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A framework for integrated process monitoring in grinding machine control John Moruzzi GERI / A framework for integrated process monitoring in grinding machine control John Moruzzi GERI / AMTRe. L M. N. Morgan, X. Chen, D. R. Allanson A framework for integrated process monitoring in grinding machine control

Introduction In machining, and particularly grinding, it is desirable to have a control system Introduction In machining, and particularly grinding, it is desirable to have a control system that can integrate and adopt the latest Process Control and Monitoring equipment, and implement enhanced production cycles. Grinding optimization technologies include wheel balancing, in-process gauging, touch detection (power and acoustic emission) and other sensor-based strategies. A selection of such features may be included in higher-end grinding machines in response to specific requirements, however this involves significant customisation and application engineering from the machine builder. It is often impractical or uneconomic to apply the benefits of this technology to simpler, cheaper grinding machines, despite the fact that lowcost process control equipment is becoming increasingly available. A framework for integrated process monitoring in grinding machine control

Objectives and Innovation An innovative new software-based design strategy is therefore proposed to directly Objectives and Innovation An innovative new software-based design strategy is therefore proposed to directly address the issue of improved process control integration. The aim is to unify the design and implementation of key machine tool features such as hardware configuration parameters, operational parameters, process variables and machining cycles into a rationalized, extendable, Object-Oriented framework suitable for implementation using current PC hardware and software. In order to implement such a framework it is necessary to identify and specify the key features of the new system, using a standardized format that will allow similarities and synergies to be recognised and optimised. The main items for consideration are: • Cycles and Part programmes • Hardware features • Communication features • Operational features • Software features A framework for integrated process monitoring in grinding machine control (Grinding, Dressing, Balancing) (Connectors, Interfaces) (Protocols, data structures) (Functions, signals, data) (Configuration, displays)

Control of the grinding process A BASIC GRINDING CYCLE: The fundamental process parameters for Control of the grinding process A BASIC GRINDING CYCLE: The fundamental process parameters for grinding cycles are wheel and workpiece speed. Additionally there will be defined various infeed rates, infeed setpoints (Coarse, Medium, Fine, Final size), reversal points (Left and Right) and time dwells. The machine control will execute a sequence of moves to the programmed axis positions at the appropriate speeds, and the expectation is that a satisfactory part will be produced. A typical automated cycle path is shown : A framework for integrated process monitoring in grinding machine control Automatic Plunge Cycle

Monitoring of the grinding process Key target functions: • Wheel Balancing (vibration sensing / Monitoring of the grinding process Key target functions: • Wheel Balancing (vibration sensing / correction) • Touch Detection (Acoustic Emission or Power sensing) • Gauging (Size / Position measurement) Auxiliary Process Monitoring equipment is generally a stand-alone unit, connected to the machine control via a wiring or communications interface. The operator will set the device operating parameters and monitor its behaviour via a control panel. As various programmed conditions are met during machining, appropriate signals and visual indications are set by the device. The operator or machine control will then respond to this information according to a defined strategy. The devices will generally operate in Manual mode (operator control) or Automatic mode (machine control). The enhanced system is designed to accommodate fuller integration of process monitoring equipment with the machine control system. A framework for integrated process monitoring in grinding machine control

Quality Issues In practice the physical variability of the process, such as wheel wear, Quality Issues In practice the physical variability of the process, such as wheel wear, machine deflections, and temperature variations mean that adjustments to the grinding parameters need to be made in order to improve the quality of the finished part. The refinements to the process variables are often made in response to changes in the part dimensions, surface finish or roundness, and are identified through post-process measurements and operator experience. Quality Issues Causes Monitoring Solution Size tolerance System deflections Wheel wear Wheel selection / condition Grinding parameters Wheel unbalance Wheel wear / dulling Excessive infeed Wheel unbalance In-Process Gauging Power / AE monitoring Post-Process Gauging Surface roughness Roundness Burning Spindle wear A framework for integrated process monitoring in grinding machine control Post-Process Gauging Wheel balancing Power monitoring Wheel balancing

Efficiency Issues Key process efficiency issues: • Optimisation of machining and dressing times • Efficiency Issues Key process efficiency issues: • Optimisation of machining and dressing times • Reduction in scrap, reworking, replacement of wheels etc. Efficiency Aims Issue Monitoring Solution Reduction in: Air grinding time before machining Power / AE monitoring Dwell time after machining Power / AE monitoring Optimisation of: Excessive wheel dressing intervals Power / AE monitoring Insufficient wheel dressing intervals Infeed rates Power monitoring Material removal during dressing A framework for integrated process monitoring in grinding machine control AE monitoring

