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A Comprehensive Framework for Developing ICT for Development (ICT 4 D) Indicators Professor Clement A Comprehensive Framework for Developing ICT for Development (ICT 4 D) Indicators Professor Clement K. Dzidonu Senior Research Fellow International Institute for Information Technology (INIIT) www. iniit. com Presented at the Joint ITU/ECA Regional Workshop on ICT Indicators 26 -29 October 2004, Gaborone, Botswana

The Basic Starting Premise • Developing Indicators NOT for its Own Sake -------Not about…’Indicators The Basic Starting Premise • Developing Indicators NOT for its Own Sake -------Not about…’Indicators for Indicators Sake’, , , but rather about developing and using Indicators as a MEANS to achieve or accomplish something else (process, action, decision making, )…. Indicators are NOT an END in itself. • The ‘Indicators Business’ is therefore more about identifying, developing and using suitable/appropriate Indicators…to shed some lights on a phenomena, guide a particular process, monitor and assess an impact of an action or decision/policy process and provide guidance on how to proceed the next time round on an informed footing.

Starting Points: Examining the Digital Divide Question • Is the Digital Divide = A Starting Points: Examining the Digital Divide Question • Is the Digital Divide = A Divide Between Technological Haves and ‘Have-Nots’ = [The Digital Numbers Divide (DND)]…? – The Measure of the Divide (the Gap) • Computer Penetration and Diffusion • Teledensity • The Level of Internet Deployment and Spread • The ICT Landscape – The Point of Reference of the Divide • North-South Divide • Within Country Divide • Rural vrs Urban Divide • The Gender Divide • Rather: Is The Digital Divide = Developmental Divide = [The Developmental Digital Divide (DDD)]…?

The Digital Divide: Scoping the ‘Which Indicators’ Question • The concept of the ‘digital The Digital Divide: Scoping the ‘Which Indicators’ Question • The concept of the ‘digital divide’ and its implications is often defined in terms of the degree of access to ICTs in general and in particular to the Internet and its related emerging advanced communication technologies. • Statistics like: the number of Internet hosts and subscribers, the level of PC penetration among others are often used as a rough indicator of a measure of the digital divide between two countries. • ----- Based on these estimates, most developing countries including African countries are generally regarded as having comparatively less or inadequate access to these technologies. • The Contention is that: The problem of the digital divide is NOT a technological one; --- it is not merely an issue of a divide between ‘technological-haves’ and the ‘technological-have-nots’. ------ The threat posed by the digital divide to African countries is more of an economic development problem than a mere technological one.

 • The digital divide and its implications has more to do with the • The digital divide and its implications has more to do with the inability of a number of countries including those in Africa to deploy, harness and exploit the developmental opportunities of the emerging digital information and technological revolution to advance the process of their socio-economic development. • The deployment, exploitation and the development of ICTs to support the process of transforming the predominately agricultural economies of African countries and move them towards information and knowledge economies is the central issue --- • To answer the ‘which indicators’ question… we therefore need to go beyond looking at the implications of the digital divide purely in terms of access to and the use of ICT resources and services to examine its wider implications in socio-economic development terms.

The Argument is that: • African countries and other developing countries will eventually narrow The Argument is that: • African countries and other developing countries will eventually narrow the ‘digital numbers divide’ (DND) as the technology advance and becomes more portable and affordable • But narrowing the ‘digital numbers divide’ will not necessary translate into narrowing (or for that matter bridging the ‘developmental digital divide’ (DDD) • African countries will require more efforts to bridge or narrow the DDD than will be required to address the DND… • Putting in place and implementing relevant policies (NICI policies, strategies and plans) with a view to bridge the DDD and developing suitable indicators to guide this process will be one such effort.

Linkages Between Indicators and the ICT 4 D Process THE BASE/CASE provide b a Linkages Between Indicators and the ICT 4 D Process THE BASE/CASE provide b a sis and m ake case indicators guide policy formulation THE WHAT. . ? indicators guide the development and target setting indicators monitor, assess, measure progress and ‘impact’ THE HOW. . ?

