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About the Presentations • The presentations cover the objectives found in the opening of About the Presentations • The presentations cover the objectives found in the opening of each chapter. • All chapter objectives are listed in the beginning of each presentation. • You may customize the presentations to fit your class needs. • Some figures from the chapters are included. A complete set of images from the book can be found on the Instructor Resources disc. 1

Security+ Guide to Network Security Fundamentals, Third Edition Chapter 1 Introduction to Security 2 Security+ Guide to Network Security Fundamentals, Third Edition Chapter 1 Introduction to Security 2

Objectives • Describe the challenges of securing information • Define information security and explain Objectives • Describe the challenges of securing information • Define information security and explain why it is important • Identify the types of attackers that are common today 3

Objectives (continued) • List the basic steps of an attack • Describe the five Objectives (continued) • List the basic steps of an attack • Describe the five steps in a defense • Explain the different types of information security careers and how the Security+ certification can enhance a security career 4

Challenges of Securing Information • There is no simple solution to securing information • Challenges of Securing Information • There is no simple solution to securing information • This can be seen through the different types of attacks that users face today – As well as the difficulties in defending against these attacks 5

Today’s Security Attacks • Typical warnings: – A malicious program was introduced at some Today’s Security Attacks • Typical warnings: – A malicious program was introduced at some point in the manufacturing process of a popular brand of digital photo frames – Nigerian e-mail scam claimed to be sent from the U. N. – “Booby-trapped” Web pages are growing at an increasing rate – A new worm disables Microsoft Windows Automatic Updating and the Task Manager – Apple has issued an update to address 25 security flaws in its operating system OS X 6

Today’s Security Attacks (continued) • Typical warnings: (continued) – The Anti-Phishing Working Group (APWG) Today’s Security Attacks (continued) • Typical warnings: (continued) – The Anti-Phishing Working Group (APWG) reports that the number of unique phishing sites continues to increase – Researchers at the University of Maryland attached four computers equipped with weak passwords to the Internet for 24 days to see what would happen • These computers were hit by an intrusion attempt on average once every 39 seconds 7

Today’s Security Attacks (continued) • Security statistics bear witness to the continual success of Today’s Security Attacks (continued) • Security statistics bear witness to the continual success of attackers: – TJX Companies, Inc. reported that over 45 million customer credit card and debit card numbers were stolen by attackers over an 18 month period from 2005 to 2007 – Table 1 -1 lists some of the major security breaches that occurred during a three-month period – The total average cost of a data breach in 2007 was $197 per record compromised – A recent report revealed that of 24 federal government agencies, the overall grade was only “C−” 8

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Difficulties in Defending against Attacks • Difficulties include the following: – – Speed of Difficulties in Defending against Attacks • Difficulties include the following: – – Speed of attacks Greater sophistication of attacks Simplicity of attack tools Attackers can detect vulnerabilities more quickly and more readily exploit these vulnerabilities – Delays in patching hardware and software products – Most attacks are now distributed attacks, instead of coming from only one source – User confusion 10

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Difficulties in Defending against Attacks (continued) 13 Difficulties in Defending against Attacks (continued) 13

What Is Information Security? • Knowing why information security is important today and who What Is Information Security? • Knowing why information security is important today and who the attackers are is beneficial 14

Defining Information Security • Security can be considered as a state of freedom from Defining Information Security • Security can be considered as a state of freedom from a danger or risk – This state or condition of freedom exists because protective measures are established and maintained • Information security – The tasks of guarding information that is in a digital format – Ensures that protective measures are properly implemented – Cannot completely prevent attacks or guarantee that a system is totally secure 15

Defining Information Security (continued) • Information security is intended to protect information that has Defining Information Security (continued) • Information security is intended to protect information that has value to people and organizations – This value comes from the characteristics of the information: • Confidentiality • Integrity • Availability • Information security is achieved through a combination of three entities 16

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Defining Information Security (continued) 18 Defining Information Security (continued) 18

