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21/05/2009 TEMPUS-TACIS PROJECT N° CD_JEP-27237 -2006/UA CC 4 U 2 EUROPEAN COMMISSION Directorate General 21/05/2009 TEMPUS-TACIS PROJECT N° CD_JEP-27237 -2006/UA CC 4 U 2 EUROPEAN COMMISSION Directorate General for Education and Culture TEMPUS-TACIS PROJECT CD_JEP-27237 -2006/UA Computing Curricula for Ukrainian Universities (CC 4 U 2) September 2007 – August 2009 KHERSON MAY 21 st – 22 nd 2009 Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 1 of 73

21/05/2009 TEMPUS-TACIS PROJECT N° CD_JEP-27237 -2006/UA CC 4 U 2 EUROPEAN COMMISSION Directorate General 21/05/2009 TEMPUS-TACIS PROJECT N° CD_JEP-27237 -2006/UA CC 4 U 2 EUROPEAN COMMISSION Directorate General for Education and Culture TEMPUS-TACIS PROJECT CD_JEP-27237 -2006/UA Computing Curricula for Ukrainian Universities (CC 4 U 2) September 2007 – August 2009 May 21 st – 22 nd 2009 Kherson, Ukraine Edwin Gray e-mail: e. [email protected] ac. uk Division of Computing and Creative Technology Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 2 of 73

21/05/2009 Outline Learning objectives l Qualifications Frameworks Ø European Qualifications Frameworks Ø National Qualifications 21/05/2009 Outline Learning objectives l Qualifications Frameworks Ø European Qualifications Frameworks Ø National Qualifications Frameworks u. The Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework l Lifelong Learning and Employability Ø SFIA l Conclusions; review of learning objectives Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 3 of 73

21/05/2009 Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 4 of 73 21/05/2009 Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 4 of 73

21/05/2009 Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 5 of 73 21/05/2009 Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 5 of 73

21/05/2009 TEMPUS-TACIS PROJECT N° CD_JEP-27237 -2006/UA CC 4 U 2 HIGHER EDUCATION – Strategically 21/05/2009 TEMPUS-TACIS PROJECT N° CD_JEP-27237 -2006/UA CC 4 U 2 HIGHER EDUCATION – Strategically important sphere of development in Ukraine l STEP BY STEP l 1000 Km Journey begins with the first step 2005 Ukraine joined Bologna Process l This is the first few steps on that journey Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 6 of 73

21/05/2009 Background to the Bologna Process l The Bologna Process to create the European 21/05/2009 Background to the Bologna Process l The Bologna Process to create the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) by 2010 was launched in 1999 with the Bologna Declaration signed by 29 European countries. l The overarching objectives of the Process are to facilitate student and staff mobility in Europe and to enhance the attractiveness and competitiveness of European higher education in a global market. Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 7 of 73

21/05/2009 Background to the Bologna Process Ten action lines were identified to make the 21/05/2009 Background to the Bologna Process Ten action lines were identified to make the EHEA a reality, including: l l l l l Adoption of a system of easily readable and comparable degrees Adoption of a system essentially based on three cycles Establishment of a system of credits Promotion of mobility Promotion of European co-operation in quality assurance Promotion of the European dimension in HE Focus on lifelong learning Inclusion of higher education institutions (HEIs) and students Promotion of the attractiveness of the EHEA Doctoral studies and the synergy between the EHEA and the European Research Area (ERA) Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 8 of 73

21/05/2009 Outcomes of the Leuven/Louvain-La-Neuve ministerial summit, 28 -29 April 2009 Stocktaking process and 21/05/2009 Outcomes of the Leuven/Louvain-La-Neuve ministerial summit, 28 -29 April 2009 Stocktaking process and implementation of existing action lines: l The indicator for ‘stage of implementation’ of the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) has risen from ‘orange’ in 2007 to ‘light green’ in 2009. l Scotland submitted a separate stocktaking report and is the only country to achieve ‘green’ in all ten indicators. l Overall, the report identifies work to be done across the EHEA in creating national qualifications frameworks (NQFs), embedding learning outcomes in all aspects of HE, and promoting lifelong learning. Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 9 of 73