Safety Issues Key process safety issues: • Protection of operator from crash or failure Safety Issues Key process safety issues: • Protection of operator from crash or failure conditions • Reduction in machine, wheel and part damage Safety Issues Condition Monitoring Solution Detection of: Wheel collision AE / Power monitoring Wheel failure Unbalance monitoring Wheel overspeed Speed monitoring A framework for integrated process monitoring in grinding machine control

Example Arrangement of Integrated System CNC MAIN CONTROL A framework for integrated process monitoring Example Arrangement of Integrated System CNC MAIN CONTROL A framework for integrated process monitoring in grinding machine control

Major equipment suppliers CNC Gauge Touch Balance Fanuc Marposs Dittel Balance Systems Mitsubishi Movomatic Major equipment suppliers CNC Gauge Touch Balance Fanuc Marposs Dittel Balance Systems Mitsubishi Movomatic Schmitt Siemens Balance Systems Dittel Heidenhain Control Gauging Marposs Fagor MPM Num Elaso OEM / Custom …. Challenges leading to the development of a generic type interface: • Lack of standardisation between CNC and equipment manufacturers • Different interfacing hardware and strategies for Process Control equipment. • Different levels of functionality / complexity A framework for integrated process monitoring in grinding machine control

Machine Control and Balancer features Functional similarities between equipment types: The fundamental features, functions, Machine Control and Balancer features Functional similarities between equipment types: The fundamental features, functions, quantities and interfaces in a typical grinding machine control are shown below. Machine Control Cycles Plunge Traverse Dress Commands Start / Reset cycle Select cycle Set parameter Integration Machine logic Custom software Interfaces Digital I/O Analog signals Serial Bus Network A framework for integrated process monitoring in grinding machine control The wheel balancer can be seen as a simplified version of a machine control system. Cycles Sensors Signals Data Wheel Balancer Automatic balance Manual balance Neutral Balance Vibration Rotation Start / Reset cycle Limits Faults / Alarms Unbalance Speed

Gauge and Touch Detector features There also similarities in the functionality of the Gauging Gauge and Touch Detector features There also similarities in the functionality of the Gauging and Touch Detector features. Both use various sensors and channels to monitor and control different phases of the grinding cycle. They will use different cycle parameters for machining different parts. In-Process Gauge Cycles Sensors Signals Data Diameter gauging Flag gauging Gauging head Rotation Start / Reset cycle Limits Faults / Alarms Size Position Touch Detector Cycles Sensors Signals Data A framework for integrated process monitoring in grinding machine control Touch monitoring Burn Monitoring Crash monitoring Acoustic Emission Power Special (Force, Strain, . . . ) Start / Reset cycle Limits Faults / Alarms Acoustic levels Power levels

CNC Equipment Interfacing CNC main module Bus System devices are interconnected to transmit and CNC Equipment Interfacing CNC main module Bus System devices are interconnected to transmit and exchange: Digital IO CNC axis drives Analog Ethernet • • Control signals Status signals Process data Configuration data Ethernet Bus PC unit Profibus RS 232 Digital IO Bus Digital IO CNC IO modules A framework for integrated process monitoring in grinding machine control Monitoring unit

Equipment interfacing schemes Main schemes for interaction between devices: Digital I/O Interface (Conventional) 24 Equipment interfacing schemes Main schemes for interaction between devices: Digital I/O Interface (Conventional) 24 V DC opto-isolated digital inputs and outputs. Each line set to 0 or 24 V level = Low / High, On / Off, True / False. Serial communications interface (RS 232, USB) Traditional method between computer hardware. Direct Port-Port connection. Bus / Fieldbus communications (Profibus, Modbus, Interbus, …) RS 485 -based. Devices daisy-chained together : 1 x Master, n x slaves (with ID) Network communications Ethernet / TCPIP based. (Profinet, Device. Net, …) A framework for integrated process monitoring in grinding machine control

Dittel M 5000 TD unit - signals definition IO Interface table Describes the connector Dittel M 5000 TD unit - signals definition IO Interface table Describes the connector hardware and pin / line assignments. Identifies input and output lines and numbers. Identifies power supply/ ground lines. Describes logic levels (sense of signal) Describes signal wiring (Source / Sink) A framework for integrated process monitoring in grinding machine control

