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AAC Augmentative Alternative Communication Cindy Nankee CESA #3 WATI Consultant cnankee@cesa 3. k 12. AAC Augmentative Alternative Communication Cindy Nankee CESA #3 WATI Consultant [email protected] 3. k 12. wi. us

Agenda • • Share assessment experiences Showcase low, mid & high tech AAC Communication Agenda • • Share assessment experiences Showcase low, mid & high tech AAC Communication Symbols Ideas for Using AAC Set Up Success Educational Opportunities Planning Communication Boards – the 80/20 rule • Boardmaker

Session Objective • Participants will increase knowledge of low to high tech AAC materials, Session Objective • Participants will increase knowledge of low to high tech AAC materials, devices and software. • Participants will increase knowledge of AAC implementation in therapy, in the classroom, in the home and in the community. • Participants will understand strategies for success in using a communication system • Participants will increase knowledge of AAC resources. • Participants will create materials using Boardmaker software

Name some ways we communicate Crying Eye contact Sounds Words Pointing Falling asleep Screaming Name some ways we communicate Crying Eye contact Sounds Words Pointing Falling asleep Screaming Silence Communication boards Picture exchange system Voice output systems Gestures/signing Hair-pulling Body position

Augmentative/Alternative Communication AAC *refers to the ways (other than speech) that are used to Augmentative/Alternative Communication AAC *refers to the ways (other than speech) that are used to send a message from one person to another (ASHA, 2005) Examples • Communication boards/books/picture symbols • Voice output communication devices (VOCAs) now referred to as (SGD) Speech Generating Device • Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) • Morse Code • Eye Gaze

AAC is not…. “Giving up” on speech Only for those of a certain IQ AAC is not…. “Giving up” on speech Only for those of a certain IQ Only the job of the speech-language pathologist Just “HIGH TECH” devices A “one-time only” endeavor

AAC can be a vehicle for developing: expressive language receptive language literacy control over AAC can be a vehicle for developing: expressive language receptive language literacy control over the environment communication initiation

Which leads to… • increased academic success • increased participation in social situations • Which leads to… • increased academic success • increased participation in social situations • increased self-esteem • increased job opportunities • And more…

Individuals Who Might Benefit from Visual Tools… – Pre-Readers – Communication Delays/Disorders – English Individuals Who Might Benefit from Visual Tools… – Pre-Readers – Communication Delays/Disorders – English Language Learners – Attention Deficit Disorder – Comprehension Problems – Learning Disabilities – Developmental Delays – Traumatic Brain Injury – Down Syndrome – Autism Spectrum Disorder – And many more…

Assessment • • • ASNAT AT Checklist/AT Wheel STAGES ATLAS Evaluware TASP Test of Assessment • • • ASNAT AT Checklist/AT Wheel STAGES ATLAS Evaluware TASP Test of Aided-Communication Symbol Performance • Communication Matrix – www. designtolearn. com – Online Free/hard copy $8. 00

Online Communication Matrix • The Communication Matrix is an assessment tool designed to pinpoint Online Communication Matrix • The Communication Matrix is an assessment tool designed to pinpoint exactly how a child is currently communicating and to provide a framework for determining logical communication goals. • This online version was designed especially for parents • The parent version is designed to be "user friendly" • Results on a one page Profile

Showcasing Low to High Tech AAC The WATI Continuum Communication board or book Eye Showcasing Low to High Tech AAC The WATI Continuum Communication board or book Eye gaze frame Simple voice output device Voice output device with levels Voice output device with icon sequencing Voice output device with dynamic display Devices with speech synthesis that use typing

Communication Boards Should Include. . . • Vocabulary that reflects all 4 categories – Communication Boards Should Include. . . • Vocabulary that reflects all 4 categories – – Wants & Needs Exchanging Information Social Interactions Social Etiquette • Using the available symbols, could you communicate about an activity in all categories?

