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28 Challenges of Nation Building in Africa and the Middle East 28 Challenges of Nation Building in Africa and the Middle East

© 2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark © 2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license. Africa Becomes Independent

© 2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark © 2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license. Freedom (Uhuru) Monument at Dar es-Salaam Located in capital of Tanzania

The Colonial Legacy Ô Ô Benefits ] Improved transportation and communication facilities ] Improved The Colonial Legacy Ô Ô Benefits ] Improved transportation and communication facilities ] Improved sanitation and health care ] Political systems contributed to gradual creation of democratic ideas ] Benefits varied- the vast majority of Africans found their lives little improved, if at all. ] Only South Africa and Algeria developed along modern lines Disadvantages ] Exports of raw materials led to plantation agriculture, not always suitable ] Exploitation of land led to desertification and environmental destruction ] In Kenya, best lands were reserved for whites

The Rise of Nationalism Ô Ô Ô Goal was independence- movements began after WWII The Rise of Nationalism Ô Ô Ô Goal was independence- movements began after WWII Kwame Nkrumah (1909 -1972) formed the Convention People’s Party in the Gold Coast (Ghana) Jomo Kenyatta (1894 -1978) formed the Kenya African National Union with a political and economic agenda Mau movement among the Kikuyu people of Kenya used terrorism to achieve uhuru (Swahili for freedom) African National Congress formed in 1912 ] Originally dominated by Western-educated intellectuals ] Want economic and political reforms including equality for educated Africans

The Rise of Nationalism (cont. ’d) Ô Ô Resistance to French rule in Algeria The Rise of Nationalism (cont. ’d) Ô Ô Resistance to French rule in Algeria grew in mid-1950 s -- independence gained in 1958 Struggle in Algeria affected Tunisia that was given independence in 1956 Morocco gained independence in 1956 Ghana (Gold Coast) gained independence in 1957 ] Ô Ô Ô Followed by Nigeria, Belgian Congo, Kenya, Tanganyika (when joined by Zanzibar, renamed Tanzania) Most French colonies agree to accept independence within the framework of the French Community By late 1960 s only part of southern Africa and Portuguese Mozambique and Angola remained under European rule Why so slow in gaining independence? ] ] Colonialism was established later in Africa With only a few exception, coherent states with a strong sense of cultural, ethnic, and linguistic unity did not exist

Pan-Africanism and Nationalism: The Destiny of Africa Ô Most new African leaders come from Pan-Africanism and Nationalism: The Destiny of Africa Ô Most new African leaders come from the urban middle class ] Accept the Western model – capitalism (Kenya and Zaire and at least lip service to democracy ] Diverse views on economics- Tanzania, Ghana, Guinea adopted “African form of socialism” (non-Marxist, but more from traditional communal practices) ] Highly nationalistic, but generally accept national boundaries ] These were artificial and contained diverse ethnic, linguistic, and territorial groups ] Leaders like Nkrumah of Ghana, Toure of Guinea, and Kenyatta of Kenya hoped for Pan-Africanism (continental unity that transcended national boundaries) ] The dream was achieved in the Organization of African Unity (OAU), 1963

Political and Economic Conditions in Contemporary Africa Ô Ô Ô Initial phase of pluralistic Political and Economic Conditions in Contemporary Africa Ô Ô Ô Initial phase of pluralistic governments gave way to a series of military regimes Most African countries dependent on export of a single crop or natural resource In many instances, the resources still controlled by foreigners ] “Neocolonialism”- Western domination was maintained by economic rather than political or military means. Scarce natural resources spent on military equipment and expensive consumer goods Bribery and corruption- became necessary to obtain even the most basic services Population growth ] Widespread hunger – drought and desertification led to starvation, HIV and AIDS- (three-quarters cases in Africa), rural poverty and urban slums

© 2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark © 2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license. 2004 Africa