BS VM 9 TD unit - signals definition IO Interface table - 2 Equivalent BS VM 9 TD unit - signals definition IO Interface table - 2 Equivalent table for similar Touch Detector unit from a different supplier. Small set of names and descriptors helps to identify common or similar features. Formalised / standardised structure aids device analysis and documentation. A framework for integrated process monitoring in grinding machine control

Key interactions with devices What we would like our system to do… Main actions Key interactions with devices What we would like our system to do… Main actions : • Device configuration • Device operation • Device monitoring Main data: • Control, status and alarm signals • Process signal values • Device parameters A framework for integrated process monitoring in grinding machine control

Objectives for Open Control Systems: The new system builds on the Open Control Systems Objectives for Open Control Systems: The new system builds on the Open Control Systems concept, originating in the 1990 s for Machine Tool Control applications: • Commercial or Industry standard hardware (increasingly moving in this direction) • Modular software structures • Well defined software interfaces - standardised • Vendor-neutral architectures and application modules • Flexible and reconfigurable , adaptable to new technologies and processes • Layered approach to structure hides hardware-specific features A framework for integrated process monitoring in grinding machine control (now commonplace)

Open Control Systems : previous work OSACA / OSACA II (1992, 1997 ESPRITIII) Open Open Control Systems : previous work OSACA / OSACA II (1992, 1997 ESPRITIII) Open Systems Architecture for Controls in Automation Systems Participants: Num, Fagor, Bosch, Siemens, Comau, Uni. Stuttgart & Aachen OCEAN (2002 Framework 5) Open Controller Enabled by an Advanced real-time Network Participants: Homag, Fagor, OSAI, Fidia, Uni. Stuttgart & Aachen OROCOS (2000 …) Open RObot COntrol Software Participants: Uni. Leuven & Collaborators (Laas, KTH, LVD, Flanders Mechatronics) OCI (1997) Open Control Interface Statham (LJMU AMTRe. L) Outcomes: Basic outcomes published but no recognised standards adopted. Further developments kept “in-house” or public domain / Open Software A framework for integrated process monitoring in grinding machine control

John Moruzzi: Open Device Interface (ODI) framework A newly proposed Object-Oriented design that enables John Moruzzi: Open Device Interface (ODI) framework A newly proposed Object-Oriented design that enables the structuring of Device software classes (Base and Derived) to provide a standardised top-level programming interface with abstracted levels of specific functionality at the lower levels. 4 levels of OPI Software Classes / Objects: Level 4 : Application Object Layer Object Instances: Actual data items e. g. actual devices (e. g. My. Gauge) Level 3 : Data Presentation Layer Derived Classes: More specialised device class (e. g. VM 9 TD) Level 2 : Session Management Layer Base Classes: Basic definitions to be enhanced (e. g. TDevice TParam) Level 1 : Data Transport Layer API routines: Libraries for access to specific hardware (e. g RS 232) Level 5 : User program (application) Level 0 = Low level (hardware) API libraries A framework for integrated process monitoring in grinding machine control

Example ODI device implementation This diagram indicates the levels of Abstraction and Inheritance in Example ODI device implementation This diagram indicates the levels of Abstraction and Inheritance in Classes using the Object-Oriented Approach : Level 4: Application Object Instances Level 3: Data Presentation Derived Classes Touch. Detector. Unit_1 TVM 9_TD_Device Touch. Detector. Unit_2 TVM 9_GA_Device Balancer. Unit Level 1: Data Transport API routines TVM 20_TD_Device Gauge. Unit Level 2: Session Management Base classes TVM 9_BA_Device TDIOInterface TDevice TInterface Digital. IO(1) TDV 004_DIO_Device Deva. get_digital_inputw Digital. IO(2) TBB 48 D_DIO_Device BB. write_output_port(B) VM 9 Unit. Serial VM 20 Unit. Profibus TSerial_Interface TProfibus_Interface Win. Com 1. Output =. . Dev. Init. Board() Touch. Cycle 1. Active TSignal. State TProcess. Signal AE. Channel(1). Value TData. Value TProcess. Data AE. Channel(1). Gain TParameter. Value Gap. Cycle. State TGap. Elim_Cycle Gauge. Cycle 2. State TGauge_Cycle Auto. Balance. Cycle. State TAuto. Balance_Cycle TProcess. Cycle A framework for integrated process monitoring in grinding machine control