Communication Boards http: //www. ange lfire. com/pa 5/as/ asteachersites. ht ml Communication Boards http: //www. ange lfire. com/pa 5/as/ asteachersites. ht ml

Communication book www. autismshop. com Communication book www. autismshop. com

Placement of Communication Boards • • Mount on Wheel Chair On Desk/table On locker Placement of Communication Boards • • Mount on Wheel Chair On Desk/table On locker On Wall/ by bathroom/ sink Play areas Work area Kitchen area

Eye Gaze Frame Eye Gaze Frame

Simple Voice Output Device Able. Net www. ablenetinc. com/ BIGmack Switch (800) 322 -0956 Simple Voice Output Device Able. Net www. ablenetinc. com/ BIGmack Switch (800) 322 -0956

Voice Output Device with Levels http: //www. amdi. net/ www. attainmentcompany. com Voice Output Device with Levels http: //www. amdi. net/ www. attainmentcompany. com

Voice Output with Icon Sequencing Pathfinder, Prentke -Romich Company http: //www. prentrom. com Voice Output with Icon Sequencing Pathfinder, Prentke -Romich Company http: //www. prentrom. com

Voice Output with Dynamic Display DV 4 and MT 4 Mercury E-Talk Palmtop Voice Output with Dynamic Display DV 4 and MT 4 Mercury E-Talk Palmtop

Tango by Blink Twice www. blink-twice. com Tango by Blink Twice www. blink-twice. com

Speaking Dynamically Pro • • AAC Software with speech output www. mayer-johnson. com Windows Speaking Dynamically Pro • • AAC Software with speech output www. mayer-johnson. com Windows and Mac Create personalized dynamic, multilevel, talking boards • $649. 00

Type and Talk speech Synthesis Type and Talk speech Synthesis

Tablet PC Speech Assistant www. herbi. org Tablet PC Speech Assistant www. herbi. org

Terms/definitions • VOCA – Voice Output Communication Device • SGD – Speech Generating Device Terms/definitions • VOCA – Voice Output Communication Device • SGD – Speech Generating Device

Companies handling dynamic display devices • www. dynasys. com DV 4, MT 4, Mighty. Companies handling dynamic display devices • www. dynasys. com DV 4, MT 4, Mighty. Mo, Dyna. Write • www. prentrom. com Pathfinder, Vantage, Vanguard, Springboard • www. aacconnections. com Mercury, Mini. Merc, Enkidu • www. blinktwice. com Tango • www. attainmentcompany. com E-talk

More on Communication Symbols More on Communication Symbols

1. Like 2. Again 3. Show me 4. Whole 5. Past 6. Fast 7. 1. Like 2. Again 3. Show me 4. Whole 5. Past 6. Fast 7. Correct 8. Short 9. Tomorrow 10. Word 11. Communication 12. That’s crazy!

Communication Symbol Guideline – REAL OBJECTS – TANGIBLE SYMBOLS – TOBIs (true objectbased icons) Communication Symbol Guideline – REAL OBJECTS – TANGIBLE SYMBOLS – TOBIs (true objectbased icons) – COLOR PHOTOS – BLACK & WHITE PHOTOS – LINE DRAWINGS – PICTURE COMMUNICATION SYMBOLS – TEXT W/ PICTURES – TEXT & LETTERS

Object Communication System www. adaptivation. com Object Communication System www. adaptivation. com

Tangible Symbols • Tangible symbols are objects or pictures that stand for or represent Tangible Symbols • Tangible symbols are objects or pictures that stand for or represent something about which we need to communicate.

A T. O. B. I. can be a line drawing, photograph etc. which is A T. O. B. I. can be a line drawing, photograph etc. which is cut out in the actual shape of the item it represents

When Billy gets home from school… When Billy gets home from school…

Line Symbols Line Symbols

Picture Communication Symbols Picture Communication Symbols

Text with Pictures Text with Pictures

Communication Board with words/letters/numbers Communication Board with words/letters/numbers

 • • • In Therapy In the Classroom In the Home In the • • • In Therapy In the Classroom In the Home In the Community Behavior Regulation