The ‘Dual’ Focus ICT Industry ICT Sector Development ICT Service sector ICT infrastructure development The ‘Dual’ Focus ICT Industry ICT Sector Development ICT Service sector ICT infrastructure development strategic focus R&D ICT as ‘Enabler’ of Broad-base Development agric sector service sector industrial sector social sector public sector private sector

Acknowledging that…. The Basic Question being Addressed …. . • How to address the Acknowledging that…. The Basic Question being Addressed …. . • How to address the developmental challenges of African countries and accelerate their socio-economic development process through the development, deployment and exploitation of ICTs • It is not just about ICTs…is more about facilitating the development process to transform the socio-economic outcomes of households, businesses and impact on government operations. The Indicators question need to be addressed within this wider context.

Defining the ICT Space The ICTs cut across a variety of technologies including: • Defining the ICT Space The ICTs cut across a variety of technologies including: • Computer and Comms devices, equipment and technologies • Telecommunications technologies and infrastructure (fixed line, wireless, satellite-based and mobile infrastructure) • Communications and network technologies and infrastructure for voice, data and video • Broadcasting networks including radio and TV networks • The Internet --- incorporating elements of computers, telecom and communications technologies to form an integrated multimedia infrastructure with a global reach • Production technologies including those used in CIM and production systems and operations • Computer-based technologies for supporting specific operations & activities in agriculture, industry and commerce

 • Educational computer-mediated delivery technologies for supporting teaching, learning and training • Computer-based • Educational computer-mediated delivery technologies for supporting teaching, learning and training • Computer-based technologies used for supporting health delivery operations and systems, including those used in computer-aided surgery, and ICUs, • Robotics technologies used in a variety of industrial processes, and manufacturing operations • Microchip technologies used in ranges of consumer products, like: watches, cars, fridges, TVs, radios washing machines etc • Information processing technologies used for processing simple documents to processing and transmitting information to and from space crafts

The ICT Indicators Space HRD ICT Infrastructure agriculture sector service sector ICT 4 D The ICT Indicators Space HRD ICT Infrastructure agriculture sector service sector ICT 4 D Indicators public sector industrial sector Government Impact indicators Households Businesses social sector R&D

The ‘CUT’ Model for ICT 2 D Indicators TRANSFORMATION ‘impact’ intensity indicators USAGE indicators The ‘CUT’ Model for ICT 2 D Indicators TRANSFORMATION ‘impact’ intensity indicators USAGE indicators CAPACITY indicators time

usage The ‘CUT’ Ripples Loop time transformation ca pa cit y usage The ‘CUT’ Ripples Loop time transformation ca pa cit y

BASIS GOAL [FOR POLICY] [TO DEV. IKE] To Effect Outcomes Of Households Business, Govt BASIS GOAL [FOR POLICY] [TO DEV. IKE] To Effect Outcomes Of Households Business, Govt Baseline Indicators To Guide IKE Dev Policy & Plan MEANS [POLICY/PLAN] To Achieve Goal Core Indicators Specific Indicators ASSESSMENT OF CHANGES IN BL INDICATORS AS MEASURE OF PROGRESS/Lof. P TOWARDS IKE ASSESSMENT OF PROGRESS TOWARDS GOAL – DEV OF IKE [Indicators: Monitoring and Measuring Impact (‘effect’) of MEANS on GOAL] Core Indicators Specific Indicators ASSESSMENT OF IMPACT OF GOAL (DEV OF IKE) ON HOUSEHOLDS BUSINESS & GOVT. [Indicators: Monitoring & Measuring the impact of IKE Dev on H’holds, B’ness, Govt] Core Indicators Specific Indicators

DEFINING THE IKE GOAL SPACE • A high income economy dominated by trading in DEFINING THE IKE GOAL SPACE • A high income economy dominated by trading in ICT products and services • An economy characterized by a large commercial services sector with a reasonably large and vibrant ICT services sector and industry • An economy characterized by a technology-based knowledge-driven industrial sector • An economy with a globally competitive industrial and services sector which are to a large extent driven by cutting-edge R&D encompassing basic and applied industrial and product development. • An economy based on a rich pool of highly skilled human resources in critical skill areas relevant for developing and maintaining a competitive edge on the global market

