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# 56 Is Your House Killing You? Dr. Richard Corsi October 10, 2008 Produced # 56 Is Your House Killing You? Dr. Richard Corsi October 10, 2008 Produced by and for Hot Science - Cool Talks by the Environmental Science Institute. We request that the use of these materials include an acknowledgement of the presenter and Hot Science - Cool Talks by the Environmental Science Institute at UT Austin. We hope you find these materials educational and enjoyable.

Is Your Home Killing You? Title Slide Indoor Air Quality: A Time for Recognition Is Your Home Killing You? Title Slide Indoor Air Quality: A Time for Recognition Richard L. Corsi, Ph. D. , PE E. C. H. Bantel Professor for Professional Practice Director – Program on Indoor Environmental Science & Engineering Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering

When did indoor air quality problems begin? http: //kuroow. blox. pl/html When did indoor air quality problems begin? http: //kuroow. blox. pl/html

Situation Persists in Developing World ½ world’s population (> 3 B) relies on coal Situation Persists in Developing World ½ world’s population (> 3 B) relies on coal and biomass for domestic energy, and number is increasing! • Used in simple stoves. • Incomplete combustion. UN ITDG Briefings • Often not ventilated. • 2 – 2. 8 million deaths/year • 4% of global mortality • 1 million childhood deaths/year © Ron Giling Panos Pictures • Women: 2/3 w/ lung cancer are non-smokers!

Developed World - Evolution of IAQ • Demand for homes (end of WW II) Developed World - Evolution of IAQ • Demand for homes (end of WW II) www. cdc. gov affordablehousinginstitute. org

Demand for Ease of Life • Wall-to-wall carpet • Cleaners • Air fresheners • Demand for Ease of Life • Wall-to-wall carpet • Cleaners • Air fresheners • Pesticides • Personal care products • Much more

Air Conditioning Infrogmation • Advantageous to keep the outdoors out. Why? • How: Seal Air Conditioning Infrogmation • Advantageous to keep the outdoors out. Why? • How: Seal up home, re-circulate conditioned air • Energy crisis of 1970 s (buildings ≈ 70%) • Energy crisis of 21 st century (buildings ≈ 40%)

Building Blocks § ventilation (Qvent) § emissions (E) Qvent Coutside Cinside Qcontrol E Qvent Building Blocks § ventilation (Qvent) § emissions (E) Qvent Coutside Cinside Qcontrol E Qvent § outdoor pollution (Coutside) § control (η x Qcontrol) η x Qcontrol = CADR (clean air delivery rate)

Professor Jeffrey Siegel Ion Generator 5 Ion Generators Ion Generator 2 Ion Generator 3 Professor Jeffrey Siegel Ion Generator 5 Ion Generators Ion Generator 2 Ion Generator 3 Ion Generator 1 HEPA Filter Ion Generator 4

Clean Air Delivery Rate (m 3/hr) Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR) Test Aerosol: Incense Clean Air Delivery Rate (m 3/hr) Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR) Test Aerosol: Incense Particle Diameter (µm)

It’s Not Only In the Air! • 360 mid-western homes (1992 – 1993) • It’s Not Only In the Air! • 360 mid-western homes (1992 – 1993) • Pesticides and Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs; soot and parking lot sealant) • DDT (toxic pesticide) in 25% of homes (banned in 1972!) • PAH levels in > 50% of homes …………… “If truckloads of dust with the same concentration of toxic chemicals as is found in most carpets were deposited outside, these locations would be considered hazardous waste dumps” Ott & Roberts, “Everyday Exposure to Toxic Pollutants, ” Scientific American, 1998

How much time do you spend indoors? How much time do you spend indoors?

Americans = Indoor Creatures • Indoors 89% • 18 hours indoors for every 1 Americans = Indoor Creatures • Indoors 89% • 18 hours indoors for every 1 outdoors • 2/3 of time in home • Transit 6% • Outdoors 5% Klepeis et al. 2001

How do risks from poor indoor air quality compare with other environmental risks? How do risks from poor indoor air quality compare with other environmental risks?

USEPA Risk Rankings 1. (tie) 3. 4. (tie) Worker exposure to chemicals Risk of USEPA Risk Rankings 1. (tie) 3. 4. (tie) Worker exposure to chemicals Risk of cancer/death - breathing indoor air as high as 0. 5 to 1% Indoor radon (conventional risk assessment) Corsi, Environ. Manager (2000) Pesticide residue on foods Indoor air pollutants (non-radon) Consumer exposure to chemicals (includes cleaning fluids, etc. ) 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 16 Hazardous/toxic air pollutants Depletion of stratospheric ozone Hazardous waste sites (inactive) Drinking water (radon and THMs) Application of pesticides others. . (including groundwater contamination at 21, criteria air pollutants at 22, etc. ) http: //www. epa. gov/oppt/rsei/index. html

Let’s discuss some sources Indoor pollution sources (those things that emit pollution indoors) Let’s discuss some sources Indoor pollution sources (those things that emit pollution indoors)

Lots of images Lots of images

Now let’s examine just a few examples A few examples (some might surprise you!) Now let’s examine just a few examples A few examples (some might surprise you!)