Why Use Visual Tools and Strategies… Hodgdon, 2002 Give students information about their activities Why Use Visual Tools and Strategies… Hodgdon, 2002 Give students information about their activities Prepare students for what will or will not happen Reduce the anxiety that comes from the unexpected, especially during transition times Help students understand the concept of “finished” Provide the structure for appropriate behavior and participation Support communication and conversation

AAC in Therapy Schedules and Calendars Tools to Give Information Tools to Make Choices AAC in Therapy Schedules and Calendars Tools to Give Information Tools to Make Choices and Requests Tools for Protesting and Rejecting Tools for Behavior Regulation

Picture Schedules ð What is it? A visual representation of a span of time Picture Schedules ð What is it? A visual representation of a span of time or of a specific activity. ð When? They can be used to help cue a child as to what comes next (e. g. , put on snow pants, put on boots, put on coat, put on mittens) ð How? Mount picture symbols or labeled photos on magnetic board, tag board with Velcro, or tape and have the board with you during that activity. Model use of it so the child can eventually perform the task independently.

www. autismshop. com www. autismshop. com

Tools to Give Information “Behavior problems emerge because what the student is expecting and Tools to Give Information “Behavior problems emerge because what the student is expecting and what is really happening are not the same. ” Linda Hodgdon, 2002 • Calming down board • Rule Cards (“When I get to the gym, I sit on the red line. ”) • International NO • Lightning Bolt • Activity Termination Symbols • Social stories w/ or without picture supports • Card to hold (WAIT)

Making Choices and Requests Hodgdon, 2002 *Student may need to LEARN what it means Making Choices and Requests Hodgdon, 2002 *Student may need to LEARN what it means to make a choice *Start with highly desirable choices *Choices often motivate the student to communicate *Offer immediate reinforcement for their choice *Choice-making can be practiced multiple times per day *Adults can structure the choices provided

 • • • What to choose, what to choose… Which snack to eat • • • What to choose, what to choose… Which snack to eat Which toy to play with Which seat to sit in Which person to walk with Which cereal to buy Which washcloth to use Which job to do Which CD to listen to Which book to read

Tools for protesting or rejecting Tools for protesting or rejecting "All Done“ Card http: //www. cesa 7. k 12. wi. us/sped/autism/assist/asst 13. htm

 "Wait" Card http: //www. cesa 7. k 12. wi. us/sped/autism/assist/asst 13. htm

Teaching NO Teaching NO

 "First-Then" Card

AAC in the Classroom • • Same as in Therapy Vocabulary Literacy Boards Literacy AAC in the Classroom • • Same as in Therapy Vocabulary Literacy Boards Literacy Activities to expand language – Customize books – You don’t have to talk before you read – Reading comprehension increases if you are able to talk about it

Vocabulary Vocabulary

Literacy Boards è What is it? A single page containing pictures/words specifically relating to Literacy Boards è What is it? A single page containing pictures/words specifically relating to a particular story è Why? Used to identify key characters of the story, along with messages like “turn the page, ” “more” or other story-specific comments è When? Use before, during, and/or after a story to help lead discussion and help the child fully understand the vocabulary and concepts within the story è How? Model use by pointing to characters, comments as you talk/read about them

Snack Time Boscobel ECH Lily Rider, Louise Hebel Snack Time Boscobel ECH Lily Rider, Louise Hebel

Snack Time Boscobel ECH Lily Rider, Louise Hebel Snack Time Boscobel ECH Lily Rider, Louise Hebel

School to home note Boscobel ECH Lily Rider, Louise Hebel School to home note Boscobel ECH Lily Rider, Louise Hebel

Software to expand language skills • Laurette • Stages choice • Pixwriter Software to expand language skills • Laurette • Stages choice • Pixwriter

AAC in the Home • • Same as Therapy and classroom Create boards for AAC in the Home • • Same as Therapy and classroom Create boards for playing games Follow a recipe AAC systems with infrared can be used to control anything that can be operated with a remote – Channel surf the TV – Purchase a infrared mini controller and automate small appliances (lights, fans, computer, robotic vacuum) – Control infrared toys & switch adapted toys