Applications of the ODI Library Overall software and hardware structure: (& why it is Applications of the ODI Library Overall software and hardware structure: (& why it is useful beyond this application!) CNC Program (Machine control) e. g. J&S 1300 X Monitor Program (Standalone) Deva 004 BS VM 9 BA OPI Device Library BS VM 9 TD TDeva_004 TVM 9_TD TVM 9_BA TVM 20_TD TDTLM 5000_BA …. . T 1300 X_Panel THM_UH 1 Control BS VM 20 SYS BS VM 20 BA BS VM 20 TD Dittel M 5000 MA Dittel AE 4000 J&S 1300 X Panel Heat. Miser UH 1 User Application Virtual Device A framework for integrated process monitoring in grinding machine control Actual Device

EXAMPLE DEVICE CLASS : BS VM 20–TD Key data structures and operations of a EXAMPLE DEVICE CLASS : BS VM 20–TD Key data structures and operations of a typical device: Config Data (Acyclic) Report device details Command data (Cyclic) Turn features On /Off etc Status data (Cyclic) Reporting of device events Monitor Data (Cyclic) Live device signal values Parameter Data (Acyclic) Read / Write setup info Signal Data (Cyclic) Digital Inputs / Outputs A framework for integrated process monitoring in grinding machine control

VM 20 TD DEVICE – STATUS DATA Status Data : Device => Control – VM 20 TD DEVICE – STATUS DATA Status Data : Device => Control – feedback & event signals Status Data read Cyclically from a data BYTE at a defined memory ADDRESS Call Method VM 20_TD. Get. Status Individual data items decoded from BIT settings and written to a standard data structure Valid Status data used directly by application program A framework for integrated process monitoring in grinding machine control

VM 20 TD – MONITOR & CONTROL DATA Monitor Data : Device => Control VM 20 TD – MONITOR & CONTROL DATA Monitor Data : Device => Control Process data values Selectable content: AE 1 & AE 2 AE 1 & PWR 1 ……. Control Data : Control => Device Activate features Select program Start / Reset Cycle A framework for integrated process monitoring in grinding machine control

VM 20 TD – PARAMETER & CONFIG DATA Parameter Data : Device <=> Control VM 20 TD – PARAMETER & CONFIG DATA Parameter Data : Device <=> Control Config Parameters (Gain, Filter, …) Working Parameters (Limits, …) Parameter Item: Device <=> Control Accessed from Address on Page in Device memory. Command sent to Request or Update parameter data A framework for integrated process monitoring in grinding machine control

HMI and other features Once we have established communications and control of a device, HMI and other features Once we have established communications and control of a device, the operator of the Application program should be presented with a standard HMI display for interaction with the various devices. Therefore a library of Display and Editing Components is included: Graph LEDBar DRO Buttons Edit box Numeric Keypad Data Name text Data Units text ……. . In addition, the facility to Record live process data and store in a common format log file is provided. A framework for integrated process monitoring in grinding machine control

Summary of studied ODI devices Devices implemented: Jones & Shipman Balance Systems VM 9 Summary of studied ODI devices Devices implemented: Jones & Shipman Balance Systems VM 9 TD Balance Systems VM 20 SYS Balance Systems VM 20 BA Balance Systems VM 20 TD Balance Systems VM 20 GA 1300 X Operator Panel Touch Detector Unit System Rack Balancer Card Touch Detector Card Gauge Card (RS 232) (Profibus) Deva 004 Fanuc CNC Motion Control CNC Interface (Digital IO) (Ethernet / FWLIB) Heatmiser UH 1 Building Heating Control (RS 485 / TCPIP) Devices studied / planned: A framework for integrated process monitoring in grinding machine control

Summary • An Open Device Interface (ODI) to facilitate the integration of various Grinding Summary • An Open Device Interface (ODI) to facilitate the integration of various Grinding process Control and Monitoring devices has been designed and demonstrated. • A procedure for documenting and specifying the individual features of various equipment examples into a common format has been developed. • The Object Oriented Framework allows a common access strategy for different makes and models of equipment (a generalised Device Object) by using layers of hardware and software abstraction. • Application software can now interact with different Devices much more easily • A Common user interface allows the operator to work with different devices easily • Different communications methods between devices are supported • The concept is extendable for the control of other Device types such as Motion / Axis Controllers or even Building heating controllers. A framework for integrated process monitoring in grinding machine control

And finally. . . Thank you for your attention. . . Any Questions ? And finally. . . Thank you for your attention. . . Any Questions ? ? ? A framework for integrated process monitoring in grinding machine control