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Abraham’s Genealogy HAGAR ABRAHAM Ishmael SARAH Isaac 12 Arabian Tribes Jacob Esau 12 Tribes of Israel Based on this genealogy, which two world religions spring from Abraham?
Abraham’s Journey from Ur. . . To Canaan The “Promised Land”
Abraham’s Journeys Canaan
Land of Goshen, Egypt Descendants of Jacob were enslaved in Egypt and worked on building projects for Pharaoh.
Moses (which is actually an Egyptian name – why? ) “Prince of Egypt” “Shepherd of His People”
Route of the Exodus
Moses and the 10 Commandments A new covenant with Yahweh (YHWH, or Yahweh, is the Hebrew name for God)
Moses and the 10 Commandments Why are the 10 Commandments so important? Think back to Hammurabi – his code said everyone had to obey the law. However, nobles and non-nobles had different punishments. Moses, beginning with the 10 Commandments, taught that everyone – noble or otherwise – faced the same consequences for their actions.
Yahweh’s Covenant With His People § Torah – the law of Moses §The first 5 books of the Hebrew Bible. § The most sacred text in the Jewish religious tradition. The Torah
Mount Sinai Site where Moses met God and received the 10 Commandments.
St. Catherine’s Monastery at Mount Sinai – pilgrims from the Middle Ages forward often went to Mt. Sinai and climbed it for spiritual reasons.
Ancient Israel with some tribes and cities identified.
of Israel (King #1) King Saul’s Unification 10 tribes united behind Saul, but not all 12. It would take David to unify all the tribes of Israel. So Saul’s territory is smaller than David’s.
King David’s Empire (King #2) David united all 12 tribes and fought a series of successful wars against their neighbors. He also made Jerusalem his capital city.
Solomon’s Kingdom (King #3) Solomon expanded Israel’s borders to their greatest extent. Most of his additions to Israel were from political alliances, not wars.
King Solomon also built the first Temple in Jerusalem. The First Temple
Kingdoms of Judah & Israel After Solomon died, his son made poor political decisions. The 10 northern tribes split from the two southern tribes. • The 10 northern tribes kept the name Israel. • The 2 southern tribes became Judah. • Jerusalem remained the capital of Judah.
Israelites in Captivity – or, the ABC’s of Exile and Return A – the Assyrians defeated Israel and carried the 10 tribes into exile (they disappear from history) B – the Babylonians defeat Judah and carry the 2 tribes into the Babylonian Captivity. C – Cyrus of Persia defeats the Bab’s and returns the Jews to home.
From 538 to 332 BCE, Persia ruled Israel. Mostly, the Jews were well-off under the Persians. PS – the biggest empire until Alexander.
Alexander the Great conquered Persia in 332 BCE, incl. Israel.
When he died in 323 BCE, his generals split his empire into 5 parts. One general got Israel and a whole lot more! Unfortunately, one of his descendants so angered the Jewish people that they revolted – and won!
The Maccabee family led the revolt and won against a much larger army. Hanukah is a festival that came out of the victory.
In 63 BCE the Romans took over Israel as a province. It was split into several parts and each part had a different ruler. The Romans believed in “divide and conquer”! Herod had the biggest part, Including Jerusalem.
Herod the Great’s Kingdom Herod was an Edomite placed on the throne by Rome (Edomites are descendants of Esau). He tried to build Israel to look like Rome.
Recreation of Ancient Jerusalem Under Herod and the Romans The Roman fortress overlooking the Temple. The Temple built by Herod the Great.
In 70 AD the Jews revolted. Can you guess who won? Rome levelled Jerusalem, all except the foundation wall of Herod’s Temple.
The Temple Mount, Jerusalem Today Solomon’s Temple Wall: Jews worship and offer prayers before this final section of wall today. It is called the Wailing Wall, or, the Western Wall.