Defining Information Security (continued) • A more comprehensive definition of information security is: – Defining Information Security (continued) • A more comprehensive definition of information security is: – That which protects the integrity, confidentiality, and availability of information on the devices that store, manipulate, and transmit the information through products, people, and procedures 19

Information Security Terminology • Asset – Something that has a value • Threat – Information Security Terminology • Asset – Something that has a value • Threat – An event or object that may defeat the security measures in place and result in a loss • Threat agent – A person or thing that has the power to carry out a threat 20

Information Security Terminology (continued) • Vulnerability – Weakness that allows a threat agent to Information Security Terminology (continued) • Vulnerability – Weakness that allows a threat agent to bypass security • Risk – The likelihood that a threat agent will exploit a vulnerability – Realistically, risk cannot ever be entirely eliminated 21

Information Security Terminology (continued) 22 Information Security Terminology (continued) 22

Information Security Terminology (continued) 23 Information Security Terminology (continued) 23

Understanding the Importance of Information Security • Preventing data theft – Security is often Understanding the Importance of Information Security • Preventing data theft – Security is often associated with theft prevention – The theft of data is one of the largest causes of financial loss due to an attack – Individuals are often victims of data thievery • Thwarting identity theft – Identity theft involves using someone’s personal information to establish bank or credit card accounts • Cards are then left unpaid, leaving the victim with the debts and ruining their credit rating 24

Understanding the Importance of Information Security (continued) • Avoiding legal consequences – A number Understanding the Importance of Information Security (continued) • Avoiding legal consequences – A number of federal and state laws have been enacted to protect the privacy of electronic data • The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) • The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (Sarbox) • The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA) • USA Patriot Act (2001) • The California Database Security Breach Act (2003) • Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act of 1998 (COPPA) 25

Understanding the Importance of Information Security (continued) • Maintaining Productivity – Cleaning up after Understanding the Importance of Information Security (continued) • Maintaining Productivity – Cleaning up after an attack diverts resources such as time and money away from normal activities 26

Understanding the Importance of Information Security (continued) • Foiling cyberterrorism – Cyberterrorism • Attacks Understanding the Importance of Information Security (continued) • Foiling cyberterrorism – Cyberterrorism • Attacks by terrorist groups using computer technology and the Internet – Utility, telecommunications, and financial services companies are considered prime targets of cyberterrorists 27

Who Are the Attackers? • The types of people behind computer attacks are generally Who Are the Attackers? • The types of people behind computer attacks are generally divided into several categories – These include hackers, script kiddies, spies, employees, cybercriminals, and cyberterrorists 28

Hackers • Hacker – Generic sense: anyone who illegally breaks into or attempts to Hackers • Hacker – Generic sense: anyone who illegally breaks into or attempts to break into a computer system – Narrow sense: a person who uses advanced computer skills to attack computers only to expose security flaws • Although breaking into another person’s computer system is illegal – Some hackers believe it is ethical as long as they do not commit theft, vandalism, or breach any confidentiality 29

Script Kiddies • Script kiddies – Want to break into computers to create damage Script Kiddies • Script kiddies – Want to break into computers to create damage – Unskilled users – Download automated hacking software (scripts) from Web sites and use it to break into computers • They are sometimes considered more dangerous than hackers – Script kiddies tend to be computer users who have almost unlimited amounts of leisure time, which they can use to attack systems 30

Spies • Computer spy – A person who has been hired to break into Spies • Computer spy – A person who has been hired to break into a computer and steal information • Spies are hired to attack a specific computer or system that contains sensitive information – Their goal is to break into that computer or system and take the information without drawing any attention to their actions • Spies, like hackers, possess excellent computer skills 31

Employees • One of the largest information security threats to a business actually comes Employees • One of the largest information security threats to a business actually comes from its employees • Reasons – An employee might want to show the company a weakness in their security – Disgruntled employees may be intent on retaliating against the company – Industrial espionage – Blackmailing 32