21/05/2009 Outline Learning objectives l Qualifications Frameworks Ø European Qualifications Frameworks Ø National Qualifications 21/05/2009 Outline Learning objectives l Qualifications Frameworks Ø European Qualifications Frameworks Ø National Qualifications Frameworks u. The Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework l Lifelong Learning and Employability Ø SFIA l Conclusions; review of learning objectives Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 10 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l Qualification frameworks are important instruments in achieving 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l Qualification frameworks are important instruments in achieving comparability and transparency within the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) and facilitating the movement of learners within, as well as between, higher education systems. l They should also help Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) to develop modules and study programmes based on learning outcomes and credits, and improve the recognition of qualifications as well as all forms of prior learning. Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 11 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning The European Qualifications Framework l The EQF is 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning The European Qualifications Framework l The EQF is a common European reference framework which links countries' qualifications systems together, acting as a translation device to make qualifications more readable. l It has two principal aims: Ø to promote citizens' mobility between countries and Ø to facilitate their lifelong learning. Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 12 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l At the national level, the EQF will 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l At the national level, the EQF will promote the development of National Qualifications Frameworks (NQFs). Qualifications frameworks promote lifelong learning by, for example, making it easier for people to move between different types of education and training institution, for example between higher education and vocational education and training. Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 13 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l As an instrument for the promotion of 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l As an instrument for the promotion of lifelong learning, the EQF encompasses general and adult education, vocational education and training, as well as higher education. It applies to all types of qualifications from those achieved at the end of compulsory education to those awarded at the highest level of academic and professional or vocational education and training. Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 14 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning United Kingdom National Actions to Implement Lifelong Learning 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning United Kingdom National Actions to Implement Lifelong Learning in Europe: the NVQ approach l In the United Kingdom, as in Ireland the Netherlands, there is strong acceptance of an output-oriented, performance-based model of education and training, e. g. learning outcomes. l General acceptance of learning outside formal education and training institutions as a valid and important pathway to competences is a basic feature in these countries. l What is questioned, however, is how such a system should be realised. l All three countries base their vocational education and training on modularised systems. Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 15 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l The stocktaking report shows that some elements 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l The stocktaking report shows that some elements of flexible learning exist in most countries, but a more systematic development of flexible learning paths to support lifelong learning is at an early stage. Only in a small number of EHEA countries could the recognition of prior learning for access and credits be said to be well developed. The United Kingdom is one of these countries. Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 16 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l The UK welcomes lifelong learning as an 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l The UK welcomes lifelong learning as an essential part of the Bologna Process. It views this form of learning as a way of increasing competitiveness, and as an instrument of social cohesion. The UK is adopting national frameworks for higher education qualifications that take account of lifelong learning such as vocational qualifications. Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 17 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l As stated in the London Communiqué, May 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l As stated in the London Communiqué, May 2007, some initial progress has been made towards the implementation of national qualifications frameworks, but much more effort is required. “We commit ourselves to fully implementing such national qualifications frameworks, certified against the overarching Framework for Qualifications of the EHEA, by 2010. ” Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 18 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l The Leuven Communiqué calls upon participating countries 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l The Leuven Communiqué calls upon participating countries to have national qualifications frameworks fully developed by 2012 and prepared for self-certification against the overarching Framework for Qualifications of the European Higher Education Area (FQ-EHEA) l Scotland successfully self-certified its national Framework for Qualifications of Higher Education Institutions (the Scottish FQHE) against the FQ-EHEA in 2006 -07. l Only Belgium (Flemish community), Germany, the Netherlands and Ireland have also completed this process. l The development of national qualifications frameworks (NQFs) is a complex process and needs be carried out carefully Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 19 of 73

