Wiggans, wiggans@aipl. arsusda. gov Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Beltsville, MD M. A. Faust ABS Global, Inc. , Deforest, WI F. Miglior Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada Canadian Dairy Network, Guelph, ON, Canada ADSA 2007 (1) G. R. Wiggans 2007

Questions l What should we be thinking about to prepare for the future? l Questions l What should we be thinking about to prepare for the future? l How can we best exploit technology that is/will be available? l How can we minimize the impact of negative trends? ADSA 2007 (2) G. R. Wiggans 2007

History of innovation 1950 s Computerization 1960 s Laboratories for component testing 1970 s History of innovation 1950 s Computerization 1960 s Laboratories for component testing 1970 s Farm to mainframe connection for input and reports 1980 s Electronic data transfer from farms and laboratories; on-farm data entry 1990 s Robotic/voluntary milking systems 2000 s Handheld devices for data collection and access; RFID ADSA 2007 (3) G. R. Wiggans 2007

Automatic data collection l l ADSA 2007 (4) Continued adoption of technology Includes equipment Automatic data collection l l ADSA 2007 (4) Continued adoption of technology Includes equipment or procedures that aid data collection G. R. Wiggans 2007

Electronic milk meters l Currently supply 7% of data l Can provide −Total yield Electronic milk meters l Currently supply 7% of data l Can provide −Total yield − Milking speed − Milk conductivity l May provide − Progesterone levels − Milk temperature − Component concentration l RFID may improve reliability of cow ID associated with meter data ADSA 2007 (5) G. R. Wiggans 2007

Voluntary milking systems l Also known as robotic parlors l Most common in Europe Voluntary milking systems l Also known as robotic parlors l Most common in Europe l Depend heavily on automatic data collection l Require adaptation by DHI to be included l May provide data not available elsewhere ADSA 2007 (6) G. R. Wiggans 2007

Other data collection devices l l Handheld computers to record health l Activity monitors Other data collection devices l l Handheld computers to record health l Activity monitors l ADSA 2007 (7) Electronic scales Weather stations G. R. Wiggans 2007

New traits l l Heat tolerance l ADSA 2007 (8) Diagnostic test results Lameness New traits l l Heat tolerance l ADSA 2007 (8) Diagnostic test results Lameness G. R. Wiggans 2007

Limitations l l Equipment failure l Staff capability l ADSA 2007 (9) Electronic ID Limitations l l Equipment failure l Staff capability l ADSA 2007 (9) Electronic ID read errors Cost G. R. Wiggans 2007

Why farms should invest in automatic data collection l Better management w More accurate Why farms should invest in automatic data collection l Better management w More accurate data w More characteristics w Greater quality control l Food quality assurance and traceability l Help genetic improvement? ADSA 2007 (10) G. R. Wiggans 2007

Trends l More traits recorded l Larger herds l Improved equipment for electronic recording Trends l More traits recorded l Larger herds l Improved equipment for electronic recording l Increased worldwide competition among AI organizations w Demand for increased data accuracy and comprehensiveness, especially for traits with low heritability ADSA 2007 (11) G. R. Wiggans 2007

Needs of genetic improvement program l l Maintained or improved data quality l ADSA Needs of genetic improvement program l l Maintained or improved data quality l ADSA 2007 (12) Continued participation Adaptation to change G. R. Wiggans 2007

Benefits to genetic improvement from automatic data collection l l Reduced cost l ADSA Benefits to genetic improvement from automatic data collection l l Reduced cost l ADSA 2007 (13) Improved accuracy More traits G. R. Wiggans 2007

Tradeoffs in adding traits l l Recording errors l Difficulty in estimating economic value Tradeoffs in adding traits l l Recording errors l Difficulty in estimating economic value l ADSA 2007 (14) Low heritability Dissipation of selection differential G. R. Wiggans 2007

Why more traits? l Goal of a profitable cow l Selection index w Evaluations Why more traits? l Goal of a profitable cow l Selection index w Evaluations weighted by economic contribution l More precise measurement of profitability w More accurate profit tracking w More accurate selection ADSA 2007 (15) G. R. Wiggans 2007

How to connect genetic improvement to on-farm data l Provide value w Genetic evaluations How to connect genetic improvement to on-farm data l Provide value w Genetic evaluations w Data backup w Data quality control l Compensate for data as a dairy product (like milk) l Promote connection ease and security ADSA 2007 (16) G. R. Wiggans 2007