Cybercriminals • Cybercriminals – A loose-knit network of attackers, identity thieves, and financial fraudsters Cybercriminals • Cybercriminals – A loose-knit network of attackers, identity thieves, and financial fraudsters – More highly motivated, less risk-averse, better funded, and more tenacious than hackers • Many security experts believe that cybercriminals belong to organized gangs of young and mostly Eastern European attackers • Cybercriminals have a more focused goal that can be summed up in a single word: money 33

Cybercriminals (continued) 34 Cybercriminals (continued) 34

Cybercriminals (continued) • Cybercrime – Targeted attacks against financial networks, unauthorized access to information, Cybercriminals (continued) • Cybercrime – Targeted attacks against financial networks, unauthorized access to information, and theft of personal information • Financial cybercrime is often divided into two categories – Trafficking in stolen credit card numbers and financial information – Using spam to commit fraud 35

Cyberterrorists • Cyberterrorists – Their motivation may be defined as ideology, or attacking for Cyberterrorists • Cyberterrorists – Their motivation may be defined as ideology, or attacking for the sake of their principles or beliefs • Goals of a cyberattack: – To deface electronic information and spread misinformation and propaganda – To deny service to legitimate computer users – To commit unauthorized intrusions into systems and networks that result in critical infrastructure outages and corruption of vital data 36

Attacks and Defenses • Although there a wide variety of attacks that can be Attacks and Defenses • Although there a wide variety of attacks that can be launched against a computer or network – The same basic steps are used in most attacks • Protecting computers against these steps in an attack calls for five fundamental security principles 37

Steps of an Attack • The five steps that make up an attack – Steps of an Attack • The five steps that make up an attack – – – Probe for information Penetrate any defenses Modify security settings Circulate to other systems Paralyze networks and devices 38

Probe for Information • To probe the system for any information that can be Probe for Information • To probe the system for any information that can be used to attack it • “reconnaissance” is essential to provide information • Type of hardware • Version of software or firmware • Personal information about the users • Probing for information include ping sweeps of the network to determine if a system response • Port scanning to see what ports may be open • Queries that send failure messages back to a system • Password quessing 39

Penetrate any Defenses • Once a potential system has been identified and information is Penetrate any Defenses • Once a potential system has been identified and information is gathered the next step; • Is to launch the attack to penetrate the defenses • Manipulating or breaking a password 40

Modify Security Settings • Modifying the security settings is the next step after the Modify Security Settings • Modifying the security settings is the next step after the system has been penetrated • Allows the attacker to re-enter the compromised system more easily • They are known as privilege escalation tools (there are many programs that help accomplish this task) 41

Circulate to other Systems • Once the system has been compromised; • The attacker Circulate to other Systems • Once the system has been compromised; • The attacker then uses it as a base to attack other networks and systems • Same tools that are used to probe for information are then directed toward other systems 42

Paralyze Networks and Devices • Attacker can choose to damage the infected computer or Paralyze Networks and Devices • Attacker can choose to damage the infected computer or network • Deleting or modifying files, stealing valuable data • Crashing the computer or • Performing denial of service attack 43

Internet Control Message Protocolernet 44 Internet Control Message Protocolernet 44

Defenses against Attacks • Although multiple defenses may be necessary to withstand an attack Defenses against Attacks • Although multiple defenses may be necessary to withstand an attack – These defenses should be based on five fundamental security principles: • • • Protecting systems by layering Limiting Diversity Obscurity Simplicity 45

Layering • Let’s read pg 20 (layering) • Information security must be created in Layering • Let’s read pg 20 (layering) • Information security must be created in layers • One defense mechanism may be relatively easy for an attacker to circumvent – Instead, a security system must have layers, making it unlikely that an attacker has the tools and skills to break through all the layers of defenses • A layered approach can also be useful in resisting a variety of attacks • Layered security provides the most comprehensive protection 46