Playdough recipe with Pixwriter Playdough recipe with Pixwriter

AAC in the Community • Same as Therapy/Classroom/Home • Make choices at the restaurant/library/ AAC in the Community • Same as Therapy/Classroom/Home • Make choices at the restaurant/library/ • Make comments about: sporting events/movies/concerts/ plays/festivals/fashions • Create shopping lists

? ? Remember ? ? The focus is not on the technology (low or ? ? Remember ? ? The focus is not on the technology (low or high) rather, it is on communication, the academic activity and language. ? ? Remember ? ?

The following section from CCE Creating Communication Environments – Partner that knows how to The following section from CCE Creating Communication Environments – Partner that knows how to prompt, model, elicit language, pause Partner Environment – Environment that’s conducive to communication by the child Communication Activity – Activities that focus on communication

Arrange the Environment to Increase the Likelihood of Communication Common Strategies…. Ø Ø Ø Arrange the Environment to Increase the Likelihood of Communication Common Strategies…. Ø Ø Ø Ø Use motivating materials and activities Materials should be in view but not accessible Student should need assistance with some materials Provide small or inadequate amounts of materials Sabotage Provide something the student doesn’t like/want Use communication boards/devices & visual tools

Increase Communication by being a good communication Partner !Accept and respond to ANY communication Increase Communication by being a good communication Partner !Accept and respond to ANY communication attempt ! Provide descriptive feedback instead of praise (“You wanted paint. Here’s more paint. ”) ! Be silent when appropriate ! Be aware of use of figurative language (“take your seat” vs. “sit”) ! Use a prompt hierarchy

Prompt Hierarchy • Environmental Cue – PAUSE • Open Question – PAUSE • Prompt Prompt Hierarchy • Environmental Cue – PAUSE • Open Question – PAUSE • Prompt OR Request for Communication – PAUSE • Full Model – PAUSE • Incorporate descriptive feedback into each step

Prompt Hierarchy Step #1 Environmental Cue • Set up the environment to signal to Prompt Hierarchy Step #1 Environmental Cue • Set up the environment to signal to the student that an activity is about to begin. – – – Ringing bell Lining up at the door Art materials prepared but of reach Desired items visible but inaccessible Cutting the pizza, e. g. • After student responds, provide. . . Descriptive Feedback

Prompt Hierarchy--Pausing Pause after every step • Focus your attention on the student (expect Prompt Hierarchy--Pausing Pause after every step • Focus your attention on the student (expect communication!) A N • PAUSE D • After student responds, provide. . . Descriptive Feedback

Prompt Hierarchy Step #2 Open Question • If the student does not respond to Prompt Hierarchy Step #2 Open Question • If the student does not respond to the pause by making a response: – Ask a WHAT, WHY, WHO, WHEN, WHERE, OR HOW Question • “What do you want? ” • “Whose turn is it? ” • “Where does that go? ” • AND then…. . . PAUSE • After student responds, provide. . . Descriptive Feedback

Prompt Hierarchy Step #3 Prompt or Request Communication • Provide a prompt to students Prompt Hierarchy Step #3 Prompt or Request Communication • Provide a prompt to students – Choices, carrier phrase, initial sound, visual cue OR • Request Communication – “Tell me what you need. ” – “Tell me what goes next. ” • AND then……PAUSE • After student responds, provide. . . Descriptive Feedback

Prompt Hierarchy Step # 4 Full Model • Provide a full model for student Prompt Hierarchy Step # 4 Full Model • Provide a full model for student – Use student’s AAC device – Use developmentally appropriate model • AND then…. . . PAUSE • After student responds, provide. . . Descriptive Feedback

PAUSE Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause! In other words…PAUse! PAUSE Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause Pause! In other words…PAUse!