21/05/2009 Outline Learning objectives l Qualifications Frameworks Ø European Qualifications Frameworks Ø National Qualifications 21/05/2009 Outline Learning objectives l Qualifications Frameworks Ø European Qualifications Frameworks Ø National Qualifications Frameworks u. The Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework l Lifelong Learning and Employability Ø SFIA l Conclusions; review of learning objectives Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 20 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning 3 Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework (SCQF) l 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning 3 Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework (SCQF) l 3. 1 Background and Context l The SCQF is the most developed credit and qualifications Framework in Europe and was formally launched in Scotland in December 2001, three months after the publication of An Introduction to the Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework (SCQF, 2001). This described the formal structure of the Framework and stated that the general aims of the SCQF are to: Ø assist people of all ages and circumstances to access appropriate education and training over their lifetime to fulfil their personal, social and economic potential Ø enable employers, learners and the general public to understand the full range of Scottish qualifications, how they relate to each other and how different types of qualifications can contribute to improving the skills of the workforce. Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 21 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l The SCQF is also intended to provide 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l The SCQF is also intended to provide a national vocabulary for describing learning opportunities and will: Ømake the relationships between qualifications clearer Øclarify entry and exit points, and routes for progression Ømaximise the opportunities for credit transfer Øassist learners to plan their progress and learning (SCQF, 2001, pp. 1 -2) Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 22 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning 3. 2 Scope of the SCQF l The 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning 3. 2 Scope of the SCQF l The SCQF is an enabling, non-regulatory Framework that is designed to include all learning which is described in terms of learning outcomes, provided there is quality-assured assessment of learner achievement. Learning outcomes can be defined as “statements of what a learner is expected to know, understand and/or be able to do at the end of a period of learning”. The Framework is now successfully established in schools, colleges, universities and other places of learning throughout Scotland. l Several sectors are currently working to implement and develop the SCQF, including Health, Community Learning and Development and Social Care. Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 23 of 73

21/05/2009 Table 1 Scottish Vocational Qualifications in SCQF Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 24 21/05/2009 Table 1 Scottish Vocational Qualifications in SCQF Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 24 of 73

21/05/2009 Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 25 of 73 21/05/2009 Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 25 of 73

21/05/2009 Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 26 of 73 21/05/2009 Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 26 of 73

21/05/2009 Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 27 of 73 21/05/2009 Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 27 of 73

21/05/2009 SCQF Level 7 - (SHE level 1, Cert HE, HNC, Advanced Higher) Knowledge 21/05/2009 SCQF Level 7 - (SHE level 1, Cert HE, HNC, Advanced Higher) Knowledge and Understanding Practice: Applied knowledge and understanding Generic Cognitive Skills Communication, ICT and numeracy skills Autonomy, accountability and working with others use a wide range of routine skills and some advanced skills associated with the subject/discipline – for example: ◦convey complex ideas in well-structured and coherent form ◦use a range of forms of communication effectively in both familiar and new contexts ◦use standard applications to process and obtain a variety of information and data ◦use a range of numerical and graphical skills in combination ◦use numerical and graphical data to measure progress and achieve goals/targets Exercise some initiative and independence in carrying out defined activities at a professional level Take supervision in less familiar areas of work Take some managerial responsibility for the work of others within a defined and supervised structure Manage limited resources within defined areas of work Take the lead in implementing agreed plans in familiar or defined contexts Take account of own and others’ roles and responsibilities in carrying out and evaluating tasks Work with others in support of current professional practice under guidance Characteristic outcomes of learning at each level include the ability to: Demonstrate and/or work with: ◦a broad knowledge of the subject/discipline in general ◦knowledge that is embedded in the main theories, concepts and principles ◦an awareness of the evolving/changing nature of knowledge and understanding ◦an understanding of the difference between explanations based in evidence and/or research and other forms of explanation and of the importance of this difference Use some of the basic and routine professional skills, techniques, practices and/or materials associated with a subject/discipline Practise these in both routine and nonroutine contexts Edwin Gray Present and evaluate arguments, information and ideas which are routine to the subject/discipline Use a range of approaches to addressing defined and/or routine problems and issued within familiar contexts Glasgow Caledonian University 28 of 73

21/05/2009 SCQF Level 8 - (SHE level 2, Dip HE, HND, SVQ 4) Knowledge 21/05/2009 SCQF Level 8 - (SHE level 2, Dip HE, HND, SVQ 4) Knowledge and Understanding Practice: Applied knowledge and understanding Generic Cognitive Skills Communication, ICT and numeracy skills Autonomy, accountability and working with others Use a range of routine skills and some advanced and specialised skills associated with a subject/discipline, for example: ◦ convey complex information to a range of audiences and for a range of purposes ◦ use a range of standard applications to process and obtain data ◦ use and evaluate numerical and graphical data to measure progress and achieve goals/targets Exercise autonomy and initiative in some activities at a professional level Take significant managerial or supervisory responsibility for the work of others in defined areas of work Manage resources within defined areas of work Take the lead on planning in familiar or defined contexts Take continuing account of own and others’ roles, responsibilities and contributions in carrying out and evaluating tasks Work in support of current professional practice under guidance Deal with ethical and professional issues in accordance with current professional and/or ethical codes or practices under guidance Characteristic outcomes of learning at each level include the ability to: Demonstrate and/or work with: ◦ a broad knowledge of the scope, defining features, and main areas of a subject/discipline ◦ detailed knowledge in some areas ◦ understanding of a limited range of core theories, principles and concepts ◦ limited knowledge and understanding of some major current issues and specialisms ◦ an outline knowledge and understanding of research and equivalent scholarly/academic processes Use a range of routine skills, techniques, practices and/or materials associated with a subject/discipline, a few of which are advanced or complex Carry out routine lines of enquiry, development or investigation into professional level problems and issues Adapt routine practices within accepted standards Edwin Gray Undertake critical analysis, evaluation and/or synthesis of ideas, concepts, information and issues which are within the common understandings of the subject/discipline Use a range of approaches to formulate evidencebased solutions/responses to defined and/or routine problems/issues Critically evaluate evidencebased solutions/responses to defined and/or routine problems/issues Glasgow Caledonian University 29 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning 3. 3 SCQF Levels l The SCQF has 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning 3. 3 SCQF Levels l The SCQF has 12 levels of outcome which provide a basis for broad comparisons between learning and qualifications achieved in different contexts, and indicate how demanding a qualification or programme is – Level 1 being the least demanding and Level 12 the most demanding. At each level five headings have been identified to make the descriptors manageable. These are: Ø the complexity and depth of knowledge and understanding – mainly subject-based; Ø level of practice: applied knowledge and understanding in academic, vocational or professional practice; manual dexterity, use of methods, materials, tools, instruments Ø generic cognitive skills, e. g. evaluation, critical analysis, logical, intuitive, creative thinking Ø communication, numeracy and IT skills; Ø the level of autonomy, accountability and the role(s) taken in relation to other learners/workers in carrying out tasks, i. e. working with others. Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 30 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l The 12 levels of outcome and the 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l The 12 levels of outcome and the 5 characteristics or descriptors of the SCQF (see Annex 2) compare favourably with the 8 levels and 3 descriptors of the European Qualifications Framework (EQF) (see Annex 1). Comparison and equivalence of marks or grades within levels are shown in Annex 3. Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 31 of 73