DEFINING THE IKE GOAL SPACE cont. • An economy in which the majority of DEFINING THE IKE GOAL SPACE cont. • An economy in which the majority of the working population are either directly or indirectly involved in information and communications related activities • An economy with a modern, efficient and competitive agricultural sector • An economy characterized by a wide-spread deployment and exploitation of ICTs within the society to support the delivery of health, education, government and social services • An economy characterized by a modern educational system within which ICTs are widely deployed to facilitate the delivery of educational services at all levels of the educational system • An economy in which a reasonable large proportion of the population have access to information and communications technology products and services

DEFINING THE IKE GOAL SPACE cont. • An economy in which the provision and DEFINING THE IKE GOAL SPACE cont. • An economy in which the provision and delivery of goods and services of the key sectors of the economy are to a large extent facilitated by information and communications technologies • An economy in which the provision and delivery of services by government and its administrative machinery are to a large extent facilitated by information and communications technologies • An economy based on an advanced and reliable national information and communications infrastructure • An economy based on a literate society with a high proportion of computer literates

POLICY/PLAN PILLARS National Security and Law and Order Legal, Regulatory, and Institutional Developing a POLICY/PLAN PILLARS National Security and Law and Order Legal, Regulatory, and Institutional Developing a Globally. Environment Value. Framework & Competitive Added Services Sector Promoting Foreign and Local Direct Investment Drive in ICTs Promoting ICT Deployment and Social Sectors: Education, Health, and Community Promoting Research & Development (R&D) Promoting the Development of ECommerce Developing Key Sectors of the Economy; Agriculture, Services and Industry Government Administration and Service Delivery - Promoting E-Government Promoting Universal Access and Service Human Resource Development ICT and Enabling Physical Infrastructure Development Defining the Policy Space

The ‘BASIS’: Baseline Indicators to Guide Policy/Plan Dev. ICT Infrastructure Development Indicators on the The ‘BASIS’: Baseline Indicators to Guide Policy/Plan Dev. ICT Infrastructure Development Indicators on the level of deployment and the geographical spread of ICT infrastructure: • Telecommunication infrastructure (fixed line, mobile, satellite, national backbone infrastructure); communications and computer networks infrastructure; • Internet Infrastructure and International and Local Bandwidth, • Broadcasting infrastructure (radio and TV); • Transport infrastructure, Power infrastructure Example Baseline Indicators • • • Mobile Subscriber as % total Tel Subscribers Main tel lines per 100 inhabitants (urban vrs. rural) • Long-Haul Internet Bandwidth Mobile Subscribers per 100 inhabitants (urban vrs. rural) • No. of Internet Hosts No. of Internet Subscribers per 100 inhats (urban vrs. rural) Radios per 1000 inhabitants • No. of PCs per 100 inhabitants (urban vrs. rural) • TVs per 1000 inhabitants Mobile Subscriber as % total Tel Subscribers

The ‘BASIS’: Baseline Indicators to Guide Policy/Plan Dev. Human Resource Development Indicators on ICT The ‘BASIS’: Baseline Indicators to Guide Policy/Plan Dev. Human Resource Development Indicators on ICT Human Resource Capacity; Human Resource Capacity in key Skill Areas; Human Resource Capacity in Key Sectors of the Economy: Agriculture, Services and Industry. Indicators on the Human Resource Development Capacity of the Universities, Colleges and Other HRD Institutions and Establishments; Research and R&D Human Resource Capacity. Indicators on the supply and demand of human resources in key technical, managerial and professional skill areas across all sectors Example Baseline Indicators • Total Supply and Demand of ICT Skills: (Programmers/ Software/System Developers/Analysts, Computer Scientists, Telecomm/ Network Engineers/Technicians etc) • Level of Employment in the ICT industry (in absolute terms and % of total workforce (and gender distribution in terms of ICT Skills/Employment) • Salary of ICT professionals by type of ICT Skill/ Employment • Number of universities and colleges offering ICT programs