On-farm software l Must be maintained l Support w Extremely labor intensive w Expensive On-farm software l Must be maintained l Support w Extremely labor intensive w Expensive if many platforms l Central control of updates attractive l Dedicated uniform hardware? ADSA 2007 (17) G. R. Wiggans 2007

Systems for farms to provide data l Current system w AI organizations pay for Systems for farms to provide data l Current system w AI organizations pay for progeny-test daughters w Bundled with DHI program l System managed by AI organizations w AI organizations connect to on-farm computers w Data quality monitored by AI organizations l Farm as data vendor w Farm markets data to AI organizations w Compensation based on quality ADSA 2007 (18) G. R. Wiggans 2007

Who is in charge? l AI organizations w Establish data connection with progeny-test herds Who is in charge? l AI organizations w Establish data connection with progeny-test herds l DRPC w Offer test plans that provide desired data l Farm w Market data based on quality l Cooperation w Establish mechanism for equitable resolution of competing interests ADSA 2007 (19) G. R. Wiggans 2007

Measures of data quality l Consistency w Milk weights vs. milk shipped w Calving, Measures of data quality l Consistency w Milk weights vs. milk shipped w Calving, progeny birth, breeding, dry dates l ID accuracy from parentage verification l Electronic ID w Protocols to detect misreads w Portion of duplicate or missing cows l Within-herd heritability ADSA 2007 (20) G. R. Wiggans 2007

Management vs. genetic improvement l Large-herd management based on cow groups l Selection based Management vs. genetic improvement l Large-herd management based on cow groups l Selection based on evaluation of individuals l Genetic improvement needs data from individuals ADSA 2007 (21) G. R. Wiggans 2007

Where genetic improvement needs to go beyond herd management needs l Accurate ID l Where genetic improvement needs to go beyond herd management needs l Accurate ID l Access to all data w Allow efficient research and development of new trait evaluations l Sufficient incentive for herds to participate ADSA 2007 (22) G. R. Wiggans 2007

Herd of the future l Every milking recorded and components determined l All calves Herd of the future l Every milking recorded and components determined l All calves genotyped w Parentage verification w Genomic-based evaluation l Data delivered to evaluation center daily ADSA 2007 (23) G. R. Wiggans 2007

Hurdles for SNP l Benefits justified by cost l Convenient DNA collection and accurate Hurdles for SNP l Benefits justified by cost l Convenient DNA collection and accurate labels l Timely and adequately accurate genomic prediction l For parentage verification/discovery, genotypes from same SNPs required for potential parents ADSA 2007 (24) G. R. Wiggans 2007

Evaluations on demand l l ADSA 2007 (25) Estimates of SNP effects updated several Evaluations on demand l l ADSA 2007 (25) Estimates of SNP effects updated several times each year Genomic prediction calculated as soon as genotype available G. R. Wiggans 2007

Best practice l Collection of accurate data for all relevant traits l Seamless transfer Best practice l Collection of accurate data for all relevant traits l Seamless transfer to evaluation center l Evaluations calculated with test-day model and including genomic data l Results available as needed ADSA 2007 (26) G. R. Wiggans 2007

What to expect from automatic data collection ADSA 2007 (27) G. R. Wiggans 2007 What to expect from automatic data collection ADSA 2007 (27) G. R. Wiggans 2007

Incentives l Quality data have value l Computer capacity on farm minimizes need for Incentives l Quality data have value l Computer capacity on farm minimizes need for central computing l Economic incentive required for dairies to contribute data to national evaluations l Appropriate to have incentive based on data quality ADSA 2007 (28) G. R. Wiggans 2007

Benefits to herds l Improved management information l Incentives from AI organizations for providing Benefits to herds l Improved management information l Incentives from AI organizations for providing data l Improved pedigree accuracy from parentage validation ADSA 2007 (29) G. R. Wiggans 2007

Impact on national evaluations l More traits w Body condition score based on electronic Impact on national evaluations l More traits w Body condition score based on electronic scales w Mobility l Higher quality w Electronic recording and monitoring l Lower cost w Less labor required ADSA 2007 (30) G. R. Wiggans 2007

Lower cost l l ADSA 2007 (31) Technician cost on test-day eliminated On-farm component Lower cost l l ADSA 2007 (31) Technician cost on test-day eliminated On-farm component determination G. R. Wiggans 2007

Conclusions l l ADSA 2007 (32) Automated data collection w Growing w Can improve Conclusions l l ADSA 2007 (32) Automated data collection w Growing w Can improve data quality Genetic improvement programs w More traits w Better inputs w Tighter connection to sources G. R. Wiggans 2007