The Search for Solutions Ô Ô Tanzania: An African route to Socialism ] Desire The Search for Solutions Ô Ô Tanzania: An African route to Socialism ] Desire to restrict foreign investment; and desire to nationalize the major industries and utilities ] Julius Nyerere passed Arusha Declaration, 1967 - placed Limitations on income and established village collectives ] Corruption lower at first Kenya: The Perils of Capitolism ] Capitalism has had mixed results- good soil, tradition of commerce, and European settlers welcomed foreign investment and profit incentives ] Problems- Landlessness, unemployment, and high income inequalities, ethnic rivalries and disputes between farmers and pastoralists Angola and Ethiopia ] Experimented in Soviet-style Marxism, but failed South Africa- An end to Apartheid ] Africa’s greatest success story, in 1990, President F. W. de Klerk released Nelson Mandela the African National Congress leader (in prison since 1964) ] The two leaders met, elections were held, 1993, Mandela elected President ] 1996, new constitution, calling for multiracial state approved, South Africa sense

The Search for Solutions (cont. ’d) Ô Ô Nigeria ] Africa’s most populous country, The Search for Solutions (cont. ’d) Ô Ô Nigeria ] Africa’s most populous country, with sizable oil reserves ] For years had Military rule, in 1998, national election were held and it led to the creation of a civilian government ] Ethnic and religious divisions- over the years disputes between Muslims and Christians have dominated the region Central Africa ] Rwanda and Burundi- civil war between the majority Hutu and minority Tutsis (massacre/genocide of the Tutsi) ] Issues of Hutu/Tutsi spilled into Zaire later called Democratic Republic of the Congo- General Mobutu Sese Seko had long ruled, 1997, Lauren Kabila toppled the government renamed the country and promised democracy ] Was assassinated in 2001, and was succeeded by son Good News- one-party regimes have collapsed, emergence of fragile democracies, and dictatorships were brought to an end The African Union- African Economic Community (AEC) established in 1991, Organization of African Unity (OAU), replaced by African Union (AU) n 2001

Continuity and Change in Modern Society Ô Ô Impact of the West- many major Continuity and Change in Modern Society Ô Ô Impact of the West- many major cities are direct products of the colonial experience Education Traditional education emphasized vocational training and socialization ] Eventual introduction in European languages and Western culture ] State run schools: • First the emphasis was on primary schools then high school and universities in the urban areas • Funding and teachers are scarce in the rural areas Little Western influence outside the cities ] Agriculture and hunting ] Migrations to plantations, cities, and refugee camps ] Ô

© 2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark © 2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license. Traditional African House Located in Dar es-Salaam, Tanzania

© 2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark © 2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license. African Women in Colorful Dress Djibouti, on Red Sea

African Women Ô Ô Ô Pre-Independence ] African women had more legal rights than African Women Ô Ô Ô Pre-Independence ] African women had more legal rights than women in India and China ] Colonial era saw women play major economic role, but restricted socially Independence brought the idea of sexual equality ] Politics still dominated mostly by men Women became a labor force, employed in menial tasks Education open to all, but women comprise less than 20 percent of the students Urban women have free choice of marriage, and can own property Rural women generally still bound by communalism ] Traditional practices still found

African Culture Ô Ô Ô Tension between tradition and the modern in African culture African Culture Ô Ô Ô Tension between tradition and the modern in African culture Modern African art ] Utility and ritual have given way to pleasure and decoration ] Traditional forms of art now more for tourists Modern African literature ] Pre-colonial Africans did not have written language, except for the Muslim areas ] Means to establish black dignity and purpose-often criticized colonialism ] Chinua Achebe, first major African novelist to write in English (Things Fall Apart) ] Writing from native perspective ] Shift from the brutality of the foreign oppressor to the shortcomings of the new native leadership ] Kenya’s-Ngugi Wa Thiong’o (b. 1938), A Grain of Wheat ] Nigeria’s- Wole Soyinka (b. 1934), The Interpreters ] Women writers- Ama Ata Aidoo (b. 1942), Changes: A Love Story. Music: Fusion of African/western culture

Crescent of Conflict Ô Militant Islam as a sense of community ] ] ] Crescent of Conflict Ô Militant Islam as a sense of community ] ] ] Ô Desire for community beyond national borders ( similar to negritude” in Africa) Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini- led the revolution against the Shah of Iran in 1979, “. . Muslims are of one family even though we live under different governments and in various regions”. September 11, 2001; Ben Laden said attacks were a response to the “Humiliation and disgrace” inflicted on the Islamic world for over eighty years • Modern regimes in Turkey and Iran • More traditional in Saudi Arabia • European influence and control The Question of Palestine ] Arab League, 1945 ] Zionists and an independent Jewish state, 1948 ] Sense of West’s betrayal of the interests of the Palestinian people • Palestinian refugees cross into neighboring states ] Syria angered by the creation of Lebanon