The ‘BASIS’: Baseline Indicators to Guide Policy/Plan Dev. Promoting Universal Access and Service Indicators The ‘BASIS’: Baseline Indicators to Guide Policy/Plan Dev. Promoting Universal Access and Service Indicators on the spread of ICTs (computers, telecom network and services, Internet) within the society and community; Indicators on the penetration of ICT services and resources within the community and society; Indicators on the level and degree of exploitation of ICTs with the economy and society Indicators on the degree and level of deployment of ICT infrastructure and services in rural communities Example Baseline Indicators • No. per 1000 inhabitants (within 5 km/walking distance) proximity to an Tel. Access Facility (IAF) • No. per 1000 inhabitants (within 5 km/walking distance) proximity to an Internet Access Facility (IAF) • Number of telecenters/comms centers per 1000 inhabitants • Number of Public Phones per 1000 inhabitants (rural vrs. urban) • Tel. /Internet Access Charges [Tel/Internet Connection Charge, Monthly Tel/Internet Subscription rate, Fixed Line/Mobile Tel Tariffs: 3 minutes Local Call, Fixed Line/Mobile Tel Tarriffs: Subscription as % GDP per capita]

The ‘BASIS’: Baseline Indicators to Guide Policy/Plan Dev. Government Administration and Service Delivery – The ‘BASIS’: Baseline Indicators to Guide Policy/Plan Dev. Government Administration and Service Delivery – EGovernment Indicators on the degree and level of: the deployment and exploitation of ICTs as well as the deployment and implementation of e-government systems and initiatives within Government Ministries, Department, and Public Agencies and Establishments. Example Baseline Indicators • No. and Percent of Govt. MDAs with Internet Connection • No and Percent of Govt. MDAs with corporate networks • No. and Percent of Govt. MDAs with Web Sites • Percent of Govt MDA that implement E-Gov Systems (e. g. Back office systems etc) • Percent of Govt MDA providing services online • Percent of ICT personnel (per total staff) in Govt MDAs • Percent Expenditure on ICTs (per total expenditure) in Govt MDAs

The ‘BASIS’: Baseline Indicators to Guide Policy/Plan Dev. Promoting the Development of Electronic Commerce The ‘BASIS’: Baseline Indicators to Guide Policy/Plan Dev. Promoting the Development of Electronic Commerce Indicators on the degree and level of the deployment and exploitation of ICTs within private sector organizations in the services, and industrial sector Indicators on the diffusion of ICTs and the Internet within the services, and industrial sector. Indicators on the extent of the development and production of ICT products (software development, computer and communication devices) and the provision of ICT services (telecom services, Internet services, web and content dev. services, ICT equipment maintenance and repair services etc) within the economy Indicators on the degree and the extent of the provision of e-commerce facilitation services (banking services, merchant services, fulfillment house services, etc) Example Baseline Indicators • Percent of Establishment placing orders over the Internet: Agric Sector • Percent of Business placing orders over the Internet: Service Sector • Percent of Firms placing orders over the Internet: Industrial Sector

Indicators Cont…. . • Percent of Establishment receiving orders over the Internet: Agric Sector Indicators Cont…. . • Percent of Establishment receiving orders over the Internet: Agric Sector • Percent of Business receiving orders over the Internet: Service Sector • Percent of Firms receiving orders over the Internet: Industrial Sector • Percentage of local Banks proving online banking services • Percentage of population with credit cards • Software Exports as percentage of total non-traditional exports • Percent of locally sold ICT goods and services produced locally • Indicator to gauge the e-commerce legislative enabling environment • Country Global competitiveness index • Business Facilitation Index • Digital Divide Index

The ‘BASIS’: Baseline Indicators to Guide Policy/Plan Developing Key Sectors of the Economy: Agric, The ‘BASIS’: Baseline Indicators to Guide Policy/Plan Developing Key Sectors of the Economy: Agric, Services & Industry Indicators on the level of deployment and the degree of exploitation and utilization of ICTs within the key sectors of the economy: services, industry and agricultural sectors Indicators on the spread of ICTs within the key sectors of the economy: services, industry and agric sectors Indicators on the demand supply of ICT-skills within the key sectors: services, industry & agric sectors Indicators on the level of ICT-related investment in key sectors of the economy: services, industry and agricultural sectors Indicators on the growth rate, productivity levels of each of the key sectors of the economy • Avrg size (no. of emplys) of ICT firms Example Baseline Indicators • Percent of ICT Personal (per Total staff): • Indicator to measure ICT contribution GDP/GNI Growth Agric Sector • Indicator to measure ICT contribution Agriculture Value Added • Percent of ICT Personal ( per Total staff): • Indicator to measure ICT contribution Services Value Added Service Sector • Indicator to measure ICT contribution Industrial Value Added • Percent of ICT Personal ( per Total staff): • Indicator to measure the contribution to Export Earnings Industrial Sector • ICT FDI (as percent of total FDI inflow)

