- Количество слайдов: 25
3. 5 – Politics and Reform • This section takes a look at politics and issues happening in the United States at the same time as all of the other topics we’ve studied (industrialization, urbanization, child labor, Social Gospel, Philanthropy. . . etc. )
Cleaning Up Politics 1. Spoils System- gov’t jobs went to supporters of winning party in election 2. Americans believed that spoils system prevented law makers from dealing with national issues 3. After Garfield’s assassination Congress passed the Pendleton Act – a civil service system with appointments of candidates based on examinations
Two Parties Neck and Neck • 1870’s-1880’s few new policies were introduced 4. There was a split in government power between the two main parties – – Democrats controlled House Republicans controlled Senate 5. Elections of 1876 & 1888 – a candidate lost the popular vote, but won the election • Presidents had to deal with a divided Congress and a party run by party bosses at the local level
Election of 1884 6. Grover Cleveland (D) vs. James Blaine (R) 7. Voters focused on personal morals of the candidates 8. Cleveland told the truth about his illegitimate child and showed his honesty, which helped him keep votes 9. Cleveland won NY by less than 1, 000 votes and won the election
Commerce, Trusts and Tariffs 10. Angry small businesses and farmers felt that the railroads were price gouging • Gov’t and courts felt corporations were like individuals and shouldn’t be interfered with 11. Public pressure forced Congress to pass the Interstate Commerce Act – created ICC to regulate interstate commerce • Many felt high tariffs could now be lowered. Pres. Cleveland proposed lowering thempassed the Dem. House, but not the Rep. Senate
Republicans Regain Power 12. Election of 1888 gave Rep. all 3 parts of gov’t. 13. Passed Mc. Kinley Tariff – lowered some taxes and raised rates on other goods 14. This lowered gov’t revenue and transformed the nation’s budget surplus into a deficit 15. Congress passed Sherman Anti-Trust act (public wanted it) but it was so vague that the courts said they couldn’t enforce it = no real reform
Populism: Unrest in Rural America 16. Farmers were having trouble – surplus crops, low prices, high taxes on imported goods… 17. They embraced populism- movement to increase farmers’ political power and to work for legislation in their interest • Wide change in money supply and types of currency created deflation = prices down & money increased in value. This hit farmers hard
Populism: Unrest in Rural America 18. Some farmers tried to use co-ops to force prices up 19. States passed Granger Laws setting maximum rates and prohibiting railroads from charging more for short hauls than long hauls.
Farmers’ Alliance • Lack of success in co-ops and Grange 20. Some members formed the People’s Party or the Populist Party and decided to nominate candidates for Congress and State legislatures
Rise in Populism • People’s Party had some success in the election of 1890 21. Also were able to demand help w/ deflation – Sherman Silver Act = moderate help • By 1891 party began working to endorse and run candidate for President • By 1892 Southern farmers had also reached the point where they were willing to leave Democratic Party for the People’s Party
A Populist for President 22. Populist Platform: federal ownership of Railroads, graduated income tax, 8 - hour work days, restrict immigration, denounce strike breaking 23. Graduated income tax- More you make-the more you pay • Populist candidate did well, but Grover Cleveland won 24. Panic of 1893 – railroads and other companies declared bankruptcy, stock market crashed, banks closed. 25. 1894 – country was in depression w/ 18% unemployment (10% today in US)
Election of 1896 26. Dems blamed for economic crisis & Reps promised a “full dinner pail”
Election of 1896 27. Mc. Kinley’s reputation for moderation on labor issues & tolerance toward ethnic groups helped improve party image w/ urban workers and immigrants • Mc. Kinley won solidly • While in office, economy turned around & Populist Party eventually died out
Classwork/Homework • Read pages 279 -281 on your own and complete questions 28 -39. • These questions will be due for a stamp tomorrow when you come to class.
Rise of Segregation: Resistance and Repression 28. African Americans were free, but poor. 29. Many African Am. eventually left farming to take jobs in Southern towns or go west to claim homesteads 30. Some farmers created Colored Farmers’ National Alliance. Dems feared this party would gain strength, so Dem leaders scared poor white farmers into staying • Election officials also began using various methods to make it harder for Africa Am. to vote
Disenfranchising African Americans 31. Loopholes around the 15 th amendment – – – • Poll tax - $2 Property ownership Literacy test – read and understand state const. Led to a huge drop in African Am. voters and poor whites 32. Grandfather Clause – if your grandfather voted – you can vote – aimed at poor whites
Legalizing Segregation 33. Segregation- separation of races – Jim Crow Laws – enforcing legal segregation 34. Civil Rights Act of 1875 prohibited keeping people out of public places based on race 35. SC overturned the Act in 1883. Said the 14 th only required “states” to give equal protection- not private businesses like railroads, , hotels, theatres were free to practice segregation
Legalizing Segregation • This opened the way for virtually all things to be separate – Railroad cars, dining halls, water fountains • Homer Plessy contended the law requiring him to ride in separate RR car 36. SC: Plessy vs. Ferguson ok to have separate but equal facilities 37. Usually far from equal – usually inferior
African American response • Increased violence in South – lynchings 38. Ida B. Wells fought against lynchings – She felt lynchings were due to both greed and racial prejudice 39. Booker T. Washington proposed to concentrate on achieving economic goals rather than legal or political ones.