Scented candles Candles Scented Exposure to fine particulate matter (a heavily regulated outdoor air Scented candles Candles Scented Exposure to fine particulate matter (a heavily regulated outdoor air pollutant): What is the outdoor source equivalent of burning a single candle in a home? Every major industrial point source emitter, including all coal-fired power plants in the State of Texas!

p-DCB = 1, 4 -Dichlorobenzene • Molecular structure of p. DCB • Where does p-DCB = 1, 4 -Dichlorobenzene • Molecular structure of p. DCB • Where does it come from? closet freshener moth case moth crystal toilet deodorizer

Model: Buildup of Emissions (Concentration) vs. Air Changes Three product (super) user Model: Buildup of Emissions (Concentration) vs. Air Changes Three product (super) user

Field Samples: Cancer Risk Estimates 153 1 4 Toxic Air Contaminants CCR: cumulative CR Field Samples: Cancer Risk Estimates 153 1 4 Toxic Air Contaminants CCR: cumulative CR FOR: formaldehyde DCB: pdichlorobenzene ACE: CT: carbon acetaldehyde tetrachloride CHL: chloroform EBZ: ethylbenzene BZ: benzene TET: tetrachloroethyle ne STY: styrene MCL: methylene chloride TCE: trichloroethylene Hun et al. 2008

Personal Computers • Large computer manufacturer • Clients getting sick when new computers arrive Personal Computers • Large computer manufacturer • Clients getting sick when new computers arrive • What is emitted? ü 48 toxic chemicals identified ü 75% decay within a few days

Smell of apples? Smell of Apples? Smell of apples? Smell of Apples? "perhaps today's olfactory status symbol is the smell of scorching plastic. " -- Salon. com's Janelle Brown Apple says that “… an unusual odor may be detected when a product has been turned on and allowed to warm up to operating temperature. Typically, the odor is detected when the product is new… In most cases the odor will dissipate over a short period of time. “ Apple suggests that if the odor problem persists, that the machine be placed in a well-ventilated room and allowed to operate over an "extended" period of time (possibly 24 -72 hours) or until the odor dissipates. -- Applelinks Contributing Editor Charles W. Moore “Sorry, Steve, But The G 4 Stinks, And So Does My Power. Book”

Vacuum Cleaners Vaccuum cleaners • Previous tests on several vacuum cleaners • Particle re-suspension Vacuum Cleaners Vaccuum cleaners • Previous tests on several vacuum cleaners • Particle re-suspension by wheels on carpet • Particles through collection device (bag, etc. ) • Particle emissions from motor • 48 tests in 12 apartments in Austin • Recall previous study related to toxic pollutants in carpet • Those with dust allergies/asthma should leave during and following vacuum events

Dishwashers & Washing Machines Lkayama • Detergents / bleaches with sodium hydrochloride (“chlorine”, classified Dishwashers & Washing Machines Lkayama • Detergents / bleaches with sodium hydrochloride (“chlorine”, classified as hazardous) • Experiments show large amounts of chloroform Carlos Paes • Dishwashers GREAT as chemical strippers

Major Appliances: How good are they at putting toxic chemicals into the air? Major Appliances: How good are they at putting toxic chemicals into the air?

Exposure to Chloroform in Tap Water 50 40 30 20 10 00 Contributions to Exposure to Chloroform in Tap Water 50 40 30 20 10 00 Contributions to inhalation exposure

Exposure to Chloroform w/ Reactions 80 60 40 20 00 0% 3%0% Contributions to Exposure to Chloroform w/ Reactions 80 60 40 20 00 0% 3%0% Contributions to inhalation exposure 22% shower laundry dishwasher toilets 16% 59% cooking wash basins

Indoor Ozone Indoor What are major sources of ozone indoors? • Outdoor air • Indoor Ozone Indoor What are major sources of ozone indoors? • Outdoor air • Laser printers • Photocopy machines • Ion generating air purifiers • Electrostatic precipitators • Explicit ozone generators as air “purifiers” Aris et al. 1993

Professor Jeffrey Siegel Ion Generator 5 Ion Generators Ion Generator 2 Ion Generator 3 Professor Jeffrey Siegel Ion Generator 5 Ion Generators Ion Generator 2 Ion Generator 3 Ion Generator 1 HEPA Filter Ion Generator 4