Indicators Cont…. . • Percent of Staff/Workers that use PCs: Agric Sector • Percent Indicators Cont…. . • Percent of Staff/Workers that use PCs: Agric Sector • Percent of Staff/Workers that use PCs: Service Sector • Percent of Staff/Workers that use PCs: Industrial Sector • Percent of Establishments with Corporate Network: Agric Sector • Percent of Business with Corporate Network: Service Sector • Percent of Firms with Corporate Network: Industrial Sector • Percent of Staff/Workers that use Internet: Agric Sector • Percent of Staff/Workers that use Internet: Service Sector • Percent of Staff/Workers that use Internet: Industrial Sector • Percent of Establishments with Web Site: Agric Sector • Percent of Business with Web Site that use PCs: Service Sector • Percent of Firms with Web site: Industrial Sector

The ‘BASIS’: Baseline Indicators to Guide Policy/Plan Dev. Promoting ICTs Deployment in Social Sectors: The ‘BASIS’: Baseline Indicators to Guide Policy/Plan Dev. Promoting ICTs Deployment in Social Sectors: Education, Health, and Community Indicators of the level of diffusion and level of utilization of ICTs (computers, Internet etc) within the educational, health sectors and in the community Indicators to measure the degree of the deployment, penetration and the exploitation of ICTs in schools Indicators on community access to ICT services (rural vrs urban) Access and connectivity indicators on telecom and communication services: telephone and Internet services Indicators on gender-related ICT access and usage statistics Indicators on the level of ICT expenditure and investment in the educational and health sectors Example Baseline Indicators • Percent of schools with PCs (urban vrs rural) • Percent of schools with tel (fixed/mobile) (urban vrs rural) • Percent of school with Internet connectivity (urban vrs rural) • Percent of schools with electricity (urban vrs. rural) • Percent of schools with Web Sites (urban vrs rural) • Percent of schools implementing schoolnet (urban vrs rural)

Indicators Cont…. . • Average computer to pupil ratio (urban vrs rural) • Percent Indicators Cont…. . • Average computer to pupil ratio (urban vrs rural) • Percent ICT expenditure as per total school budget (urban vrs rural) • No. of ICT literate Teachers per school (urban vrs. rural) • ICT literate Teachers as percent of total no. of Teachers per school (urban vrs. rural) • Percent of hospitals/health centers with PCs (urban vrs rural) • Percent of hospitals/health centers with Internet connectivity (urban vrs rural) • Percent of hospitals/health centers with Web Sites (urban vrs rural) • Percent of schools implementing telemedicine (urban vrs rural) • Average computer to doctor/medical personnel ratio (urban vrs rural)

The ‘BASIS’: Baseline Indicators to Guide Policy/Plan Dev. Promoting Research and Development Indicators to The ‘BASIS’: Baseline Indicators to Guide Policy/Plan Dev. Promoting Research and Development Indicators to measure to research and R&D human resource base Indicators to measure national expenditure and investment in research and R&D Indicators on the volume and value of research and R&D output Indicators on ICT product and services development related research and R&D work Example Baseline Indicators • Expenditure on R&D as percent of GDP • Number of Scientists and Engineers per 1000 inhabitants • High tech Exports as percent of Total Exports • Industry R&D Expenditure as percent of total company budgetary expenditure • Number of industrial patent per 1000 inhabitants • Number of Research Degree Recipient per annum

