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A Concise Introduction to Autonomic Computing Roy Sterritt, University of Ulster at Jordanstown, Northern A Concise Introduction to Autonomic Computing Roy Sterritt, University of Ulster at Jordanstown, Northern Ireland, UK Manish Parashar, Rutgers University, New Jersey, USA Huaglory Tianfield, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, UK Rainer Unland, University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany Presented by: Joseph Cilli Agnostic: Michael Robinson 1

Topics • • 1. 0 Introduction 2. 0 Concepts 3. 0 Autonomic Computing 4. Topics • • 1. 0 Introduction 2. 0 Concepts 3. 0 Autonomic Computing 4. 0 Examples of Autonomic Systems & Applications 2

1. 0 Introduction • Technological advances = High growth • High growth = More 1. 0 Introduction • Technological advances = High growth • High growth = More complex systems • System & application complexity growth • Brittle, unmanageable, insecure 3

1. 0 Introduction • Strategies based on biological systems • Inspired by human nervous 1. 0 Introduction • Strategies based on biological systems • Inspired by human nervous system Defined as: A self-managing, autonomous and ubiquitous computing environment that completely hides its complexity, thus providing the user with an interface that exactly meets her/his needs. 4

1. 0 Introduction Self-governing • Make decisions on its own, using high. Self-adaptation level 1. 0 Introduction Self-governing • Make decisions on its own, using high. Self-adaptation level guidance from humans Self-organization • Constantly checking & optimizing its status Self-optimization & automatically adapt itself to new Self-configuration conditions Self-diagnosis of fault Self-protection • Self-Management achieved through: Self-healing Self-recovery Autonomy 5

2. 0 Concepts • 2. 1 Autonomic Nervous System • 2. 2 Autonomic Computing 2. 0 Concepts • 2. 1 Autonomic Nervous System • 2. 2 Autonomic Computing Systems 6

2. 1 Autonomic Nervous System • Controls the vegetative functions of the body (involuntary) 2. 1 Autonomic Nervous System • Controls the vegetative functions of the body (involuntary) – Circulation of blood – Intestinal activity & secretion – Production of chemical ‘messengers’ 7

2. 1 Autonomic Nervous System • Sympathetic – Fast heart rate – Fear • 2. 1 Autonomic Nervous System • Sympathetic – Fast heart rate – Fear • Parasympathetic – Slow heart rate – Calm Biological Self-Management Systems Self-Management 8

2. 2 Autonomic Computing Systems • IBM introduced ACI • Growth in computer industry 2. 2 Autonomic Computing Systems • IBM introduced ACI • Growth in computer industry – Highly efficient network hardware – Powerful CPU’s • AC advancement – Integrating – Managing – Operating 9

2. 2 Autonomic Computing Systems • GOALS – Manage complexity • Technology managing technology 2. 2 Autonomic Computing Systems • GOALS – Manage complexity • Technology managing technology – Reduce cost of ownership • Automation reduces human involvement/error – Enhance other software qualities • Reflective, self aware components can continually seek to optimize themselves • Source: An architectural blueprint for autonomic computing. Third Edition, June 2005. Available at URL: http: //www-03. ibm. com/autonomic/pdfs/AC%20 Blueprint%20 White%20 Paper%20 V 7. pdf 10

2. 2 Autonomic Computing Systems • Autonomic elements of human body – Involuntary • 2. 2 Autonomic Computing Systems • Autonomic elements of human body – Involuntary • Autonomic elements of computer systems – Decisions based on tasks 11

2. 2 Autonomic Computing Systems • Self-Management – Self-configuring • Adapt automatically to the 2. 2 Autonomic Computing Systems • Self-Management – Self-configuring • Adapt automatically to the dynamically changing environment – Self-healing • Discover, diagnose and react to disruptions – Self-optimizing • Monitor and tune resources automatically – Self-protecting • Anticipate, detect, identify, and protect against attacks from anywhere • Attributes – – Self-Awareness Environment-Awareness Self-Monitoring Self-Adjusting Self-Anticipating Self-Adapting Self-Critical Self-Defining Self-Destructing Self-Diagnosis Self-Governing Self-Organized Self-Recovery Self-Reflecting Self-Simulation 12

2. 2 Autonomic Computing Systems Server 2 Server 1 File System DB Service Storage 2. 2 Autonomic Computing Systems Server 2 Server 1 File System DB Service Storage Service 13

3. 0 Autonomic Computing • 3. 1 Innovative Self-Managing Components & Interaction • 3. 3. 0 Autonomic Computing • 3. 1 Innovative Self-Managing Components & Interaction • 3. 2 AI & Autonomic Components • 3. 3 Autonomic Architectures • 3. 4 Autonomic Interaction & Policy Based Self-Management • 3. 5 Computer-Human Interaction & Autonomic Systems • 3. 6 Science of Autonomicity • 3. 7 Systems & Software Engineering for Autonomic Systems 14

