- Количество слайдов: 35
4 Recognizing a Firm’s Intellectual Assets: Moving beyond a Firm’s Tangible Resources Mc. Graw-Hill/Irwin Strategic Management: Text and Cases, 4 e Copyright © 2008 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
4 - 3 Learning Objectives • After reading this chapter, you should have a good understanding of: - Why the management of knowledge professionals and knowledge itself are so critical in today’s organizations. The importance of recognizing the interdependence of attracting, developing and retaining human capital. The key role of social capital in leveraging human capital within and across the firm. The importance of social networks in knowledge management and in promoting career success. Why teams are critical in combining and leveraging knowledge in organizations and how they can be made more effective.
4 - 4 Learning Objectives • After reading this chapter, you should have a good understanding of: - The vital role of technology in leveraging knowledge and human capital. How technology can help to retain knowledge even when employees cannot be retained by the organization. The challenge of protecting intellectual property and the importance of a firm’s dynamic capabilities. How leveraging human capital is critical to strategy formulation at the business, corporate, international, and Internet levels.
4 - 5 Ratio of Market Value to Book Value for Selected Companies Exhibit 4. 1 Ratio of Market Value to Book Value for Selected Companies
4 - 6 The Central Role of Knowledge in Today’s Economy • Creation of wealth in a knowledge economy - Effective management of knowledge workers - Intellectual capital - Assets such as • • • Reputation Employee loyalty and commitment Customer relationships Company values Brand names Experience and skills of employees
4 - 7 The Central Role of Knowledge in Today’s Economy Intellectual capital = Market value of the firm – Book value of the firm • How do companies create value in the knowledgeintensive economy? - Human capital (individual capabilities, knowledge, skills, and experience of the company’s employees and managers) - Social capital (the network of relationships that individuals have throughout the organization) - Knowledge • Explicit knowledge • Tacit knowledge
4 - 8 Human Capital: The Foundation of Intellectual Capital Exhibit 4. 2 Human Capital: Three Interdependent Activities
4 - 9 Question Do you agree with this statement, “hire for attitude, train for skill”? Explain.
4 - 10 Attracting Human Capital • Hire for attitude, train for skill • Emphasis on - General knowledge and experience Social skills Values Beliefs Attitudes
4 - 11 Attracting Human Capital • Sound recruiting approaches - Scanning pools of available candidates - Challenge becomes having the right job candidates, not the greatest number of them • Networking - Current employees may be best source of new ones - Incentives for referrals
4 - 12 Example • The top 5 MBA Employers in 2007, according to Fortune Magazine 1. Google 2. Mc. Kinsey & Company 3. Goldman & Sachs 4. Bain & Company 5. Boston Consulting Group Source: www. fortune. com
4 - 13 Developing Human Capital • Train and develop at all levels - Training is not the sole responsibility of the human resource department • • Encouraging widespread involvement Transferring knowledge Monitor progress and track development Evaluate human capital - Employees must share knowledge and work together, collectively, to reach organizational goals - Firms often use 360 -degree evaluation and feedback systems - Managers’ success cannot compromise the organization’s core values
4 - 14 Performance Criteria of “Vision” 360 -Degree Leadership Assessment • Has developed and communicated a clear, simple, customer-focused vision/direction for the organization. • Forward-thinking, stretches horizons, challenges imaginations. • Inspires and energizes others to commit to Vision. Captures minds. Leads by example. • As appropriate, updates Vision to reflect constant and accelerating change affecting the business Ten Characteristics of Leadership Vision Customer/Quality Focus Integrity Accountability/Commitment Communication/Influence Shared Ownership/Boundary-less Team Builder/Empowerment Knowledge/Expertise/Intellect Initiative/Speed Global Mind-Set Adapted from Exhibit 4. 4 An Excerpt from General Electric’s 360 -Degree Leadership Assessment Chart Source: Adapted from R. Slater, Get Better or Get Beaten (Burr Ridge, IL: Irwin Professional Publishing, 1994), pp. 152 -155.
4 - 15 Retaining Human Capital • Provide mechanisms that prevent the transfer of valuable and sensitive information outside the organization - Identify with organization’s mission and values - Strong alliance to organization (strategic intents) • Challenging work and stimulating environment
4 - 16 Retaining Human Capital • Financial and Nonfinancial Rewards and Incentives - Rewards are a vital organizational control mechanism - However, money may not be the most important reason why people take or leave jobs - Exodus of employees can erode a firm’s competitive advantage
4 - 17 Enhancing Human Capital: How Diversity Benefits the Organization 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Cost argument Resource acquisition argument Marketing argument Creativity argument Problem-solving argument System flexibility argument
4 - 18 The Vital Role of Social Capital • Attraction, development and retention of talent is a necessary but not sufficient condition for creating competitive advantage • Knowledge workers often are more loyal to their colleagues and profession than to their employer
4 - 19 How Social Capital Helps Attract and Retain Talent • Hiring via personal (social) networks - Some job candidates may bring other talent with them - Emigration of talent from an organization to form start-up ventures - Can provide mechanism for obtaining resources and information from outside the organization
4 - 20 Microsoft Employees Who Have Left the Company for Other Businesses Exhibit 4. 6 Microsoft Employees Who Have Left the Company for Other Businesses Source: Reprinted by permission of the Wall Street Journal, Copyright © 2000 Dow Jones & Company, Inc. All Rights Reserved Worldwide. License number 397221136576.
