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3 D PRINTING Chief armament engineer Richard FINCK Direction des affaires internationales, stratégiques et technologiques Secrétariat Général de la Défense et de la Sécurité Nationale
3 D PRINTING FOR AEROSPACE: The THOR UAV The UAV, dubbed “Thor” for “Test of High-Tech Objectives in Reality, ” is a massive 4 m (13 ft) in length, has a 4 -m (13 -ft) wingspan and weighs 25 kg (55 lbs) was unveiled this month by Aibus. Manufacturing drones isn’t new for Airbus, but 3 D printing them is. Thor is made up of about 50 3 Dprinted parts, two electric engines and a remote control. The 3 D printing process for Thor lasted roughly one month, and the production cost was estimated to be around 20 000 €. This short manufacturing period is a key reason behind Airbus’ decision to 3 D print Thor, as the flexibility that 3 D printing offers could allow designers and engineers to create new aircraft on the fly. As Peter Sander, head of emerging technologies and concepts at Airbus, explained in his Innovation Days presentation, "You can [3 D] print this kind of aircraft in four weeks. It has low lead times for fast track developments. " With Thor acting as a small test bed, Airbus hopes to demonstrate that the same flexible design and manufacturing approach could be applied to full-scale aircraft. Although Airbus’ dream of a fully 3 D-printed aircraft may not be realized for some time, this methodology could be applied to the numerous 3 D printing endeavors already being pursued by the company: 3 D-printed fuel nozzles within its A 320 neo, numerous components for the A 350 XWB, bionic cabin partitions, 3 D-printed fuselage and engine pylon parts.
3 D Printing and additive manufacturing 3 D printing, rapid prototyping or freeform fabrication, is “the process of joining materials to make objects from 3 D model data, usually layer upon layer, as opposed to subtractive manufacturing methodologies” such as machining. The term 3 D printing can be defined as the fabrication of objects through the deposition of a material using a print head, nozzle, or another printer technology. ” Additive manufacturing with metal powders is a new and growing industry for industrial applications. The presentation will focus on this specific segment only. Today Some day Tomorrow Polymers Ceramics Organic ABS Alumine Wax Steel, Inox Polyamide PA Mullite Cells Ti PEEK Zr Biological material Ni Epoxydes Si. C Metal Co Ch Epoxydes chargés en céramique (nano) Cu PMMA Au/ Ar Polycarbonate PC Silice (sand) Polyphénylsulfone Graphite Polyetherimide Graphite Beta-Tri Phosphate Calcium Polyamide Aluminium § Industrial applications § High quality (mechanical resistance, accuracy) § Numerous metals and alloys can be used § Whole process must be monitored § Higher potential than polymers § Simple to use and affordable, low power consumption. § Easily available and most mature machines, but for simple applications with low technical demands § § At the R&D stage Fusion T° ≥ 2000°C => difficulties High density ceramics hard to process with 3 D printing Importance of know-how § § Research Long term applications for health (bones surgery)
Summary 1. Metal additive manufacturing (AM) technologies 2. Applications 3. Powders 4. Market analysis 5. What to control?
1. AM technologies
1. AM technologies: Powder bed In beam-based powder bed systems (LBM: Laser Beam Melting or EBM: Electron Beam Melting), a powder layer is first applied on a building platform. Then a laser or electron beam selectively melts the upper layer of powder. After melting, the platform is lowered and the cycle is repeated until the part is fully built, embedded in the powder bed.
1. AM technologies: EBM Powder : Dimensions: Precision: Cost: metal (steel, titane, cobalt/chrome) 350 x H 380 mm +/- 200 to 400 µm 600 to 1 000 k€ EBM ARCAM MEDICAL Implant, prosthesis, instrumentation AERONAUTIC turbine blades, support objects INDUSTRY heat exchangers, filters, molds MOTOR RACING crankcases, gas exhaust Examples of objects realized by EBM Fine and homogenous metallographic structure* Mechanical properties of objects realized with EBM are highest than standard of forged pieces (ASTM F 136) * *origin 3 A S. A. S for TA 6 V objet
1. AM technologies: LBM Powder: Dimension: Precision: Price: metal & ceramics ≈ 300 x 300 mm +/- 50 à 100 µm 150 à 600 k€ SLM machine Good material quality Maraging steel tools Examples of objects realized by SLM Page 8
1. AM technologies: Blown Powder In the laser beam melting process, a powder layer is first applied on a building platform with a recoater (blade or roller) and a laser beam selectively melts the layer of powder. Then the platform is lowered by 20 up to 100 μm and a new powder layer is applied. The laser beam melting operation is repeated. After a few thousand cycles (depending on height of the part), the built part is removed from the powder bed.
1. AM technologies: Blown Powder Dimensions : > 1 m Price : 800 à 1200 k€ coaxial nozzle (Irepa Laser patent) MANUFACTURING COATING REPAIRING BEAM Magic Machine in a glove box for machining under in a controlled atmosphere
3. Market Analysis
3. Market Analysis
5. What to control? Wassenaar Groupe Australie MTCR NSG Powders Machines Installed base (%) Canada Chine Denmark France Germany Italy Japan South Korea Russian Fed. Spain Sweden Turkey UK x x x x x x x x x x x x x Y Y Y Y Y 2 9 3 9 4 10 3 1 1 USA x x Y Y 38
5. What to control? NSG : Fr proposal Apr. 2016: AM can be used for the manufacturing of gas centrifuges and nuclear weapon components (open literature). 1 B 8 Additive manufacturing Machines with all the following characteristics: a) Having a controlled atmosphere (vacuum or inert gas) process environment with one dimension greater than 200 mm; and b) Using a selective fusion process with laser or electron beams on powder bed. MTCR : Australian proposal feb. 2014
5. What to control? WA § WA : Australian proposal 2014 : for the control of machines. Rejected but the subject was qualified as of interest. § WA : French proposal 2015 : maraging steel powders 1. C. 2. Metal alloys, metal alloy powder and alloyed materials, as follows: … e. Steel alloy powders having all of the following: 1. At least 90% of particles having a size between 20 and 100 µm, and 2. Alloying elements, as follows: a. Non-stainless steel alloys having all of the following: 1. 17 to 19% by weight of nickel, 2. A minimum of 7% by weight of cobalt, 3. 3 to 5% by weight of molybdenum, 4. Less than 0. 05 % by in weight of carbon, and 5. Hardening elements (e. g. aluminium, titanium, niobium); b. Stainless steel alloys having all of the following: 1. 9 to 14% by weight of chromium, 2. 7 to 13% by weight of nickel, 3. Less than 5% by weight of molybdenum, 4. Less than 0. 1% by weight of carbon, and 5. Hardening elements (e. g. aluminium, titanium, niobium).
Thank you for your attention richard. [email protected] gouv. fr Direction des affaires internationales, stratégiques et technologiques Secrétariat Général de la Défense et de la Sécurité Nationale