Ozone Emissions (mg/hr) Ion Generators: Ozone Emission Rates Ion Generator Pers. data Ozone Emissions (mg/hr) Ion Generators: Ozone Emission Rates Ion Generator Pers. data

Ozone in a Typical Residence 10 ppb increase in the previous week’s ambient ozone Ozone in a Typical Residence 10 ppb increase in the previous week’s ambient ozone concentration was associated with a 0. 52% increase in daily mortality --(Bell et al. 2004)

Explicit Ozone Generators Nursery Air Purifier “Give your baby healthy air. Make baby’s nursery Explicit Ozone Generators Nursery Air Purifier “Give your baby healthy air. Make baby’s nursery a healthy place, with our stat-of-the-art purifier and ionizer! This powerful little unit releases billions of negative ions that effectively remove allergens, bacteria, dust, and odors (all of which are positively charged). Think of invigorating mountain air… also rich with negative ions. Wonderful for respiratory systems that are still developing. Purifies up to 200 square feet, trapping particles as small as 100 microns. With a wipe-off, reusable filter. ”

Is your home a chemical reactor? Is your home a chemical reactor?

Ozone + Unsaturated Organic Compounds O 3 + R 1 R 2 C C Ozone + Unsaturated Organic Compounds O 3 + R 1 R 2 C C R 3 R 4 R 1 O R 2 O O R 3 C C Many by-products are formed: • Irritating and even toxic gases (e. g. , formaldehyde) • Particles R 4

Sources of (C=C) – Numerous! • Carpet (e. g. , styrene) • Cleaning products Sources of (C=C) – Numerous! • Carpet (e. g. , styrene) • Cleaning products • Polishes and waxes • Air fresheners • Personal care products (soaps, perfumes, etc. ) • Cooking oils • Wood / plants • Human skin oils (squalene)

Example: Solid Air Freshener # Particles released over time by size class Time (min) Example: Solid Air Freshener # Particles released over time by size class Time (min) Sarwar et al. 2004

Is near head chemistry possible? Is near head chemistry possible?

Perfumes and Colognes • 25% of Americans use perfume or cologne daily • 5% Perfumes and Colognes • 25% of Americans use perfume or cologne daily • 5% use perfume or cologne 3 -5 × per day • 3+ million “super users” • Source composition: • over 3, 000 chemicals (terpenes, alcohols, etc. ) • loaded with C=C double bonds • reactive – top notes, middle notes, base notes • Odor thresholds: ≈ 100 – 1, 000 × typical indoor • typical indoor concentrations = < 1 to 10 ppb

Personal Reactive Clouds: Conceptual Product C=C O 3 Product O 3 Wisthaler et al. Personal Reactive Clouds: Conceptual Product C=C O 3 Product O 3 Wisthaler et al. 2005

Screening Experiments λ = 1 -2 min-1 particles 28 L Screening Experiments O 3(meas) Screening Experiments λ = 1 -2 min-1 particles 28 L Screening Experiments O 3(meas) ~ 70 ppb VOC/ald T, RH, CO 2

Experimental Results Particle increase with product vs. without product (corrected for background) Statistically significant Experimental Results Particle increase with product vs. without product (corrected for background) Statistically significant increase (α = 0. 05) perfumes hair sprays

What can you do? • Become as educated as possible • Educate as many What can you do? • Become as educated as possible • Educate as many others as possible • Let your elected reps know of your concern • Become a smart policymaker/engineer of your home • The things you can do are too numerous for a slide - avoid specific sources - use selective ventilation - use appropriate control devices (air purifiers)

Summary • Indoor air quality is very important issue – Greatest environmental health issue Summary • Indoor air quality is very important issue – Greatest environmental health issue in U. S. ! • Affects everyone almost all of the time • Great need for more public education • Great need for more experts in field • Great need for more research – Miles behind other environmental issues – US years/decades behind other countries • University of Texas is a national leader in field • And we have fun, too!

Questions www. caee. utexas. edu/igert Questions www. caee. utexas. edu/igert

Dr. Richard Corsi researches indoor air quality, including sources and control of indoor air Dr. Richard Corsi researches indoor air quality, including sources and control of indoor air pollution and human exposure to indoor toxic pollutants from dishwashers to paint and computers. He recently completed a large study involving building disinfection chemistry in the wake of anthrax attacks in 2001. He and his research team have published over 230 journal/conference papers and reports, and have been featured on The Nature of Things, National Geographic, The Economist, Business. Week, National Wildlife, Prevention, Men’s Health, and more. Corsi earned his Ph. D. in civil engineering from the U. C. Davis in 1989 and joined the faculty of UT Austin in 1994.