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“A European network on cervical cancer surveillance and control in the new Member States - AURORA” 2 nd Module: Communication Skills for Advocacy Leaders
Partner www. aurora-project. eu This publication arises from the project «AURORA» which has received funding from the European Union in the Framework of the Health Programme.
Index: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. What is communication? Elements of the communication process Communication barriers The key elements of a good communication Communication style Types of communication: 6. 1. Verbal and non-verbal communication 6. 2. Formal/informal communication 6. 3. Intrapersonal /interpersonal communication 6. 4. Public communication 6. 4. 1. Communication campaign 6. 4. 2. Writing a petition
1. What is communication? Communication is the sharing of ideas and information. A communication process involves a sender, a receiver and the message to be sent. Effective Communication is a process where a message is received and understood by the receiver in the manner that the sender intended it to be. A common mistake people make is to focus only on the delivery of message, rather than how it is received. Communication has to be two -way!
2. Elements of the communication process Sender- formulate (encode) an idea or message - through communication channel deliver the message to receiver, who receives or acts on the message (decode). Receiver responds by formulating his own message and communicates to sender (feedback). Communication is a two way process, that is, the ability to receive i. I as important as the ability to send. For successful communication, feedback is important- it tells how the message is being interpreted.
External • • • 3. Communication barriers Noise Time Environment Internal • • • Physical (time, environment, comfort, needs etc. ) Cultural (ethnic, religious, cultural and social differences) Perceptional ( perceptional differences) Motivational (lack of motivation) Experiential (lack of similar experience) Emotional (personal feelings at the moment) Linguistic (different languages or vocabulary) Non-verbal (non-word messages) Context (situation of the sector, the public space, attention -high / low) Mode (differences in way a message is sent).
How to minimize communication barriers? Source (expertise and clarity about topic , information should be useful and accurate) Message (precise , based to receiver needs and understanding) Encoding (to prepare message to take consideration potential sources of confusion, for example, cultural issues, mistaken assumptions, and missing information) • Channel (to choose right channel for message communication- verbal including face-to-face meetings, telephone and videoconferencing; and written including letters, emails, memos and reports) • Decoding Just as successful encoding is a skill, so is successful decoding (involving, for example, taking the time to read a message carefully, or listen actively to it. ) • Receiver (each individual member of audience enters into the communication process with ideas and feelings that will influence their understanding of particular message, and their response) • Feedback ( audience will provide verbal and nonverbal reactions to communicated message. It is the only thing that allows to be confident that audience has understood/misunderstood message) • Context ( it may include the surrounding environment or broader culture, i. e. corporate culture, international cultures, etc. ) • • •
4. The key elements of good communication WHO Your audience To whom talking Know the needs of your audience Different audience, different message WHAT Your message What you want to say What is the purpose How to know how to formulate ideas HOW Your style Style, attitude Verbal text & non-verbal communication
5. Communication style Passive-Assertive-Agressive Passive-The passive personality type places others before himself and feels that he is inferior. The passive personality looks down or away and has feelings of inferiority and self-anger. Assertive- The assertive personality believes that equality is the key to communication. Assertive personalities make direct eye contact, speak with firm voices and have high self-esteem while having self-respect and the respect from others. Agressive-The aggressive personality feels superior, uses a loud voice and stands up for self-rights while violating the rights of others. The aggressive personality is feared, is disrespected and has guilt and a low self-esteem.
6. 1. How to communicate- verbal and non -verbal communication Elements in Conveying a Message: The Mehrabian Study
Verbal communication • Words are used as tools of interaction between two or more individuals • It can be oral or written Researchers have found that, on an average, a person spends 10 to 11 hours everyday in verbal communication i. e. speaking, listening, reading or writing. • Some common forms of verbal communication are conversations, speeches, letters, newspapers, magazines, audio and video, telephonic conversation etc.
Non-Verbal communication Communication can also occur without words. Human senses- ears, eyes, touch and smell work as codes of communication.
Nonverbal communication cues can play several roles aking the can • Repetition: person is message they the repeat verbally • Contradiction: they an ontradict message he ndividual s rying o c c a t i it t convey • Substitution: they can substitute for a verbal message • Complementing: they may add to or complement a verbal message • Accenting: they may accent or underline a verbal message Source: The Importance of Effective Communication, Edward G. Wertheim, Ph. D.
Non verbal communication Facial expressions (The human face is extremely expressive, able to express countless emotions without saying a word). Body movements and posture (This type of nonverbal communication includes your posture, bearing, stance, and subtle movements). Gestures (The meaning of gestures can be very different across cultures and regions, so it’s important to be careful to avoid misinterpretation). Eye contact (The way you look at someone can communicate many things, including interest, affection, hostility, or attraction). Touch (The messages given by the following: a firm handshake, a timid tap on the shoulder, a warm bear hug, a reassuring pat on the back, a patronizing pat on the head, or a controlling grip on your arm). Space (You can use physical space to communicate many different nonverbal messages, including signals of intimacy, aggression, dominance, or affection). Voice (It’s not just what you say, it’s how you say it, the tone of voice can indicate sarcasm, anger, affection, or confidence).
