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A Brief History of Computers A Brief History of Computers

Pre-Mechanical Computing l l l From Counting on fingers to hash marks in sand Pre-Mechanical Computing l l l From Counting on fingers to hash marks in sand to pebbles to hash marks on walls to hash marks on bone

Mechanical computers l l From The Abacus c. 4000 BCE to Charles Babbage and Mechanical computers l l From The Abacus c. 4000 BCE to Charles Babbage and his Difference Engine (1812 CE)

Mechanical computers: The Abacus (c. 4000 BCE) Mechanical computers: The Abacus (c. 4000 BCE)

Napier’s Bones and Logarithms (1617) Napier’s Bones and Logarithms (1617)

Oughtred’s (1621) and Schickard‘s (1623) slide rule Oughtred’s (1621) and Schickard‘s (1623) slide rule

Blaise Pascal’s Pascaline (1645) Blaise Pascal’s Pascaline (1645)

Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibnitz’s Stepped Reckoner (1674) Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibnitz’s Stepped Reckoner (1674)

Joseph-Marie Jacquard and his punched card controlled looms (1804) Joseph-Marie Jacquard and his punched card controlled looms (1804)

Preparing the cards with the pattern for the cloth to be woven Preparing the cards with the pattern for the cloth to be woven

Charles Babbage (1791 -1871) The Father of Computers Charles Babbage (1791 -1871) The Father of Computers

Charles Babbage’s Difference Engine Charles Babbage’s Difference Engine

Charles Babbage’s Analytical Engine Charles Babbage’s Analytical Engine

Lady Augusta Ada Countess of Lovelace Lady Augusta Ada Countess of Lovelace

Electro-mechanical computers l l From Herman Hollerith’s 1890 Census Counting Machine to Howard Aiken Electro-mechanical computers l l From Herman Hollerith’s 1890 Census Counting Machine to Howard Aiken and the Harvard Mark I (1944)

Herman Hollerith and his Census Tabulating Machine (1884) Herman Hollerith and his Census Tabulating Machine (1884)

A closer look at the Census Tabulating Machine A closer look at the Census Tabulating Machine

The Harvard Mark I (1944) aka IBM’s Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (ASCC) The Harvard Mark I (1944) aka IBM’s Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (ASCC)

The first computer bug Rear Admiral Dr. Grace Murray Hopper The first computer bug Rear Admiral Dr. Grace Murray Hopper

Electronic digital computers l l From John Vincent Atanasoff’s 1939 Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC) to Electronic digital computers l l From John Vincent Atanasoff’s 1939 Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC) to the present day

Alan Turing 1912 -1954 The Turing Machine Aka The Universal Machine 1936 Alan Turing 1912 -1954 The Turing Machine Aka The Universal Machine 1936

John Vincent Atanasoff (1903 -1995) Physics Prof At Iowa State University, Ames, IA John Vincent Atanasoff (1903 -1995) Physics Prof At Iowa State University, Ames, IA

Clifford Berry (1918 -1963) Ph. D student of Dr. Atanasoff’s Clifford Berry (1918 -1963) Ph. D student of Dr. Atanasoff’s

1939 The Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC) 1939 The Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC)

1943 Bletchley Park’s Colossus The Enigma Machine 1943 Bletchley Park’s Colossus The Enigma Machine

1946 The ENIAC John Presper Eckert (1919 -1995) and John Mauchly (1907 -1980) of 1946 The ENIAC John Presper Eckert (1919 -1995) and John Mauchly (1907 -1980) of the University of Pennsylvania Moore School of Engineering

The ENIAC: Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer The ENIAC: Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer

Programming the ENIAC Programming the ENIAC

1951 Univac 1951 Univac

1952 – 1960 l l l l 1953 The IBM 701 becomes available to 1952 – 1960 l l l l 1953 The IBM 701 becomes available to the scientific community. A total of 19 are produced and sold. 1954 IBM produces and markets the IBM 650. More than 1, 800 of these computers are sold in an eight-year span 1955 Bell Labs introduces its first transistor computer. Transistors are faster, smaller and create less heat than traditional vacuum tubs, making these computers more reliable and efficient. 1955 The ENIAC is turned off for the last time. It’s estimated to have done more arithmetic than the entire human race had done prior to 1945. 1956 IBM’s 3005 RAMAC is the first computer to be shipped with a hard disk drive. 1957 IBM announces it will no longer be using vacuum tubes and releases its first computer that had 2000 transistors. 1957 Russia launches the first artificial satellite, named sputnik. 1958 The first integrated chip is first developed by Robert Noyce of Fairchild Semiconductor and Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments. The first microchip was demonstrated on September 12, 1958.

1960 – 1971 l l l 1961 General Motors puts the first industrial robot 1960 – 1971 l l l 1961 General Motors puts the first industrial robot – the 4, 000 pound Unimate – to work in a New Jersey factory. 1963 Doug Engelbart invents and patents the first computer mouse. 1963 The American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) is developed to standardize data exchange among computers. 1964 Dartmouth University’s John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz develop Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Language (BASIC). 1965 Ted Nelson coins the term "hypertext, " which refers to text that is not necessarily linear. 1967 IBM creates the first floppy disk. 1969 AT&T Bell Laboratories develop Unix. 1969 The U. S. Department of Defense sets up the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET ) this network was the first building blocks to what the internet is today. 1970 Intel announces the 1103, a new memory chip containing more than 1, 000 bits of information. This chip is classified as random-access memory (RAM). 1970 Intel introduces the first microprocessor, the Intel 4004. 1971 The first 8" floppy diskette drive was introduced 1971 The first laser printer is developed at Xerox PARC.

1972 – 1980 l l l l 1972 Atari releases Pong, the first commercial 1972 – 1980 l l l l 1972 Atari releases Pong, the first commercial video game. 1972 The compact disc is invented in the United States. 1973 Robert Metcalfe creates the Ethernet at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC). 1974 Intel’s improved microprocessor chip, the 8080 becomes a standard in the microcomputing industry. 1974 IBM develops SEQUEL, which today is known as SQL today. 1975 MITS ships one of the first PCs, the Altair 8800 with one kilobyte (KB) of memory. The computer is ordered as a mail-order kit for $397. 00 1975 Paul Allen and Bill Gates write the first computer language program for personal computers, which is a form of BASIC designed for the Altair. 1975 Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs co-found Apple Computers. 1976 The first 5. 25 -inch floppy disk is invented. 1976 Microsoft introduces an improved version of BASIC. 1976 The Intel 8086 is introduced. 1978 The 5. 25 -inch floppy disk becomes an industry standard. 1979 Texas Instruments enters the computer market with the TI 99/4 personal computer that sells for $1, 500. 1979 Atari introduces a coin-operated version of Asteroids. 1979 More then half a million computers are in use in the United States. 1979 The Motorola 6800 is released and is later chosen as the processor for the Apple Macintosh.

Modern Computer History (1980 to the present) 1980 – 1990 – 2000 – present Modern Computer History (1980 to the present) 1980 – 1990 – 2000 – present

Acknowledgements l l Bullet items of history taken from www. computerhope. com Early history Acknowledgements l l Bullet items of history taken from www. computerhope. com Early history based on a presentation by Bernard John Poole, MSIS – Associate Professor of Education and Instructional Technology, University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown