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28 CHALLENGES OF NATION BUILDING IN AFRICA AND THE MIDDLE EAST 28 CHALLENGES OF NATION BUILDING IN AFRICA AND THE MIDDLE EAST

© 2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark © 2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license. Africa Becomes Independent

© 2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark © 2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license. Freedom (Uhuru) Monument at Dar es-Salaam Located in capital of Tanzania

The Colonial Legacy Benefits Transportation and communication Improved sanitation and health care Political systems The Colonial Legacy Benefits Transportation and communication Improved sanitation and health care Political systems contributed to gradual creation of democratic ideas Benefits varied Only South Africa and Algeria developed along modern lines Disadvantages Concentrate on export crops Plantation agriculture and cash crops

The Rise of Nationalism Goal was independence Kwame Nkrumah (1909 -1972) formed the Convention The Rise of Nationalism Goal was independence Kwame Nkrumah (1909 -1972) formed the Convention People’s Party in the Gold Coast (Ghana) Jomo Kenyatta (1894 -1978) formed the Kenya African National Union with a political and economic agenda Mau movement among the Kikuyu people of Kenya used terrorism to achieve uhuru (Swahili for freedom) African National Congress formed in 1912 Originally dominated by Western-educated intellectuals Want economic and political reforms including equality for educated Africans

Kwame Nkrumah and Jomo Kenyatta Kwame Nkrumah and Jomo Kenyatta

The Rise of Nationalism (cont. ’d) Resistance to French rule in Algeria grew in The Rise of Nationalism (cont. ’d) Resistance to French rule in Algeria grew in mid-1950 s -independence gained in 1958 Struggle in Algeria affected Tunisia that was given independence in 1956 Morocco gained independence in 1956 Ghana (Gold Coast) gained independence in 1957 Followed by Nigeria, Belgian Congo, Kenya, Tanganyika (when joined by Zanzibar, renamed Tanzania) Most French colonies agree to accept independence within the framework of the French Community By late 1960 s only part of southern Africa and Portuguese Mozambique and Angola remained under European rule Why so slow in gaining independence? Colonialism was established later in Africa With only a few exception, coherent states with a strong sense of cultural, ethnic, and linguistic unity did not exist

Pan-Africanism and Nationalism: The Destiny of Africa Most new African leaders come from the Pan-Africanism and Nationalism: The Destiny of Africa Most new African leaders come from the urban middle class Accept the Western model -- capitalism and at least lip service to democracy Diverse views on economics Highly nationalistic Generally accept national boundaries These were artificial and contained diverse ethnic, linguistic, and territorial groups Organization of African Unity (1966) Pan-Africanism

Political and Economic Conditions in Contemporary Africa Initial phase of pluralistic governments gave way Political and Economic Conditions in Contemporary Africa Initial phase of pluralistic governments gave way to a series of military regimes Most African countries dependent on export of a single crop or natural resource In many instances, the resources still controlled by foreigners “Neocolonialism” Scarce natural resources spent on military equipment and expensive consumer goods Bribery and corruption Population growth Widespread hunger HIV and AIDS Poverty Effects of urbanization

© 2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark © 2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license. Present-Day Africa

The Search for Solutions Tanzania Desire to restrict foreign investment Arusha Declaration, 1967 Limitations The Search for Solutions Tanzania Desire to restrict foreign investment Arusha Declaration, 1967 Limitations on income and established village collectives Corruption lower at first Kenya Capitalism has had mixed results Ethnic tensions Angola and Ethiopia Experiments in Marxism South Africa Apartheid Nelson Mandela and the African National Congress South Africa sense the end of Apartheid

The Search for Solutions (cont. ’d) Nigeria Africa’s most populous country Oil and civil The Search for Solutions (cont. ’d) Nigeria Africa’s most populous country Oil and civil war Ethnic and religious divisions Central Africa Rwanda and Burundi Zaire/Democratic Republic of the Congo Good News The African Union

Continuity and Change in Modern Society Impact of the West Education Emphasis on vocational Continuity and Change in Modern Society Impact of the West Education Emphasis on vocational training Eventual introduction in European languages and Western culture State run schools: First the emphasis was on primary schools then high school and universities in the urban areas Funding and teachers are scarce in the rural areas Little Western influence outside the cities Agriculture and hunting Migrations to plantations, cities, and refugee camps

© 2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark © 2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license. Traditional African House Located in Dar es-Salaam, Tanzania

© 2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark © 2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license. African Women in Colorful Dress Djibouti, on Red Sea

African Women Change in relationship between men and women Traditional relationships Independence brought the African Women Change in relationship between men and women Traditional relationships Independence brought the idea of sexual equality Politics still dominated mostly by men Women became a labor force, employed in menial tasks Education open to all, but women comprise less than 20 percent of the students Rural women generally still bound by communalism Traditional practices still found

African Culture Tension between tradition and the modern in African culture Modern African art African Culture Tension between tradition and the modern in African culture Modern African art Utility and ritual have given way to pleasure and decoration Traditional forms of art now more for tourists Modern African literature Means to establish black dignity and purpose Chinua Achebe, first major African novelist to write in English Writing from native perspective Shift from the brutality of the foreign oppressor to the shortcomings of the new native leadership Ngugi Wa Thiong’o (b. 1938), A Grain of Wheat Wole Soyinka (b. 1934), The Interpreters Women writers Ama Ata Aidoo (b. 1942), Changes: A Love Story Music

