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6 Foundational Civilizations 6 Foundational Civilizations

River Valley Civs of Afro-Eurasia River Valley Civs of Afro-Eurasia

ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA Oldest known civilization Cradle of Human Civilization Old Testament Nebuchadnezzar Ziggurat (right) ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA Oldest known civilization Cradle of Human Civilization Old Testament Nebuchadnezzar Ziggurat (right) Hanging gardens

Geography This civ rose in the valleys between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Some Geography This civ rose in the valleys between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Some say this Fertile Crescent was the real Garden of Eden.

In what modern day country was the Fertile Crescent? In what modern day country was the Fertile Crescent?

Ur, the capital city of Mesopotamia Ur, the capital city of Mesopotamia

Political: What was the earliest kingdom in Mesopotamia? The second? Political: What was the earliest kingdom in Mesopotamia? The second?

Social This is cuneiform. Babylonians wrote using this “wedgeshaped” writing on clay tablets. The Social This is cuneiform. Babylonians wrote using this “wedgeshaped” writing on clay tablets. The Sumerians invented writing.

More cuneiform writing More cuneiform writing

More ziggurats More ziggurats

Hanging gardens of Babylonia Hanging gardens of Babylonia

The ancient city of Babylon, under King Nebuchadnezzar II, must have been a wonder The ancient city of Babylon, under King Nebuchadnezzar II, must have been a wonder to the traveler's eyes. "In addition to its size, " wrote Herodotus, a historian in 450 BC, "Babylon surpasses in splendor any city in the known world. " Herodotus claimed the outer walls were 56 miles in length, 80 feet thick and 320 feet high. Wide enough, he said, to allow a four-horse chariot to turn. The inner walls were "not so thick as the first, but hardly less strong. " Inside the walls were fortresses and temples containing immense statues of solid gold. Rising above the city was the famous Tower of Babel, a temple to the god Marduk, that seemed to reach to the heavens

Another painting of the hanging gardens with Tower of Babel in back Another painting of the hanging gardens with Tower of Babel in back

Economic: trade and farming Sumerians (Mesopotamians) were known to trade with the Egyptians and Economic: trade and farming Sumerians (Mesopotamians) were known to trade with the Egyptians and the Indus Valley civilizations. In later years, these trade routes became Silk Road.

Sumerians invented the wheel! The wheel was invented by 6000 BC! It helped military, Sumerians invented the wheel! The wheel was invented by 6000 BC! It helped military, farming and trade. At right, this is made of wood.

Political: Mesopotamian Law Code of Hammurabi “eye for an eye tooth for a tooth” Political: Mesopotamian Law Code of Hammurabi “eye for an eye tooth for a tooth”

INNOVATIONS Developed the first writing – cuneiform Built clay brick structures – ziggurats (temples) INNOVATIONS Developed the first writing – cuneiform Built clay brick structures – ziggurats (temples) Developed the arch, ramps, sewers, and the wheel Number system based on 60 and algebra Had a lunar calendar

ANCIENT EGYPT Nile River Mummies Pharaohs Rameses King Tutankhamen Hieroglyphics ANCIENT EGYPT Nile River Mummies Pharaohs Rameses King Tutankhamen Hieroglyphics

Egyptian civilization arose a bit after Mesopotamia. Geography: It was centered around the Nile Egyptian civilization arose a bit after Mesopotamia. Geography: It was centered around the Nile River.

The Nile River The Nile River

Pyramids These are the Giza pyramids, the most famous. Pyramids were tombs for the Pyramids These are the Giza pyramids, the most famous. Pyramids were tombs for the kings. These were built in 3500 B. C. E. How old are they?

Khufu—The Great Pyramid Built: Around 2560 BC Function: Tomb of Pharoah Khufu Size: Height Khufu—The Great Pyramid Built: Around 2560 BC Function: Tomb of Pharoah Khufu Size: Height 480 ft. (146 m) Made of: Mostly limestone Other: Tallest building in the world till 1311 AD and again from 1647 to 1874. It's 756 feet long on each side, 450 feet high and is composed of 2, 300, 000 blocks of stone, each averaging 2 1/2 tons in weight. No side is more than 8 inches different in length than another, and the whole structure is perfectly oriented to the points of the compass. Even in the 19 th century, it was the tallest building in the world and, at the age of 4, 500 years, it is the only one of the famous 7 Wonders of the Ancient World that still stands. Even today it remains the most massive building on Earth. It is the Great Pyramid of Khufu, at Giza, Egypt.

Political: Egyptian Pharaohs Egyptians were led by Pharaohs. They were priest-kings King Tut is Political: Egyptian Pharaohs Egyptians were led by Pharaohs. They were priest-kings King Tut is the most famous Using computers, this image was reconstructed using his remains

Tutankhamun Tutankhamun

Tutankhamun on the throne Tutankhamun on the throne

Abu Simbel rock temples were built by Ramseses II Abu Simbel rock temples were built by Ramseses II

Mummies Egyptians who could afford to do so would have themselves mummified. They believed Mummies Egyptians who could afford to do so would have themselves mummified. They believed in a better afterlife if their body was preserved.