21/05/2009 Annex 3 Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 32 of 73 21/05/2009 Annex 3 Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 32 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning 3. 4 SCQF Credit Rating l To be 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning 3. 4 SCQF Credit Rating l To be eligible to be placed in the SCQF, qualifications and learning programmes must be based on learning outcomes and have reliable, quality-assured assessment of learners’ achievement of the outcomes. l Qualifications in the SCQF are allocated a level and credit points through a process called credit rating. l Currently, higher education institutions and the Scottish Qualifications Authority can credit rate and Scotland’s colleges are now engaged in the process of becoming credit-rating bodies. The SCQF partnership is also considering how best to allow other organisations and sectors to place their qualification and learning opportunities into the Framework. Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 33 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l SCQF Credit l Credit is a general 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l SCQF Credit l Credit is a general way of measuring the amount of learning achieved (outcomes) at a particular level, and is defined by the number of SCQF credit points. Credit points are a simple way of showing how much learning has been achieved successfully to complete a programme or achieve a qualification. SCQF credits are allocated on the basis that the amount of learning outcomes is related to the amount of time that an average learner would take to complete them. l 1 credit point represents the amount of learning achieved through a notional 10 hours of learning time which includes everything a learner has to do to achieve the outcomes including the assessment itself. l This is only a guide. No points are added or taken away if more or less time is taken to achieve the outcomes. Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 34 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l Most mainstream qualifications in Scotland have been 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l Most mainstream qualifications in Scotland have been allocated a number of SCQF credit points. For example: l an Honours Degree has a total of 480 credits (240 ECTS) with at least 90 (45 ECTS) at level 10 l an SQA Higher course has 24 credits (12 ECTS) at level 6 l 2 SCQF credits =1 ECTS credit Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 35 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning 3. 5 PARTNERSHIP APPROACH l Compared with other 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning 3. 5 PARTNERSHIP APPROACH l Compared with other comprehensive frameworks the SCQF is distinguished by the leading role the university sector has played in its development. It was developed in partnership and is now managed by a partnership of Universities Scotland, the Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA), the Association of Scotland’s Colleges (ASC), the Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education (QAA) Scotland the Scottish Government. Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 36 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l An advisory committee, chaired by Dr Andrew 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l An advisory committee, chaired by Dr Andrew Cubie, provides advice to the partners but also provides the main national forum for key stakeholders across the education, training and business sectors in Scotland, to work together in implementing and making use of the SCQF within their own organisations and sectors in ways that can best support access and participation in lifelong learning. This will include, for example: Ø creating better opportunities for the transfer of credit from one programme or qualification to another; Ø building clearer routes for progression from programme to programme; Ø developing arrangements for giving credit for previous learning including learning achieved through experience; learning in the workplace including employers training programmes; learning achieved through voluntary work, etc. Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 37 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning 3. 6 Key Challenges Facing the SCQF l 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning 3. 6 Key Challenges Facing the SCQF l Following the implementation period, attention is now on the longer-term development of the SCQF and its role in supporting lifelong learning in Scotland. SCQF Partners are also involved at the forefront of the development of qualifications frameworks at European level and will also be working to link SCQF with qualifications frameworks in the rest of the UK. Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 38 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l A summary of the 67 main findings 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l A summary of the 67 main findings of an evaluation study of the initial impact of the SCQF was commissioned in 2005 by the Scottish Government follows: Ø there is evidence that SCQF has already had a considerable impact, particularly within the HE sector. However this has largely been as an enabling tool, facilitating curriculum development and quality enhancement within the HEIs. In this respect it has built on the earlier developments associated with SCOTCATS, modularisation, etc. Ø there is an expectation that SCQF will have an increased impact in the future, this is related to developments in APEL and credit transfer. Ø the SCQF shares a similar architecture and concept of credit with other UK credit frameworks, with some differences such as the greater number of levels in the SCQF. In purpose, scope and design it is closest to the Credit and Qualifications Framework for Wales (CQFW). However, the other Frameworks place much more emphasis on the mutual recognition of credits awarded by different awarding bodies. Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 39 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning Ø the SCQF was seen to have influenced 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning Ø the SCQF was seen to have influenced developments across the UK not least, by demonstrating that it was possible to have a national credit framework without adverse consequences. Ø those involved in developing other UK credit frameworks perceive that the SCQF is the most developed. Its perceived strengths include its partnership model, the commitment of higher education, the status of SQA as the single national awarding body, and its comprehensive coverage. Ø however, these features of the SCQF were also perceived to result in less ownership and use of the Framework by providers, and in weaker potential to support credit accumulation and transfer. They contributed to the relatively slow progress in implementing the Framework, although this was recognised as a problem facing other frameworks as well. Ø there are strong pressures for a more coordinated approach across the UK. Cooperation and working relationships among the frameworks are seen to be good, but some respondents perceive that political as well as technical problems inhibit closer coordination. Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 40 of 73

