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A systems framework for sustainability & its application to a construction project at the A systems framework for sustainability & its application to a construction project at the University of Canterbury Lin Roberts

The Natural Step Framework Components Systems Thinking Basic Science The Funnel © The Natural The Natural Step Framework Components Systems Thinking Basic Science The Funnel © The Natural Step Level of Approach Four System Conditions Strategic Planning

The Natural Step System Conditions In a sustainable society, nature is not subject to The Natural Step System Conditions In a sustainable society, nature is not subject to systematically increasing… i) … concentrations of substances from the Earth’s crust ii) …concentrations of substances produced by society iii) …degradation of nature by physical means and in that society, people are not subject to conditions that systematically… iv) …undermine their capacity to meet their needs. © The Natural Step

A Global Perspective: The Funnel © The Natural Step A Global Perspective: The Funnel © The Natural Step

Backcasting: From Basic Principles © The Natural Step Backcasting: From Basic Principles © The Natural Step

The Natural Step Framework Recap • Foundations in Basic Science: – The laws of The Natural Step Framework Recap • Foundations in Basic Science: – The laws of Thermodynamics – Applied systems thinking: The Earth as a System – The four systems conditions (4 SC) as a practical guideline for sustainability – The funnel: a metaphor for current unsustainable practices • How to manage complex change? – Distinguish levels in the approach (Pyramid) – Strategic Planning process: • A 4 -step planning process in the funnel • ‘Backcasting from Basic Principles’ © The Natural Step

Use of the Framework is widespread • Chemical sector e. g. ICI Paints, Du. Use of the Framework is widespread • Chemical sector e. g. ICI Paints, Du. Pont, Hydro. Polymers (PVC) • Mining and minerals e. g. BHP Bileton, Rio Tinto Zinc • Food & beverage e. g. Phoenix Organics, Curators House Restaurant, Mc. Donald’s • Agriculture e. g. North Canterbury farmers, Lantmannen • Manufacturers e. g. Macpac, Tait Electronics, Interface • Communities e. g. Whistler, Canmore, Halifax, Stockholm, Robertsfors, Overtornea • Construction e. g. Skanska, Carillion, Crest Nicholson, Swedish Mc. Donalds, University of Texas, University of Canterbury • Tertiary e. g. Lund, Blekinge, Canterbury, Otago Polytechnic © The Natural Step

Creating Sustainable Buildings © The Natural Step Creating Sustainable Buildings © The Natural Step

Sequential design Client architect mechanical engineer electrical engineer etc • Difficult to retain vision Sequential design Client architect mechanical engineer electrical engineer etc • Difficult to retain vision • Difficult to optimise sustainability features – compromises • Harder to make it sustainable AND costeffective AND meet needs of building users © The Natural Step

Integrated Design By the time the first 1% of a project’s up-front costs are Integrated Design By the time the first 1% of a project’s up-front costs are spent, up to 70% of its life-cycle costs may already be committed. 3 "E"s: Everyone, Everything, and Early: Engage all stakeholders; consider every aspect of the project in an integrated way; start early in the development process. Bill Reed, one of the developers of the LEED rating system Over a building’s first 40 years, construction costs amount to only 11 %, whereas operation and alteration costs total as much as 75%. (. . and that’s as true about business strategy, product design, industrial processes, food system and transportation infrastructure as it is about buildings. ) © The Natural Step

Integrated sustainable design Bring all the key players together Develop a shared understanding of Integrated sustainable design Bring all the key players together Develop a shared understanding of sustainability and a shared vision for the building – use TNS framework Owner Architect Occupant Project Manager Builder Landscape architect Mechanical engineer Shared Vision based on sustainability principles Structural engineer Electrical engineer Specialty consultants Interior designer Maintenance R. Mc. Donald 2005 © The Natural Step Invest up front in the design phase, work collaboratively Same frameworks for client, design team, construction team, building users etc

University of Canterbury • Began with a pilot programme in 3 departments in 2004 University of Canterbury • Began with a pilot programme in 3 departments in 2004 (2 days training for 30 staff) • This led to a decision in 2005 to develop a Pan. University Sustainability Plan; now working on a series of plans that flow from that strategy • Suite of projects in UC Opportunity • In 2005 a decision to apply The Natural Step Framework to the $60 million Bio. Sciences building project (7 year project) © The Natural Step

University of Canterbury Bio. Sciences building project • 2 day workshop in November 2005 University of Canterbury Bio. Sciences building project • 2 day workshop in November 2005 involving building occupiers, maintainers, client, architects, mechanical, structural and electrical engineers, quantity surveyors • Came out with a clear shared vision for the buildings and over 150 allocated actions to help achieve the vision – and enormous enthusiasm, innovation and commitment! • A year later the team is still highly motivated and on target. © The Natural Step