The Question of Palestine Ô The Question of Palestine ] Arab League, 1945 - The Question of Palestine Ô The Question of Palestine ] Arab League, 1945 - did not agree on much, but wanted Palestine to be an independent nation ] The Balfour Declaration of 1917, the British had promised an independent of Jewish state, but never followed through ] Zionists finally got their independent Jewish state in 1948, when U. S. approved the concept even though only 1/3 of population were Jewish ] Sense of West’s betrayal of the interests of the Palestinian people • Palestinian refugees cross into neighboring states ] Syria angered by the creation of Lebanon

© 2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark © 2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license. Israel and Arab Neighbors, 19471994

Nasser and Pan-Arabism Ô Egypt- King Farouk overthrown in 1952 Monarchy replaced by a Nasser and Pan-Arabism Ô Egypt- King Farouk overthrown in 1952 Monarchy replaced by a republic in 1953 General Gamal Abdul Nasser seizes power in 1954 ] Land Reform ] Nationalizes the Suez Canal, 1956 • Britain, France, Israel attack Egypt • U. S. supports Nasser, and forced their withdrawal Ô Pan-Arabism ] Egypt and Syria unite to form the United Arab Republic, 1958 • Other Arab states suspicious and do not join the union • United Arab Republic (UAR) ends in 1961 ] Palestine Liberation Organization created in 1964 • Al-Fatah guerilla movement led by Yasir Arafat (b. 1929) launches terrorist attacks against Israel

© 2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark © 2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license. The Modern Middle East

Arab-Israeli Dispute Ô Ô Ô Ô Ô Attempt to create a democratic Jewish state Arab-Israeli Dispute Ô Ô Ô Ô Ô Attempt to create a democratic Jewish state in Israel Knesset (parliament created)- to balance diverse interests, based on European model June, 1967, Six-Day War- Israel launched air strikes against Egypt and several of its Arab neighbors (concerned of isolation and lack of western support) ] Israel tripled its territory, but added one million Palestinians Nasser died in 1970 and succeeded by Anwar al-Sadat (1918 -1981) Yom Kippur War, 1973 - Israel attacked by Syria and Egypt, truce, but PLO moved to Lebanon Camp David Agreement, 1978 - Sadat, Begin of Israel, and Carter present- Israel would leave Sinai but nowhere else because Arab nations refused to recognize Israel ] Sadat assassinated by Arab militants, October 1981 ] Intifada (uprising) by PLO supporters in Israel, 1980 s Terrorist attacks by Palestinians over issues of Israel in West Bank Minister Ehud Barak tried to re-start the peace process Peace process broke down by 2000 ] Hard-line prime minister, Ariel Sharon ] Suicide attacks

Revolution in Iran (OPEC) in 1960, oil price hike during Yom Organization of Petroleum Revolution in Iran (OPEC) in 1960, oil price hike during Yom Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries Ô Ô Ô Kippur war Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (1919 -1980), 1941 -1979 - leader of Iran, ally of U. S. Social and economic reforms ] Affluent middle class emerging ] Internal problems- landless peasants and frustrated intellects because of inflation ] The Shah’s secret police-trained by U. S. , the Savak, imprisoned and tortured political dissidents Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini (1900 -1989) ] Shi’ite cleric exiled to Iraq and then France ] From Paris led an uprising through media ] Shah leaves the country in 1979, and the government collapsed shortly thereafter with a new government dominated by Khomeini ] American embassy hostages Iranian Revolution moderated slightly, but repression returned in mid-1990 s Mohammad Khatemi, a moderate cleric- 1997 ] Move to a more pluralistic society open to the outside world ] Opposition from conservative elements