6. 2. Formal/informal communication Based on style and purpose, there are two main categories of communication and they both bear their own characteristics. Communication types based on style and purpose are: • Formal Communication: occurs in formal and official style. Usually professional settings, corporate meetings, conferences undergoes in formal pattern. • Informal Communication: a casual talk. It happens among friends and family.
Formal communication • Official letters • Petitions • Public speeches Don’t use slang, jargon, foul language!
Informal communication • Informal communication helps in building relationships. 6. 3. Intrapersonal communication You must be able to communicate with yourself before you can communicate with others. 6. 3. Interpersonal communication The process by which people exchange information, feelings, and meaning through verbal and nonverbal messages- it is face-to-face communication. Slang, jargon words, foul language is not restricted.
Public communication 6. 4. Public communication involves the sending and receiving of messages on a large scale to and from the general public. Public communication includes: mass media; public relations; public speaking It can include any form of sending a message to a large group of people.
6. 4. 1 a Public communication - communication campaign 1. Define the communication campaign goal effectively (Identify the larger goal, determine which part of the larger goal could be met by a communication campaign, describe the specific objectives of the campaign; integrate these into a plan) 2. Define the intended audience effectively (Identify the group to whom you want to communicate your message, consider identifying subgroups to whom you could tailor your message , learn as much as possible about the intended audience; add information about beliefs, current actions, and social and physical environment to demographic information) 3. Create messages effectively (Brainstorm messages that fit with the communication campaign goal and the intended audience(s), identify channels and sources that are considered credible and influential by the intended audience(s), consider the best times to reach the audience(s) and prepare messages accordingly, select a few messages and plan to pretest them)
6. 4. 1 b Public communication - communication campaign 4. Pre-test and revise messages and materials effectively (Select pre-testing methods that fit the campaign’s budget and timeline, pre-test messages and materials with people who share the attributes of the intended audience(s), take the time to revise messages and materials based upon pre-testing findings) 5. Implement the campaign effectively (Follow the plans you developed at the beginning of the campaign, communicate with partners and the media as necessary to ensure the campaign runs smoothly, begin evaluating the campaign plan and processes as soon as the campaign is implemented)
Preparing an effective presentation Preparation • Researching the audience • Structuring the presentation • Organizing presentation aids • Checking the venue if appropriate • Rehearse • Ready yourself Purpose • Presentation must have aims and objectives, for example: gain attention, explain who you are, establish credibility etc. Persuasion • Analyzing and using persuasive skills Passion • Being effective and interested into the topics Personality • Bringing the whole of yourself into the presentation
Communication Tools • Media relations (press conferences, briefings, press releases, radio call-in shows, topical supplements to newspapers and specialist magazines, topical television shows). • Special publications, leaflets, posters, postcards and calendars. • Direct communication (open telephone, websites, round-table discussions, conferences, lectures, training events, business conferences for the specialist public, visits to trade fairs and other similar public events, commercial centres, hospitals, schools, military barracks. . . ). • Publicity, promotional materials.
6. 4. 2. Writing a petition For great campaign results you need to take into account a number of issues: • identify your target, • proper research, • clear communication and • how you will promote your petition. Pen and paper petitions; e. g. on the street. . . e-petitions; online
Identify your target The first task of effective petition writing is to properly identify your target. Some popular targets: • Governments, parliaments, politicians: local, state, federal, national, EU, UN; • Political parties, presidents, prime ministers, senators, ambassadors; • Educational institutions; • Media organizations; TV stations; • Non governmental institutions and bodies; • Etc.
Identify your target The increasing acceptance of internet petitions by governments and parliaments worldwide. Many examples of well written petitions to a variety of local, state and national governments and parliaments and also to the United Nations (UN). www. Go. Petition. com The status of e-signatures The status of electronic signatures (e-signatures) is undergoing major change and development in many Western jurisdictions. The law of electronic signatures is in its infancy. www. ipetitions. com
e-petition One of the most powerful activism tools ever invented. Online petitions are special because they allow everyone to have a voice. Petitions differ in another way, too. Some are successful, gathering tens or even hundreds of thousands of signatures, and national media attention. Some disappear almost without a trace, maybe getting a few signatures from the sponsor's immediate circle of friends and family, but never really catching on. It's difficult to say exactly what makes a petition successful. Some of it is just luck. Some of it is timing. Still, it's possible to come up with a few general principles or guidelines for writing a successful petition. In our experience, these ten are particularly important.
10 general guidelines for a petition 1. Write Clearly and Concisely 2. Spell Check and Proofread 3. Use the Power of Email 4. Foster an Online Community 5. Publicize your Petition Online 6. Get Media Coverage 7. Supplement with Offline Efforts 8. Be Polite and Reasonable 9. Be Practical 10. Think Big - You Can Do It!
CONCLUSION "Never doubt that a small group of Thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world; indeed, it's the only thing that ever has. “ Margaret Mead
REFERENCES Communication www. mindtools. com/pages/article/new. TMM_98. htm Petition www. Go. Petition. com www. ipetitions. com