Limiting • Let’s read pg. 21 • Limiting access to information reduces the threat Limiting • Let’s read pg. 21 • Limiting access to information reduces the threat against it • Only those who must use data should have access to it – In addition, the amount of access granted to someone should be limited to what that person needs to know • Some ways to limit access are technology-based, while others are procedural 47

Diversity • Layers must be different (diverse) – If attackers penetrate one layer, they Diversity • Layers must be different (diverse) – If attackers penetrate one layer, they cannot use the same techniques to break through all other layers • Using diverse layers of defense means that breaching one security layer does not compromise the whole system • A jewel thief, might be able to foil the security camera by dressing in black clothes but should not be able to use the same technique to trick the motion detection system 48

Obscurity • Let’s read pg. 22 • An example of obscurity would be not Obscurity • Let’s read pg. 22 • An example of obscurity would be not revealing the type of computer, operating system, software, and network connection a computer uses – An attacker who knows that information can more easily determine the weaknesses of the system to attack it • Obscuring information can be an important way to protect information 49

Simplicity • Information security is by its very nature complex • Complex security systems Simplicity • Information security is by its very nature complex • Complex security systems can be hard to understand, troubleshoot, and feel secure about • As much as possible, a secure system should be simple for those on the inside to understand use • Complex security schemes are often compromised to make them easier for trusted users to work with – Keeping a system simple from the inside but complex on the outside can sometimes be difficult but reaps a major benefit 50

Surveying Information Security Careers and the Security+ Certification • Today, businesses and organizations require Surveying Information Security Careers and the Security+ Certification • Today, businesses and organizations require employees and even prospective applicants – To demonstrate that they are familiar with computer security practices • Many organizations use the Comp. TIA Security+ certification to verify security competency 51

Types of Information Security Jobs • Information assurance (IA) – A superset of information Types of Information Security Jobs • Information assurance (IA) – A superset of information security including security issues that do not involve computers – Covers a broader area than just basic technology defense tools and tactics – Also includes reliability, strategic risk management, and corporate governance issues such as privacy, compliance, audits, business continuity, and disaster recovery – Is interdisciplinary; individuals who are employed in it may come from different fields of study 52

Types of Information Security Jobs (continued) • Information security, also called computer security – Types of Information Security Jobs (continued) • Information security, also called computer security – Involves the tools and tactics to defend against computer attacks – Does not include security issues that do not involve computers • Two broad categories of information security positions – Information security managerial position – Information security technical position 53

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Comp. TIA Security+ Certification • The Comp. TIA Security+ (2008 Edition) Certification is the Comp. TIA Security+ Certification • The Comp. TIA Security+ (2008 Edition) Certification is the premiere vendor-neutral credential • The Security+ exam is an internationally recognized validation of foundation-level security skills and knowledge – Used by organizations and security professionals around the world • The skills and knowledge measured by the Security+ exam are derived from an industry-wide Job Task Analysis (JTA) 55

Comp. TIA Security+ Certification (continued) • The six domains covered by the Security+ exam: Comp. TIA Security+ Certification (continued) • The six domains covered by the Security+ exam: – Systems Security, Network Infrastructure, Access Control, Assessments and Audits, Cryptography, and Organizational Security 56

Summary • Attacks against information security have grown exponentially in recent years • There Summary • Attacks against information security have grown exponentially in recent years • There are several reasons why it is difficult to defend against today’s attacks • Information security may be defined as that which protects the integrity, confidentiality, and availability of information on the devices that store, manipulate, and transmit the information through products, people, and procedures 57

Summary (continued) • The main goals of information security are to prevent data theft, Summary (continued) • The main goals of information security are to prevent data theft, thwart identity theft, avoid the legal consequences of not securing information, maintain productivity, and foil cyberterrorism • The types of people behind computer attacks are generally divided into several categories • There are five general steps that make up an attack: probe for information, penetrate any defenses, modify security settings, circulate to other systems, and paralyze networks and devices 58

Summary (continued) • The demand for IT professionals who know how to secure networks Summary (continued) • The demand for IT professionals who know how to secure networks and computers from attacks is at an all-time high 59