Chinua Achebe and Ama Ata Aidoo Chinua Achebe and Ama Ata Aidoo

Crescent of Conflict Militant Islam as a sense of community September 11, 2001 “Humiliation Crescent of Conflict Militant Islam as a sense of community September 11, 2001 “Humiliation and disgrace” Modern regimes in Turkey and Iran More traditional in Saudi Arabia European influence and control The Question of Palestine Arab League, 1945 Zionists and an independent Jewish state, 1948 Sense of West’s betrayal of the interests of the Palestinian people Palestinian refugees cross into neighboring states Syria angered by the creation of Lebanon

© 2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark © 2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license. Israel and Arab Neighbors, 1947 -1994

Nasser and Pan-Arabism King Farouk of Egypt overthrown in 1952 Monarchy replaced by a Nasser and Pan-Arabism King Farouk of Egypt overthrown in 1952 Monarchy replaced by a republic in 1953 General Gamal Abdul Nasser seizes power in 1954 Reforms Nationalizes the Suez Canal, 1956 Britain, France, Israel attack Egypt U. S. supports Nasser Arabs back Nasser of Suez Grab Pan-Arabism Egypt and Syria unite to form the United Arab Republic, 1958 Other Arab states suspicious and do not join the union UAR ends in 1961 Palestine Liberation Organization created in 1964 Al-Fatah led by Yasir Arafat (b. 1929) launches terrorist attacks

© 2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark © 2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license. The Modern Middle East

Arab-Israeli Dispute Growing hostility Knesset (parliament created) June, 1967, Six-Day War Nasser died in Arab-Israeli Dispute Growing hostility Knesset (parliament created) June, 1967, Six-Day War Nasser died in 1970 and succeeded by Anwar al-Sadat (1918 -1981) Yom Kippur War, 1973 Camp David Agreement, 1978 Sadat assassinated by Arab militants, October 1981 Intifada (uprising) by PLO supporters in Israel, 1980 s Terrorist attacks by Palestinians Minister Ehud Barak tried to re-start the peace process Peace process broke down by 2000 Hard-line prime minister, Ariel Sharon Suicide attacks

Revolution in Iran Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (1919 Revolution in Iran Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (1919 -1980), 1941 -1979 Social and economic reforms Affluent middle class emerging Land reform Internal problems Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini (1900 -1989) Shi’ite cleric exiled to Iraq and then France Shah leaves the country in 1979, and the government collapsed shortly thereafter with a new government dominated by Khomeini American embassy hostages Iranian Revolution moderated slightly, but repression returned in mid-1990 s Mohammad Khatemi, a moderate cleric Move to a more pluralistic society open to the outside world Opposition from conservative elements

Crisis in the Gulf Iraq Saddam Hussein (b. 1937), 1979 -2003 War against Iran, Crisis in the Gulf Iraq Saddam Hussein (b. 1937), 1979 -2003 War against Iran, 1980 -1988 Iraq sends military forces into Kuwait, 1990 United Nations response

Conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq Response to the terrorist attacks of September, 2001 Nation Conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq Response to the terrorist attacks of September, 2001 Nation controlled by the Taliban who provided a base for terrorist Osama bin Laden After September 11, 2001, coalition overthrows the Taliban United States turned its attention to Iraq Alleged that there weapons of mass destruction War began March, 2003

Society and Culture in the Contemporary Middle East Traditional monarchy of Saudi Arabia Some Society and Culture in the Contemporary Middle East Traditional monarchy of Saudi Arabia Some areas traditional authority replaced by one-party rule or military dictatorships Other states charismatic rule given way to modernizing bureaucratic regimes Israel, democratic institutions

Economics of Oil Millions in the Middle East live in abject poverty, a fortunate Economics of Oil Millions in the Middle East live in abject poverty, a fortunate few are wealthy; the difference is oil Approaches to developing strong and stable economies Arab socialism Western capitalist model Maintaining Islamic doctrine Agriculture Wealthiest hold much of the land Lack of water Encourage emigration Why failure of democratic institutions? Willingness of the West to coddle dictatorships to keep access to oil Culture of Islam

Islamic Revival Many Muslims believe Islamic values and modern ways not incompatible and may Islamic Revival Many Muslims believe Islamic values and modern ways not incompatible and may be mutually reinforcing Fundamentalists are a rational and practical response to destabilizing forces and self-destructive practices Seeking a cultural identity Reaction to Western influences Create a “modernized” set of beliefs such as in Turkey, Egypt, and Iran Secularization Reaction to secularization in Iran where there was a movement to Islamic purity Seeking purity found in Algeria, Egypt, and Turkey Trend toward Islamic purity

© 2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark © 2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license. Modern Islam, 1998

Women and Islam Traditional role of women in Islamic societies Modernist views that Islamic Women and Islam Traditional role of women in Islamic societies Modernist views that Islamic doctrine not opposed to women’s rights Many restrictions due to pre-Islamic folk traditions that were tolerated in the early Islamic era More traditional views have prevailed in many Middle Eastern countries Impact of the Iranian Revolution Most conservative nation is Saudi Arabia Rights extended in some countries Vote in Kuwait Equal right to seek a divorce in Egypt Attend university, receive military training, vote, practice birth control, and publish fiction in Iran

Literature and Art Cultural Renaissance Iran one of the most prolific countries The veil Literature and Art Cultural Renaissance Iran one of the most prolific countries The veil (chador) a central metaphor in Iranian women’s writing In Egypt the most illustrious writer is Naguib Mahfouz who wrote Cairo Trilogy Art Influenced by Western culture

Discussion Questions What role did nationalism play in postwar independence movements in Africa? Why Discussion Questions What role did nationalism play in postwar independence movements in Africa? Why have so many African nations moved toward authoritarianism since independence? How has Western imperialism contributed to contemporary conflicts in the Middle East? What are the most important cultural trends in the contemporary Middle East?