Crisis in the Gulf Ô Iraq led by Saddam Hussein (b. 1937), 1979 -2003; Crisis in the Gulf Ô Iraq led by Saddam Hussein (b. 1937), 1979 -2003; persecuted Persians/Iranians and Kurds Ô War against Iran, 1980 -1988 - Iran supported the Kurdish Rebellion, but in 1975, stopped aiding in return for territorial concessions at the head of the Gulf ] Saddam accused Iran of violating territorial agreement, he launched an attack- cease fire in 1988 Ô Iraq sends military forces into Kuwait, 1990, claimed land it as part of Iraq ] United Nations response (Gulf War), Operation Desert Storm, liberated Kuwait

Conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq United States Response to the terrorist attacks of September, Conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq United States Response to the terrorist attacks of September, 2001 Ô Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban who provided a base for terrorist Osama bin Laden Ô After September 11, 2001, coalition overthrows the Taliban U. S. forces still present there, surges of Taliban attacks through the nation Ô United States turned its attention to Iraq ] Alleged that there weapons of mass destruction (WMD) ] No such weapons were discovered ] War began March, 2003 ] U. S. led coalition overthrew Saddam’s regime in Spring 2003, Iraq has not had a stable government since Ô

Society and Culture in the Contemporary Middle East Ô Varieties of government ] Traditional Society and Culture in the Contemporary Middle East Ô Varieties of government ] Traditional monarchy of Saudi Arabia ] Some areas traditional authority replaced by one-party rule or military dictatorships (ex: Hussein, Nasser, Khomeini of Iran) Ô Other states charismatic rule given way to modernizing bureaucratic regimes- Syria, Turkey, Egypt since Nasser (most of these nations’ governments have changed since 2012) Ô Israel, democratic institutions

Economics of Oil Ô Ô Millions in the Middle East live in abject poverty, Economics of Oil Ô Ô Millions in the Middle East live in abject poverty, a fortunate few are wealthy; the difference is oil Approaches to developing strong and stable economies ] ] Arab socialism Western capitalist model Maintaining Islamic doctrine Agriculture • Wealthiest hold much of the land • Lack of water • Encourage emigration Ô Why failure of democratic institutions? ] ] Willingness of the West to coddle dictatorships to keep access to oil Many nations experienced the Arab Spring in 2012, a step towards democratic nations, most of which failed due

Islamic Revival Ô Ô Many Muslims believe Islamic values and modern ways not incompatible Islamic Revival Ô Ô Many Muslims believe Islamic values and modern ways not incompatible and may be mutually reinforcing Fundamentalists are a rational and practical response to destabilizing forces and self-destructive practices Seeking a cultural identity Reaction to Western influences ] Create a “modernized” set of beliefs such as in Turkey, Egypt, and Iran ] Secularization • Reaction to secularization in Iran where there was a movement to Islamic purity • Seeking purity found in Algeria, Egypt, and Turkey Ô Trend toward Islamic purity

© 2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark © 2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license. Modern Islam, 1998

Women and Islam Ô Ô Traditional role of women in Islamic societies Modernist views Women and Islam Ô Ô Traditional role of women in Islamic societies Modernist views that Islamic doctrine not opposed to women’s rights ] Ô More traditional views have prevailed in many Middle Eastern countries ] ] Ô Many restrictions due to pre-Islamic folk traditions that were tolerated in the early Islamic era Impact of the Iranian Revolution Most conservative nation is Saudi Arabia Rights extended in some countries ] ] ] Vote in Kuwait Equal right to seek a divorce in Egypt Attend university, receive military training, vote, practice birth control, and publish fiction in Iran

Literature and Art Ô Ô Ô Cultural Renaissance Iran one of the most prolific Literature and Art Ô Ô Ô Cultural Renaissance Iran one of the most prolific countries The veil (chador) a central metaphor in Iranian women’s writing In Egypt the most illustrious writer is Naguib Mahfouz who wrote Cairo Trilogy Art ] Influenced by Western culture

Discussion Questions Ô What role did nationalism play in postwar independence movements in Africa? Discussion Questions Ô What role did nationalism play in postwar independence movements in Africa? Ô Why have so many African nations moved toward authoritarianism since independence? Ô How has Western imperialism contributed to contemporary conflicts in the Middle East? Ô What are the most important cultural trends in the contemporary Middle East?