3. 1 Innovative Self-Managing Components & Interaction • Autonomic Managers communication • Pulse Monitor 3. 1 Innovative Self-Managing Components & Interaction • Autonomic Managers communication • Pulse Monitor 15

3. 2 AI & Autonomic Components • Soft computing techniques – Neural networks – 3. 2 AI & Autonomic Components • Soft computing techniques – Neural networks – Fuzzy logic – Probabilistic reasoning incorporating Bayesian networks • • • Machine learning techniques Cybernetics Optimization techniques Fault diagnosis techniques Feedback control Planning techniques 16

3. 2 AI & Autonomic Components • Autonomic algorithm selection • Clockwork • Cost 3. 2 AI & Autonomic Components • Autonomic algorithm selection • Clockwork • Cost calculations • AI 3 level design Positive – Reaction – Routine – Reflection Negative Arousal 17

3. 3 Autonomic Architectures • Individual Components • Complete autonomic systems – Open Grid 3. 3 Autonomic Architectures • Individual Components • Complete autonomic systems – Open Grid – Web Services – Intelligent Robotics • Four Stages – Monitor – Analyze – Plan – Execute Self-Awareness & External Environment Self-Management Behavior to Execute 18

3. 4 Autonomic Interaction & Policy Based Self-Management • Inter-Element interactions – Service-level agreements 3. 4 Autonomic Interaction & Policy Based Self-Management • Inter-Element interactions – Service-level agreements – Negotiations – Communications • Policy based management – Reduced complexity of products – Reduced complexity of system management • Uniform cross-product policy definition & management infrastructure 19

3. 5 Computer-Human Interaction & Autonomic Systems • User studies • Interfaces (monitor & 3. 5 Computer-Human Interaction & Autonomic Systems • User studies • Interfaces (monitor & control behavior) • Techniques (defining, distributing, & understanding policies) • Autonomic computing – Makes choices for you • Personal computing – Allows you to make choices yourself 20

3. 6 Science of Autonomicity • Understanding, controlling, or exploiting emergent behavior • Theoretical 3. 6 Science of Autonomicity • Understanding, controlling, or exploiting emergent behavior • Theoretical investigations of coupled feedback loops, robustness, & other related topics • Expressed as the automation of systems adaptation 21

3. 7 Systems & Software Engineering for Autonomic Systems • Early Days – Implementations/Prototypes 3. 7 Systems & Software Engineering for Autonomic Systems • Early Days – Implementations/Prototypes – Architectures & proof tools • Current Models – Programming autonomic systems – Designs for self-management – Gathering requirements 22

3. 7 Systems & Software Engineering for Autonomic Systems • Legacy systems – Sensors 3. 7 Systems & Software Engineering for Autonomic Systems • Legacy systems – Sensors & effectors • Kinesthetics e. Xtreme which runs a lightweight decentralized collection of active middleware components tied together via a publish/subscribe event system • Astrolabe tool may be used to automate selfconfiguration & monitoring, & control adaptation 23

4. 0 Examples • 4. 1 Early Success • 4. 2 Research Systems • 4. 0 Examples • 4. 1 Early Success • 4. 2 Research Systems • 4. 3 Future 24

4. 1 Early Success • DBMS – Evolution of more complex features – Reduced 4. 1 Early Success • DBMS – Evolution of more complex features – Reduced human interaction + cost – Alerts to DBA • SMART DB 2 – – – Self-optimization Self-configuration Autonomic index determination Disaster recovery Continuous monitoring Alerts 25

4. 2 Research Systems • • Unity Ocean. Store Storage Tank Oceano Auto. Admin 4. 2 Research Systems • • Unity Ocean. Store Storage Tank Oceano Auto. Admin Sabio Q-Fabric 26

4. 3 Future • Urban Traffic Systems • Industrial/Residential Building Systems • Computing – 4. 3 Future • Urban Traffic Systems • Industrial/Residential Building Systems • Computing – IM – Spam Detection – Load Balancing • Smart Doorplates • Alphaworks (http: //www. alphaworks. ibm. com/autonomic) • NASA 27

Today The Autonomic Future Self-configure Corporate data centers are multivendor, multi-platform. Installing, configuring, integrating Today The Autonomic Future Self-configure Corporate data centers are multivendor, multi-platform. Installing, configuring, integrating systems is time-consuming, error-prone. Automated configuration of components, systems according to high-level policies; rest of system adjusts automatically. Seamless, like adding new cell to body or new individual to population. Self-heal Problem determination in large, complex systems can take a team of programmers [for] weeks Automated detection, diagnosis, and repair of localized software/hardware problems. Self-optimize Web. Sphere, DB 2 have hundreds of nonlinear tuning parameters; many new ones with each release. Components and systems will continually seek opportunities to improve their own performance and efficiency. Self-protect Manual detection and recovery Automated defense against malicious attacks from attacks and cascading failures. or cascading failures; use early warning to anticipate and prevent system-wide failures. • Borrowed from Jeff Kephart’s talk, Applications of Multi-Agent Learning in E-Commerce and Autonomic Computing, 2002. 28

Questions? 29 Questions? 29