The ICT 4 D Indicators Framework IKE Feature/Sub-Goal ‘GOAL’ Relevant Policy Pillars ‘MEANS’ Indicative The ICT 4 D Indicators Framework IKE Feature/Sub-Goal ‘GOAL’ Relevant Policy Pillars ‘MEANS’ Indicative Broad Indicators for Measuring the Dev, of IKE ICT and Enabling Physical Infrastructure Development Human Resource Development A high income economy dominated by trading in ICT products and services Indicators to monitor and measure Government Admin & Service economic growth, productivity Delivery – E-Government (agric, industrial, services), GDP and GNI attributable to ICT 4 D Promoting E-Commerce and the initiatives Dev of the Private Sector Developing Key Sectors of the Economy: Agric, Services and the ICT Industry Cont…

The ICT 4 D Indicators Framework IKE Feature/Sub-Goal ‘GOAL’ An economy characterized by a The ICT 4 D Indicators Framework IKE Feature/Sub-Goal ‘GOAL’ An economy characterized by a large commercial services sector with a reasonably large and vibrant ICT services sector and industry Relevant Policy Pillars ‘MEANS’ ICT and Enabling Physical Infrastructure Development Promoting E-Commerce and the Dev of the Private Sector Indicative Broad Indicators for Measuring the Dev, of IKE Indicators to measure the contribution of the ICT production and services sector to economic growth, GDP and GNI Developing Key Sectors of Indicators to monitor and the Economy: Agric, Services measure the size of the and the ICT Industry commercial services sub-sector activities

IKE Feature/Sub-Goal ‘GOAL’ Relevant Policy Pillars ‘MEANS’ ICT and Enabling Physical Infrastructure Development An IKE Feature/Sub-Goal ‘GOAL’ Relevant Policy Pillars ‘MEANS’ ICT and Enabling Physical Infrastructure Development An economy characterized Promoting E-Commerce and by a technology-based the Dev of the Private Sector knowledge-driven industrial Developing Key Sectors of the Economy: Agric, Services and the ICT Industry Indicative Broad Indicators for Measuring the Development of IKE Indicators to monitor and assess the knowledge-based activities of the industrial sector Indicators to monitor, assesses and measure the contribution of knowledge-based industrial subsector activities to economic growth, GDP and GNI Promoting R&D An economy with a globally competitive industrial and services sector which are to a large extent driven by cutting-edge R&D encompassing basic and applied industrial and product development. ICT and Enabling Physical Infrastructure Development Human Resource Dev Promoting E-Commerce and the Dev of the Private Sector Promoting R&D Indicators to assess R&D expenditure per million of population Indicators to assess the impact of R&D on productivity in the industrial and services sector Indicators to measure the size of high-tech exports attributable to R&D Cont…

IKE Feature/Sub-Goal ‘GOAL’ Relevant Policy Pillars ‘MEANS’ Indicative Broad Indicators for Measuring the Development IKE Feature/Sub-Goal ‘GOAL’ Relevant Policy Pillars ‘MEANS’ Indicative Broad Indicators for Measuring the Development of IKE ICT and Enabling Physical Infrastructure Development Human Resource Development An economy in which the majority of the working population are either directly or indirectly involved in information and communications related activities Promoting Universal Access and Service Government Administration and Service Delivery – EGovernment Promoting E-Commerce and the Dev of the Private Sector Indicators [Indexes] to measure the proportion of the working population involved in information and communication related activities of the economy Indicators to measure the gender composition of the working population involved in information and communication related activities of the economy Developing Key Sectors of the Economy: Agric, Services and the ICT Industry Promoting ICTs Deployment in Social Sectors: Education, Health & Community Cont…

IKE Feature/Sub-Goal ‘GOAL’ Relevant Policy Pillars ‘MEANS’ ICT and Enabling Physical Infrastructure Development An IKE Feature/Sub-Goal ‘GOAL’ Relevant Policy Pillars ‘MEANS’ ICT and Enabling Physical Infrastructure Development An economy with a modern, efficient and competitive agricultural sector Indicative Broad Indicators for Measuring the Development of IKE Indicators to measure the extent of mechanization of agricultural production activities Human Resource Development Indicators to measure the extent of commercialization of agricultural activities Developing Key Sectors of the Economy: Agric, Services and the ICT Industry Indicators to measure expenditure and investment on agricultural research and R&D Promoting R&D Indicators on the degree of deployment and exploitation of ICTs to support agricultural activities (production, processing, distribution and marketing) Cont…

IKE Feature/Sub-Goal ‘GOAL’ Relevant Policy Pillars ‘MEANS’ ICT and Enabling Physical Infrastructure Development An IKE Feature/Sub-Goal ‘GOAL’ Relevant Policy Pillars ‘MEANS’ ICT and Enabling Physical Infrastructure Development An economy characterized by a wide-spread deployment and exploitation of ICTs within the society to support the delivery of health, education, government and social services Human Resource Development Promoting Universal Access and Service Government Administration and Service Delivery – EGovernment Promoting ICTs Deployment in Social Sectors: Education, Health & Community Indicative Broad Indicators for Measuring the Development of IKE Indicators to measure the extent of the deployment and the spread of ICTs within the community Indicators to monitor and measure the degree of deployment, and exploitation of ICTs within the Educational, and Health sector and institutions Indicators to monitor and measure the degree of adoption of ICTs to support operations and activities within government and public sector institutions Indicators to monitor and measure the degree of diffusion of ICTs within education, health and govt. institutions Cont…

IKE Feature/Sub-Goal ‘GOAL’ An economy characterized by a modern educational system within which ICTs IKE Feature/Sub-Goal ‘GOAL’ An economy characterized by a modern educational system within which ICTs are widely deployed to facilitate the delivery of educational services at all levels of the educational system Relevant Policy Pillars ‘MEANS’ ICT and Enabling Physical Infrastructure Development Human Resource Development Promoting ICTs Deployment in Social Sectors: Education, Health & Community Promoting R&D Indicative Broad Indicators for Measuring the Development of IKE Indicators to measure the ICT adoption rate within the educational system Indicators to measure the degree of modernization within the educational system [Educational system modernization coefficients/indexes] Legal, Regulatory & Institutional Framework and Environment An economy in which a reasonable large proportion of the population have access to information and communications technology products and services ICT and Enabling Physical Infrastructure Development Promoting Universal Access and Service Promoting E-Commerce and the Dev of the Private Sector Indicators to measure the contribution of ICT products and services sector to GDP, GNI Indicators to monitor and measure household expenditure on ICT products and services Indicators to capture changes in consumption patterns of Cont… households

IKE Feature/Sub-Goal ‘GOAL’ An economy in which the provision and delivery of goods and IKE Feature/Sub-Goal ‘GOAL’ An economy in which the provision and delivery of goods and services of the key sectors of the economy are to a large extent facilitated by information and communications technologies Relevant Policy Pillars ‘MEANS’ ICT and Enabling Physical Infrastructure Development Promoting Universal Access and Service Promoting E-Commerce and the Dev of the Private Sector Developing Key Sectors of the Economy: Agric, Services and the ICT Industry Promoting ICTs Deployment in Social Sectors: Education, Health & Community Legal, Regulatory & Institutional Framework and Environment Indicative Broad Indicators for Measuring the Development of IKE Indicators to measure the degree of the deployment of ICT infrastructure within the country Indicators to measure the level of Internet connectivity and usage within specific relevant sectors of the economy Indicators to assess the degree to which organizations and establishments within key sectors of the economy makes use of ICTs to facilitate the provision of services Cont…

IKE Feature/Sub-Goal ‘GOAL’ Relevant Policy Pillars ‘MEANS’ ICT and Enabling Physical Infrastructure Development An IKE Feature/Sub-Goal ‘GOAL’ Relevant Policy Pillars ‘MEANS’ ICT and Enabling Physical Infrastructure Development An economy based on an advanced and reliable national information and communications infrastructure Human Resource Development Promoting Universal Access and Service Legal, Regulatory & Institutional Framework and Environment Indicative Broad Indicators for Measuring the Development of IKE Indicators monitor and measure the level and the spread of ICT infrastructure Indicators to measure the spread and density of various information and communication technologies within the society and communities Indicators to measure the extent of the deployment of communications and network systems and technologies within organizations and indicator Indicators to measure the diffusion rate of ICT infrastructure within key sectors of the economy Cont…