Prompt Hierarchy—WHY? § Gives student the necessary time to process information and to formulate Prompt Hierarchy—WHY? § Gives student the necessary time to process information and to formulate a message to communicate § Provides a structure for adults that encourages communication § Can be customized for individual students § Organized least to most

CCE video CCE video

 • Visual Strategies – Susan Stokes www. wati. org CESA 6 - 12/20 • Visual Strategies – Susan Stokes www. wati. org CESA 6 - 12/20 CESA 9 2/26/07 • CCE (Creating Communication Environments) WATI Consultants • Get A Grip On Communication www. wati. org Cesa #2 - 1/26 and 4/24 • Dyna. Vox – www. dynavoxsys. com • PECS (Picture Exchange Communication System) Green Bay 1/4 & 5; Milwaukee 4/23 &24 www. pecs. com

Creating a Communication Environment (CCE) Partner Environment Communication Activity CCE is for staff struggling Creating a Communication Environment (CCE) Partner Environment Communication Activity CCE is for staff struggling with the implementation of AAC systems including language boards and low tech to high tech devices, across the school environment.

Creating a Communication Environment (CCE) • A four part sequential intervention • A team Creating a Communication Environment (CCE) • A four part sequential intervention • A team is required (teacher, SLP, Para, OT, Parent) • CESA #2 Milton Wisconsin • $600. per 3 person team, $50. per additional team member • Jill Gierach, CESA #2 WATI consultant • Shelly Weingarten, CESA #1 WATI consultant • www. wati. org training link

Get A Grip on Communication • 2 part training – assessment & programming • Get A Grip on Communication • 2 part training – assessment & programming • Severe and profound multiple disabilities • Special educators, SLP’s, OT’s, Paraprofessionals, Parents • $225 • College credit • www. cesa 2. k 12. wi. us registration forms

Dyna. Vox Trainings www. dynavoxsys. com • Dyna. Vox Local Trainings – Introductory and Dyna. Vox Trainings www. dynavoxsys. com • Dyna. Vox Local Trainings – Introductory and Advanced Trainings • Online Programming Tutorials – Video and slide presentations • Dyna. Vox Virtual Classroom – an online learning environment that features a live instructor

Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS): • PECS allow the child to spontaneously initiate a Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS): • PECS allow the child to spontaneously initiate a communicative interaction by actually exchanging, or giving a visual representation system to another person. • By making a physical exchange with another person, the child develops a concrete understanding that communication is an actual exchange of information between two or more people • The PECS program is composed of various phases or levels, starting with simple, concrete communicative exchanges and moving to more abstract communication. • Visual representation systems which can be used: miniature objects, T. O. B. I. s, photos, real drawings, line drawings, written words.

Visual Resources for Enhancing Communication from the Indiana Resource Center for Autism www. iidc. Visual Resources for Enhancing Communication from the Indiana Resource Center for Autism www. iidc. indiana. edu/irca *Attainment Company, Verona, WI 800 -327 -4269 www. attainmentcompany. com *Autism Resource Network www. autismshop. com *Don Johnston Company, Volo, IL 800 -999 -4660 www. donjohnston. com *Imaginart Communication Products, Bisbee, AZ 800 -828 -1376 www. imaginart. com *Intelli. Tools, Inc. , Novato, CA 800 -899 -6687 www. intellitools. com *Mayer-Johnson Company, Solana Beach, CA 800 -588 -4548 www. mayerjohnson. com *Pyramid Educational Consultants I nc. , Newark, DE 888 -732 -7462 *Silver Lining Multimedia, Inc. , Poughkeepsie, NY 845 -462 -8174 *Slater Software, Inc, Guffey, CO 719 -479 -2255

 • Planning • • – Assessment & Design Boardmaker Speaking Dynamically Pro Pix. • Planning • • – Assessment & Design Boardmaker Speaking Dynamically Pro Pix. Writer Microsoft Word Table www. imaginesymbols. com

80/20 Rule Augmentative Alternative Communication is 80% planning and 20% programming 80/20 Rule Augmentative Alternative Communication is 80% planning and 20% programming

Assessment • Evaluware – Computerized assessment – Assesses size/spacing/visual preferences/auditory preferences • TASP – Assessment • Evaluware – Computerized assessment – Assesses size/spacing/visual preferences/auditory preferences • TASP – – – Hard copy assessment An easy-to-use tool for assessing symbolic skills, Design communication boards Help select Aug Communication device Set appropriate AAC goals Serves as a tool to benchmark progress in aided communication performance.