The Egyptians took out all of the internal organs, except the heart. When they The Egyptians took out all of the internal organs, except the heart. When they removed them the organs were put in canopic jars, that were put in the tomb with the mummy. They did not take out the heart because it was believed to be the intelligence and emotion of the person. The Egyptians thought the brain had no significant value, so they took it out through the nose. The body was packed and covered with natron (a salty drying agent). After this the body was left for 40 -50 days.

Mummies Mummies

Egyptians wrote in hieroglyphics Egyptians wrote in hieroglyphics

Hieroglyphics Hieroglyphics

The Rosetta Stone is a stone with writing on it in two languages (Egyptian The Rosetta Stone is a stone with writing on it in two languages (Egyptian and Greek), using three scripts (hieroglyphic, demotic and Greek). Jean-François Champollion deciphered hieroglyphs in 1822. Champollion could read both Greek and coptic. He was able to figure out what the seven demotic signs in coptic were. By looking at how these signs were used in coptic he was able to work out what they stood for. Then he began tracing these demotic signs back to hieroglyphic signs.

What did Egyptians write on? Ancient Egyptians used papyrus, a substance derived from the What did Egyptians write on? Ancient Egyptians used papyrus, a substance derived from the plant of the same name

The Great Sphinx is located on the Giza plateau, about six miles west of The Great Sphinx is located on the Giza plateau, about six miles west of Cairo.

The Great Sphinx & Khafre nd largest pyramid) (2 The Great Sphinx & Khafre nd largest pyramid) (2

Egyptian economy Although Egypt looks really sophisticated, the economy is a traditional economy based Egyptian economy Although Egypt looks really sophisticated, the economy is a traditional economy based on farming and trade. Egyptians traded up and down the Nile, with Mesopotamians and sometimes with Indus Valley (in Pakistan)

INNOVATIONS Number system based on 10, as well as geometry Great astronomers Excellent irrigation INNOVATIONS Number system based on 10, as well as geometry Great astronomers Excellent irrigation systems Mummification Hieroglyphic writing

The Arts Built huge temples and pyramids Sphinx, obelisks Decorated tombs and temples with The Arts Built huge temples and pyramids Sphinx, obelisks Decorated tombs and temples with drawings and hieroglyphics that recorded history and depicted everyday life, as well as the pharaohs and their families

Indus Valley civilization Indus Valley civilization

G: What modern day countries was the Indus Valley civ in? G: What modern day countries was the Indus Valley civ in?

Indus River Valley This civ is still mysterious. The writing has not been translated. Indus River Valley This civ is still mysterious. The writing has not been translated.

Indus River civilization We do know the cities were sophisticated enough to have brick Indus River civilization We do know the cities were sophisticated enough to have brick walls surrounding them for protection against flooding from the Indus River.

Mohenjo Daro Mohenjo Daro

Various artifacts found Various artifacts found

Artifacts Artifacts

Indus Economy Just like the other river valley civs, the Indus river valley people Indus Economy Just like the other river valley civs, the Indus river valley people were mostly farmers. Traditional economy They did trade with Chinese and with Sumerians (Mesopotamians).

INNOVATIONS Well-planned cities (streets at 90 o angles) Sewer systems and garbage bins Private INNOVATIONS Well-planned cities (streets at 90 o angles) Sewer systems and garbage bins Private and public baths Kilns for baking bricks Public wells provided water Written language (mostly pictographic) [The Arayans brought the Sanskrit language when they took over]

THE END OF HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION No one really knows what happened to the Harappans THE END OF HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION No one really knows what happened to the Harappans Theories Natural disaster (earthquake, floods) destroyed the cities and the people migrated to other areas They were conquered by other people They moved from the region for some other reason Aryans, a nomadic people, moved into the region as Harappan civilization was declining

ANCIENT CHINA Great Wall Began 2000 B. C. Mandate of Heaven Dynasties Silk astronomy ANCIENT CHINA Great Wall Began 2000 B. C. Mandate of Heaven Dynasties Silk astronomy

As in Egypt, Mesopotamia, and along the Indus River, Chinese civilization began within a As in Egypt, Mesopotamia, and along the Indus River, Chinese civilization began within a major river valley. Modern China itself is a huge geographical expanse. Around 4000 BC, this huge area contained an almost infinite number of ethnic groups and languages. This history, in which a vast area populated by diverse ethnic groups became, over time, a more or less single culture, began in the Yellow River Valley.

Yellow River Civilization Ancient China was formed around the Yellow River. The color yellow Yellow River Civilization Ancient China was formed around the Yellow River. The color yellow symbolized “centrality”, as in China is the center of the world. Also called China’s Sorrow (devastating floods) Contained by a system of dikes

Chinese accomplishments During the Zhou and Shang periods, the Chinese made remarkable achievements in Chinese accomplishments During the Zhou and Shang periods, the Chinese made remarkable achievements in astronomy and bronzework, learned to make silk and create books, and developed a complex system of writing

Chinese Writing Began as oracle bone script—It was etched onto turtle shells and animals Chinese Writing Began as oracle bone script—It was etched onto turtle shells and animals bones, which were then heated until cracks would appear. By interpreting the pattern of the cracks, Shang court officials would make divinations about the future.