IKE Feature/Sub-Goal ‘GOAL’ An economy based on a rich pool of highly skilled human IKE Feature/Sub-Goal ‘GOAL’ An economy based on a rich pool of highly skilled human resources in critical skill areas relevant for developing and maintaining a competitive edge on the global market Relevant Policy Pillars ‘MEANS’ Human Resource Development Indicative Broad Indicators for Measuring the Development of IKE Human resource development indicators Indicators to measure the quality of human resources Promoting ICTs Deployment in Social Indicators to assess the critical nature of Sectors: Education, Health various skills to the IKE & Community Indicators to assess the critical mass Promoting R&D requirement of various IKE skills Human Resource Development An economy based on a literate society with a high proportion of computer literates Indicators to measure the ICT literacy within the society Promoting Universal Access and Service Indicators to measure the level and the spread computer awareness within the country Promoting ICTs Indicators to measure the degree of Deployment in Social Sectors: Education, Health adoption computer education and training within the educational system & Community Indicators on computer-related skills and Promoting R&D professional within the workforce Cont…

Assessing the Measuring Targeted Impact of the IKE: Impact on Households Economic Outcomes Indicators Assessing the Measuring Targeted Impact of the IKE: Impact on Households Economic Outcomes Indicators • Household Income Levels • Employment Levels • Gross National Income Levels Education Impact Indicators HOUSEHOLDS Social Outcomes Indicators Health Impact Indicators Social Services Impact Indicators ICT Access & Usage Outcomes Indicators • Household ICT Access Levels • Households ICT Ownership • Household Level ICT Penetration • Households ICT Usage Levels

Assessing the Measuring Targeted Impact of the IKE: Impact on Businesses Economic Outcomes Indicators Assessing the Measuring Targeted Impact of the IKE: Impact on Businesses Economic Outcomes Indicators BUSINESSES ICT Access & Usage Outcomes Indicators • Productivity Levels • Global Competitiveness Levels • Gross National Income Levels • FDI and Local Investment Level • Profitability Levels • Business ICT Access Levels • Business ICT Ownership Levels • Business Level of ICT Penetration • Business ICT Deployment Levels • Business ICT Production Levels • Business ICT Usage Levels

Assessing the Measuring Targeted Impact of the IKE: Impact on Government Performance Outcomes Indicators Assessing the Measuring Targeted Impact of the IKE: Impact on Government Performance Outcomes Indicators GOVERNMENT • Productivity Levels • Operational Efficiency Levels • Service Delivery Improvement Levels • Reduction in Corruption Level • Reduction in Inefficiency Levels • Level of Computerization • E-Gov Service Delivery Performance Index/Rating ICT Access & Usage Outcomes Indicators • Govt. MDA ICT Access Levels • Govt. MDA ICT Ownership Levels • Govt. MDA Level of ICT Penetration • Govt. MDA ICT Deployment Levels • Govt. MDA ICT Production Levels • Govt. MDA ICT Usage Levels

Concluding on the ‘Which Indicator’ Question • The position therefore is that the ‘which Concluding on the ‘Which Indicator’ Question • The position therefore is that the ‘which indicators’ question will need to be addressed holistically (taking the broad picture perspective) in terms of: which indicators to develop to: • guide the ICT 4 D policy formulation and implementation process [Type 1 ICT 4 D Indicators] • monitor, assess and measure the impact of the policy implementation process to establish the extent which the GOAL to move to an IKE (developing the information society) is being achieved [Type 2 ICT 4 D Indicators] • monitor, assess and measure the impact of the policy implementation process on households, businesses and government processes and service delivery [Type 1 ICT 4 D Indicators]

Concluding on the Question of Methodology/Approach For each of the specific indicators need to Concluding on the Question of Methodology/Approach For each of the specific indicators need to decide on the: • purpose/type of the indicator [Type 1, Type 2, Type 3]: • relevant information to be collected/gathered; • possible sources of the relevant information to be gathered; • methods to be used for obtaining or gathering the required information; • relevant types of questionnaire to be used in cases where a postal survey or a face-to-face interview is required and • format in which the information gathered as per each indicator is to be presented or summarized.

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