The Challenge To create a building that is as sustainable as we can make The Challenge To create a building that is as sustainable as we can make it while also - meeting the very demanding technical high performance criteria (world class scientific research, HSNO legislation re GMOs and hazardous substances, temperature control for experiments and animal rearing, stability for electron microscopes, controlled access to labs etc) - meeting the needs for interaction of the building users (breaking down silos and research empires, fostering collaborative research, but flexibility to rearrange spaces as research priorities changed) - and also satisfying tight financial controls. © The Natural Step

Feedback from the workshop attendees The cross pollination of ideas has been fantastic I’m Feedback from the workshop attendees The cross pollination of ideas has been fantastic I’m so impressed by the buy-in from all the different players I was cynical, thinking sustainability was just a trendy thing – now it is real! © The Natural Step The best two days we have spent I am really inspired! I am convinced this group is going to do this job VERY, VERY well I’m looking forward to reading the Times article about our success!

www. naturalstep. org natstep@naturalstep. org. nz For more information: © The Natural Step www. naturalstep. org [email protected] org. nz For more information: © The Natural Step

School of Biological Sciences Glass atrium joins new research building and Zoology building New School of Biological Sciences Glass atrium joins new research building and Zoology building New research building Existing PAMS/ Geology Building New bike sheds with showers & composting toilets © The Natural Step Existing Zoology Building New Link Building

© The Natural Step © The Natural Step

Efficient use of resources (mainly System Condition 1) • • • Do we need Efficient use of resources (mainly System Condition 1) • • • Do we need a new building? Efficient infrastructure layout Modular and flexible internal layout Reuse of materials and artesian water Easy for building users to recycle © The Natural Step

Energy Efficiency (System Condition 1) • • Significant use of thermal mass Wide range Energy Efficiency (System Condition 1) • • Significant use of thermal mass Wide range of energy efficiency measures Extensive use of natural lighting and task lighting Double glazed new external faces; automated shading; efficient, effective ventilation systems • Independent and audited commissioning of building services Target – under 100 k. Wh/m 2/yr cf. usual 300 k. Wh for labs • Sustainable transport fostered © The Natural Step

Renewable Energy (System Condition 1) • Coal & electricity currently very cheap relative to Renewable Energy (System Condition 1) • Coal & electricity currently very cheap relative to alternatives but this is expected to change within life of building • Future proofing - roof strong enough to carry PV panels and/or solar water panels • Ongoing monitoring of relative costs • A demonstration PV panel to run some of the systems e. g. pumps for rainwater harvest. © The Natural Step

Persistent Chemicals (System condition 2) • No use of CFCs or HCFCs in the Persistent Chemicals (System condition 2) • No use of CFCs or HCFCs in the HVAC systems; • Landscaping will focus on low maintenance adapted plants that do not require pesticides and use timbers that do not require chemical treatment e. g. local plantation grown macrocarpa or Eucalyptus saligna; • Paints & internal fittings & finishes have not yet been addressed but sustainability will be a key consideration. • Department pilot for Green Laboratory practices © The Natural Step

Ecosystems and Water (System condition 3) Okeover stream being restored stormwater treated through a Ecosystems and Water (System condition 3) Okeover stream being restored stormwater treated through a water quality chain ~120 carparks replaced by green space Rainwater harvesting for toilets & irrigation Secure cycle shed with showers & composting toilets New research block Use of plants & water in atrium – “lungs” of building, a living demo of bio principles Atrium Permeable pavers under carparks lower pressure low fixtures to limit domestic hot and cold water consumption Existing Zoology Building timbers from sustainably © The Natural Step managed forests Artesian cooling water from Commerce building reused

Social Sustainability (System condition 4) Design facilitates interaction & sense of community • • Social Sustainability (System condition 4) Design facilitates interaction & sense of community • • • providing opportunities for building users to interact Atrium, with various breakout spaces, generous air bridges and vertical circulation routes Key areas such as the common room & administration located either in or adjacent to the atrium to draw people in there Research laboratories designed as group rather than individual spaces Office spaces largely transparent Postgraduate study area - individual study spaces in an open plan format Building as Teacher • Living systems brought into and around building, demonstrating biological principles • Fish tank window from atrium, displays of research • Energy use meters, demonstration of renewable technologies, interpretation panels etc © The Natural Step

For more information There are many other case studies – see TNSNZ website www. For more information There are many other case studies – see TNSNZ website www. naturalstep. org. nz For example in the construction sector: • Videos of University of Texas Health Sciences Building & Carillion Swindon Hospital • Social housing scheme in the North of England - main success was showing TNS as a great tool for consensus building and really involving the tenants and local community. • • Oregon Natural Step Construction Industry Group (includes architects, consulting engineers, construction and development companies, and Department of Energy) – “Using The Natural Step as a Framework toward the Construction and Operation of Fully Sustainable Buildings” 17 pp. • Workshops on “Integrating The Natural Step and LEED” at the USGBC Green. Build conference 2004 & in Oregon 2005. Also extensive resources around sustainable materials, SLCA etc © The Natural Step