4 - 21 Knowledge of Social Networks • Implications that an understanding of social networks has on one’s career - Closure - Bridging relationships • From an individual’s perspective, social networks deliver three unique advantages - Private information - Access to diverse skill sets - Power
4 - 22 The Potential Downside of Social Capital • Groupthink • Cost of financial resources • Managerial commitment
4 - 23 Example • Debunking myths about groupthink in the Old truths for the new economy from Business Week - Teams don't have to constantly work together to be effective. - Teams should not attempt to avoid conflict. - Team members are encouraged to work independently to achieve team goals. - Conflict is essential to prevent groupthink. Source: Business Week, Old Truths for the New Economy, November 17, 2000
4 - 24 Using Technology to Leverage Human Capital and Knowledge • Sharing knowledge and information - Conserves resources - Develops products and services - Creates new opportunities • Technology can leverage human capital and knowledge - Within the organization - With customers - With suppliers
4 - 25 Using Technology to Leverage Human Capital and Knowledge • Using networks to share information and develop products and services - E-mail - Electronic or Virtual teams • Enhance speed and effectiveness with which products are developed • Can be applied to new business ventures
4 - 26 Using Technology to Leverage Human Capital and Knowledge • Codifying knowledge for competitive advantage - Tacit knowledge • Personal experience • Shared only with the consent and participation of the individual - Explicit (codified) knowledge • • Can be documented Can be widely distributed Can be easily replicated Can be reused many times at low cost
4 - 27 Question Which of the following is NOT an advantage of eteams? A) Facilitate communication. B) They have the potential to acquire a broader range of human capital. C) They can be effective in generating social capital. D) They are less flexible in responding to unanticipated work challenges.
4 - 28 Creating Value Through Human Capital, Social Capital, and Technology Human Capital Recruiting “Top-Notch” Human Capital • Does the organization assess attitude and “general make-up” instead of focusing primarily on skills and background in selecting employees at all levels? • How important is creativity and problem solving ability? Are they properly considered in hiring decisions? • Do people throughout the organization engage in effective networking activities to obtain a broad pool of worthy potential employees? Is the organization creative in such endeavors? Adapted from Exhibit 4. 8 Issues to Consider in Creating Value through Human Capital, Social Capital, and Technology Source: Adapted from G. G. Dess and J. C. Picken, Beyond Productivity (New York: AMACON, 1999), pp. 63 -64.
4 - 29 Creating Value Through Human Capital, Social Capital, and Technology Human Capital Enhancing Human Capital through Employee Development • Does the development and training process inculcate an “organizationwide” perspective? • Is there widespread involvement—including top executives—in the preparation and delivery of training and development programs? • Is the development of human capital effectively tracked and monitored? • Are there effective programs for succession at all levels of the organization— especially the top-most levels? • Does the firm effectively evaluate its human capital? Is a 360 -degree evaluation used? Why not? • Are mechanisms in place to assure that a manager’s success does not come at the cost of compromising the organization’s core values? Adapted from Exhibit 4. 8 Issues to Consider in Creating Value through Human Capital, Social Capital, and Technology Source: Adapted from G. G. Dess and J. C. Picken, Beyond Productivity (New York: AMACON, 1999), pp. 63 -64.
4 - 30 Creating Value Through Human Capital, Social Capital, and Technology Human Capital Retaining the Best Employees • Are there appropriate financial rewards to motivate employees at all levels? • Do people throughout the organization strongly identify with the organization’s mission? • Are employees provided a stimulating and challenging work environment that fosters professional growth? • Are valued amenities provided (e. g. , flextime, child-care facilities, telecommuting) that are appropriate given the organization’s mission, strategy, and how work is accomplished? • Is the organization continually devising strategies and mechanisms to retain top performers? Adapted from Exhibit 4. 8 Issues to Consider in Creating Value through Human Capital, Social Capital, and Technology Source: Adapted from G. G. Dess and J. C. Picken, Beyond Productivity (New York: AMACON, 1999), pp. 63 -64.
4 - 31 Creating Value Through Human Capital, Social Capital, and Technology Social Capital • Are there positive personal and professional relationships among employees? • Is the organization benefiting (or being penalized) by hiring (or by voluntary turnover) en masse? • Does an environment of caring and encouragement rather than competition enhance team performance? • Do the social networks within the organization have the appropriate level of closure and bridging relationships? • Does the organization minimize the adverse effects of excessive social capital—such as excessive costs and “groupthink”? Adapted from Exhibit 4. 8 Issues to Consider in Creating Value through Human Capital, Social Capital, and Technology Source: Adapted from G. G. Dess and J. C. Picken, Beyond Productivity (New York: AMACON, 1999), pp. 63 -64.
4 - 32 Creating Value Through Human Capital, Social Capital, and Technology • Does the organization effectively use technology to transfer best practices across the organization? • Does the organization use technology to leverage both human capital and knowledge both within the boundaries of the organization as well as among its suppliers and customers? • Has the organization used technologies such as e-mail and networks to develop products and services? • Has the organization effectively used technology to codify knowledge for competitive advantage? • Does the organization try to retain some of the knowledge of employees when they decide to leave the firm?
4 - 33 The Central Role of Leveraging Human Capital in Strategy Formulation • Leveraging human capital and business-level strategy (Chapter 5) - Sustainable over time • Integrate primary and support activities in the firm’s value chain • Leveraging human capital and corporate-level strategy (Chapter 6) - Manage businesses to create synergy - Create more value by working together across business units
4 - 34 The Central Role of Leveraging Human Capital in Strategy Formulation • Leveraging human capital and international-level strategy (Chapter 7) - Achieve economies of scale - Adapt to local market needs - Facilitate the flow of information and knowledge between business units in different countries
4 - 35 The Central Role of Leveraging Human Capital in Strategy Formulation • Leveraging human capital and entrepreneurial strategies (Chapter 8) - Create value through technology Lower costs Enhance customer service Improve performance