Chinese invented silk Silk was exotic and expensive, so it was good for trading Chinese invented silk Silk was exotic and expensive, so it was good for trading with the rest of the world. It is made from silk worms. Silk also makes “paper”

Silk worm Silk worm

Chinese astronomy 2137 BC - Chinese book 书经 records the earliest known solar eclipse Chinese astronomy 2137 BC - Chinese book 书经 records the earliest known solar eclipse on October 22. ca. 2000 BC - Chinese determine that Jupiter needs 12 years to complete one revolution of its orbit. ca. 1400 BC - Chinese record the regularity of solar and lunar eclipses and the earliest known solar variation日珥. ca. 1200 BC - Chinese divide the sky into twenty eight regions 二十八宿 for recognitions of the stars. ca. 1100 BC - Chinese first determine the spring equinox 黄 赤交角. 776 BC - Chinese make the earliest reliably record of solar eclipse.

In the Middle Ages the Arabs made known throughout Muslim Spain a material which In the Middle Ages the Arabs made known throughout Muslim Spain a material which was to replace all its predecessors. This was paper, whose manufacture they imported from far distant and mysterious realm of China. The first paper appeared in China about 200 BC. Its name is derived from papyrus. Silk was transformed into paper by a process of pasting, but because silk was expensive, wool and cotton came to be used instead. This invention was attributed to Ts'ai Lun. In the picture above, the manufacturing process used by the Chinese. They steeped mulberry or bamboo bark in water, then kneaded it to produce a paste from which they obtained smooth thin sheets of paper.

Ancient China Ancient China

Chinese pyramids!!!! Chinese pyramids!!!!

The Great Wall of China was built to keep northern nomads out. The Great Wall of China was built to keep northern nomads out.

Many died building it, and their bodies were used as filler for it. Many died building it, and their bodies were used as filler for it.

INNOVATIONS Skilled metal workers Weapons made of bronze Bronze ceremonial vessels Silk Mirrors Fireworks/gunpowder INNOVATIONS Skilled metal workers Weapons made of bronze Bronze ceremonial vessels Silk Mirrors Fireworks/gunpowder (later dynasties)

The Arts Unique architecture Decorated pottery Pictographic writing (5000 characters) The Arts Unique architecture Decorated pottery Pictographic writing (5000 characters)

Civilization in the Americas 2 Main Centers: Mexico / Central America The Andes Mount Civilization in the Americas 2 Main Centers: Mexico / Central America The Andes Mount (with extension into N. America)

In isolation from the “Old World” (Eastern Hemisphere), a different set of elements of In isolation from the “Old World” (Eastern Hemisphere), a different set of elements of a civilization emerged: (1) Agriculture, ca. 7000 B. C. E. In Mexico / C. America: CORN, manioc→ (support large population) In the Andes: potatoes (Corn was eventually imported from C. America). (2) Non-alphabetic writing in Mexico / C. America; no writing in Andes (3) No wheel (4) Not many metal weapons (5) Monumental stone architecture

MEXICO / CENTRAL AMERICA: OLMECS I. Foundational civilization: OLMECS, ca. 1200 -400 B. C. MEXICO / CENTRAL AMERICA: OLMECS I. Foundational civilization: OLMECS, ca. 1200 -400 B. C. E. A. Irrigation for corn B. Writing C. Cities as h. q. of ruling elite and centers of religious ritual Mass of population live outside cities, farm crops from which rulers take tribute. D. Monumental stone architecture--Stone heads E. Ball Game orginates

THE BALL GAME Ball Court in Monte Alban THE BALL GAME Ball Court in Monte Alban

The Great Pyramid at La Venta The Great Pyramid at La Venta

Olmec stone heads Features fuel speculation that Olmec ancestors may have come from Polynesia. Olmec stone heads Features fuel speculation that Olmec ancestors may have come from Polynesia.

THE ANDES—The CHAVIN Foundational civilization: Chavín in Peru, ca. 900 -250 BC A. Administrative THE ANDES—The CHAVIN Foundational civilization: Chavín in Peru, ca. 900 -250 BC A. Administrative / religious cities supported by cropgrowing peasantry (as in Mexico / C. America)

B. Terraced agriculture C. Potatoes, eventually corn (imported from Mexico / C. America) Peruvian B. Terraced agriculture C. Potatoes, eventually corn (imported from Mexico / C. America) Peruvian potatoes

Chavín cultural capital, Chavín de Huanter, was at the intersection of diverse ecological zones Chavín cultural capital, Chavín de Huanter, was at the intersection of diverse ecological zones which provided it economic advantage over rivals llamas, only beasts of burden in Americas, facilitated trade The evidence suggests that increased warfare led to the fall of Chavín around 200 BCE.

Chavin Textile of Earth Goddess Chavin Textile of Earth Goddess

Quipu--an accounting device based on ropes and knots. Some think it was also used Quipu--an accounting device based on ropes and knots. Some think it was also used to encode spoken language.

Stone architecture, feline deity Stone architecture, feline deity

Chavin vessel depicting a jaguar Chavin vessel depicting a jaguar