Designing Communication Boards • Physical considerations: – – Size of symbols Spacing between symbols Designing Communication Boards • Physical considerations: – – Size of symbols Spacing between symbols Physical access to all locations of board Landscape vs. Portrait orientation

Designing Communication Boards • Visual considerations: – Color vs. black/white – Color background – Designing Communication Boards • Visual considerations: – Color vs. black/white – Color background – Size & spacing

Designing Communication Boards • Language/Cognitive Considerations: – – Type of message (single word vs. Designing Communication Boards • Language/Cognitive Considerations: – – Type of message (single word vs. phrase) Type of symbol (Photos, line drawings) Amount of vocabulary to be displayed at a time Organization Brandenburg, S. , & Vanderheiden, g. C. (1988) The Vocally Impaired: Clinical Practice and Research pp. 84 -135

Arrangements for Communication Displays Activity-Based Category-Based Grammatically Correct-Based Alphabet and Word Based Arrangements for Communication Displays Activity-Based Category-Based Grammatically Correct-Based Alphabet and Word Based

Activity-Based Displays • For use with a specific activity (block play, cooking, office help) Activity-Based Displays • For use with a specific activity (block play, cooking, office help) • May necessitate repeating of symbols across multiple displays • Should include comments and social etiquette messages • General left-to-right progression (personaction-attribute-object-location) • Should include problem-solving messages

Category-Based Displays • Groupings are based on categories with vocabulary items arranged according to Category-Based Displays • Groupings are based on categories with vocabulary items arranged according to familiar categories • May include a main board (e. g. , I want to tell you a joke) with branching subtopic messages • Requires knowledge of categorization and the hierarchy of language • Difficult to express relational concepts, or complex thoughts, and difficult to use appropriate syntax

Grammatically-Correct Displays • Groupings are based upon some knowledge of grammar • Provide a Grammatically-Correct Displays • Groupings are based upon some knowledge of grammar • Provide a way to generate more complex thoughts, to develop linguistic and literacy skills • Includes semantic arrangements, grammatical arrangements, or a modified Fitzgerald Key • Makes it possible for communication partners to model language (augmented input/aided language stimulation

Alphabet or Wordbased Displays • Groupings are based on the alphabet • May include Alphabet or Wordbased Displays • Groupings are based on the alphabet • May include combination word-symbol messages • Effective use depends on the student’s prior knowledge, future goals, and the message selection techniques being used

Color Coding will allow user and facilitator to locate symbols more easily www. aacintervention. Color Coding will allow user and facilitator to locate symbols more easily www. aacintervention. com Tip of the month

Goosens’ Crain & Elder Color Coding System Communication Displays for Engineered Preschool Environments (1994) Goosens’ Crain & Elder Color Coding System Communication Displays for Engineered Preschool Environments (1994) • • • Verbs…………………. . Pink Descriptors………. . Blue Prepositions………. Green Nouns…………………. . Yellow Miscellaneous……Orange – “WH” words, exclamations, negations, etc.

Planning is Ongoing Continue to Adjust Variables • Expand vocabulary • Increase size & Planning is Ongoing Continue to Adjust Variables • Expand vocabulary • Increase size & array of symbols • Increase settings: home/community/other people/times in a day • Differ communication: requests/labeling/commenting/questions • Multi symbol utterances • Accessible/portable • Bridge up/down hierarchy

Summary of Ideas • • Calendars Schedules Vocabulary Worksheets/Quizzes (matching/fill in) • Math/Reading/ Science/SS Summary of Ideas • • Calendars Schedules Vocabulary Worksheets/Quizzes (matching/fill in) • Math/Reading/ Science/SS • Social Stories • Community • Picture supported story/newsletter • Literacy board • Weather Board • Snack placemats • Games (bingo) • Certificates • Greeting Cards

Category Worksheet Kristin Whitfield Dyna. Vox educational specialist Category Worksheet Kristin Whitfield Dyna. Vox educational specialist

Boardmaker Software • Picture communication symbols used to create communication boards, device overlays, worksheets, Boardmaker Software • Picture communication symbols used to create communication boards, device overlays, worksheets, picture schedules • Teacher Tool • www. mayer-johnson. com • $299. 00

Boardmaker Plus Software • • • This is Boardmaker plus voice Create interactive Activities Boardmaker Plus Software • • • This is Boardmaker plus voice Create interactive Activities Minus SDP bells and whistles Student/classroom Tool www. mayer-johnson. com $399. 00

Boardmaker with Speaking Dynamically Pro Software • SDP is a speech output program • Boardmaker with Speaking Dynamically Pro Software • SDP is a speech output program • Use to create dynamic, talking, multilevel communication boards • Teacher Tool • Individual Student Tool • www. mayer-johnson. com • $649. 00

Boardmaker Tutorial Boardmaker Tutorial

Word Table with Clip. Art Word Table with Clip. Art

http: //www. imagine. Symbols. com • 4000 symbols include emotions, animals, verbs, nouns, computer http: //www. imagine. Symbols. com • 4000 symbols include emotions, animals, verbs, nouns, computer technology, and many more. Imagine Symbols are available for download for non-commercial use.

Created in Word with Free Image Symbols Created in Word with Free Image Symbols

http: //www. symbolworld. org • This is a great site for non-readers. Everything is http: //www. symbolworld. org • This is a great site for non-readers. Everything is in symbols. Stories, news, recipes, personal care, and much more. There is even a newsletter that is similar to News 2 You. . . but it's free.

www. widgit. com • • Resources on symbol use Symbols for literacy Products Webwide www. widgit. com • • Resources on symbol use Symbols for literacy Products Webwide – see websites with symbol support

References American Speech-Language-Hearing Association website: www. asha. org Burkhart, L. 1993, Total Augmentative Communication References American Speech-Language-Hearing Association website: www. asha. org Burkhart, L. 1993, Total Augmentative Communication in the Early Childhood Classroom, p. 38 Binger, C. & Kent-Walsh, J. (2005). Evidence-Based Language Supports for Children Using AAC: Increasing Expressive Communication. Closing the Gap conference, Oct. 2005, Minneapolis, MN. Casey, K. & Kornfeld S. (2004). Developing language-rich light tech AAC systems for young children. Closing the Gap, October/November 2004, 23 (4). CESA 4 & 5 Cumley, J. and Pallaske, M. , CESA 1 & 2 Weingarten, M. and Gierach, J. , Creating Communication Environments training, 2005 Dyna. Vox educational specialist Whitfield, K. , Planning for and supporting Meaningful Participation and Learning for children and Adults Using AAC

References Hodgdon, L. , Visual Strategies For Improving Communication: Solving Behavior Problems in Autism: References Hodgdon, L. , Visual Strategies For Improving Communication: Solving Behavior Problems in Autism: Improving Communication with Visual Strategies, Quirk. Roberts Publishing, www. usevisualstrategies. com P. O. Box 71 Troy, MI 48099 -0071 Hodgdon, L. , Solving Behavior Problems in Autism: Improving Communication with Visual Strategies, Quirk. Roberts Publishing, www. usevisualstrategies. com P. O. Box 71 Troy, MI 48099 -0071 Karlan, George. Environmental Communication Teaching Training. Field-Initiated Research Grant Award No. H 023 C 9005 from the Office of Special Education, U. S. Department of Education. Lafayette, Indiana: Purdue University. Quill, Kathleen, Do-Watch-Listen-Say, Paul H. Brookes Publishing, 2000 Raising a Reader, Raising a Writer: How Parents Can Help. Washington DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) #530 Teaching Our Youngest: A Guide for Preschool Teachers, Child Care & Family Providers, U. S. Department of Education