21/05/2009 Outline Learning objectives l Qualifications Frameworks Ø European Qualifications Frameworks Ø National Qualifications 21/05/2009 Outline Learning objectives l Qualifications Frameworks Ø European Qualifications Frameworks Ø National Qualifications Frameworks u. The Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework l Lifelong Learning and Employability Ø SFIA l Conclusions; review of learning objectives Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 41 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning 7 Lifelong Learning and Employability l In the 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning 7 Lifelong Learning and Employability l In the UK the role of lifelong learning is to support employability. The role of employability in higher education covers traditional academic skills, personal development skills such as ‘time management and planning skills’ critical thinking and analysis', self-confidence', decision-making' and problem-solving', and enterprise or business skills such as ‘organisation and planning'. l However, the concept of employability skills for the student in the classroom is often somewhat abstract and relates to a future beyond higher education. l In a study titled “Enhancing student awareness of employability skills through the use of progress files”, Leggott, D. and Stapleford, J. (2004) that took place over five years involving 35 undergraduate students, it was found that students had a low awareness of the skills that they are developing at university and many of them were unaware of the skills requirements of employers. Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 42 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l As a result of these findings, Personal 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l As a result of these findings, Personal Development Plans (PDPs) for Progress Files have been used to bridge the gap between the students' perceptions of their skills development and the skills requirements of 21 st century employers. l It is hoped that the experience gained from the use of PDPs will contribute towards the enhancement of the quality of students' higher education experience and their preparation for life beyond university. Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 43 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l In order to make students more aware 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l In order to make students more aware of what employers expect, the UK Government has advised HEIs to set up Employability Offices and Officers. l Employability Officers work together with the students and the University to find ways of improving students' skills development (particularly employability skills) within their programme of study and increasing their awareness of these by evaluating the current skills element, incorporating new skills into the course curricula as appropriate and making all skills more evident in the curriculum and course documentation. Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 44 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l In order to make students more aware 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l In order to make students more aware of what employers expect in terms of employability skills in the ICT sector, the Skills Framework for the Information Age (SFIA) is being used as one of the main drivers. l First published in 1999 as the National Information System Skills Framework, SFIA has evolved to become the industry standard for IT skills management. It is cited as the high level UK Government backed competency framework describing the roles within IT and, more importantly, the skills needed to fulfil them. SFIA gives employers a framework which they can use to measure the skills they have against the skills they need, and tells education and training providers what the job market wants. It is supported by four key organisations as follows: Ø Ø BCS – British Computer Society e-skills UK – Sector Skills Council for IT and Telecoms IET –Institution of Engineering and Technology IMIS – Institute for the Management of Information Systems Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 45 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l BCS in conjunction with SFIA offer a 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l BCS in conjunction with SFIA offer a skills matrix, called SFIAplus, which contains the framework of IT skills plus detailed training and development resources (previously called the Industry Structure Model). It provides the most established and widely adopted IT skills, training and development model reflecting current industry needs. l The BCS and IET accredit degree programmes for professional recognition using a number of criteria such as SFIAplus as well as academic curriculum content. Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 46 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l SFIAplus can be viewed as a three-dimensional 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l SFIAplus can be viewed as a three-dimensional model which consists of categories of work (comprising 78 specific skills), levels of responsibility and some task components – see Figure 1: SFIAplus model Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 47 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l The 3 dimensions of the model are 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l The 3 dimensions of the model are formulated according to: l 1. SIX main Categories of Work u. Strategy and Planning u. Development u. Business Change u. Service Provision u. Procurement and Management Support u. Ancillary Skills Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 48 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l 2. SEVEN Levels of Responsibility u. Follow 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l 2. SEVEN Levels of Responsibility u. Follow u. Assist u. Apply u. Enable u. Ensure, Advise u. Initiate, Influence u. Set Strategy, Inspire, Mobilise Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 49 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l 3. SIX Task Components u. Background u. 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l 3. SIX Task Components u. Background u. Work Activities u. Knowledge and Skills u. Training Activities u. Professional Development Activities u. Qualifications Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 50 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l SFIAplus can be used to identify and 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l SFIAplus can be used to identify and benchmark skills to the industry standard; Ø map current skills within an IT job role; Ø identify career paths; Ø plan training and development activities, achieving BCS Professional Development Accreditation. Ø forms the basis of a range of online browser-based professional development products and services for both individuals and employers. Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 51 of 73

21/05/2009 Figure 2 (a): SFIA framework in the context of KM – Part 1 21/05/2009 Figure 2 (a): SFIA framework in the context of KM – Part 1 Reproduced by kind permission of Jing. [email protected] ac. uk Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 52 of 73

21/05/2009 Figure 2 (b): SFIA framework in the context of KM – Part 2 21/05/2009 Figure 2 (b): SFIA framework in the context of KM – Part 2 Reproduced by kind permission of Jing. [email protected] ac. uk Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 53 of 73

21/05/2009 Figure 3: Knowledge Management skills map Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 54 of 21/05/2009 Figure 3: Knowledge Management skills map Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 54 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l Using KM skills maps to present the 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l Using KM skills maps to present the employability skills is seen as helpful both for the students and the new course delivery. l The course will be organised in part by dividing material into small units and then repacking them for teaching alongside selected activities, such that it is easier for staff to deliver material and it is flexible for students to engage in learning. Some activities tend to the technology side and others to business. Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 55 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l Two sample activities are given here to 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l Two sample activities are given here to explain how they can be represented and distinguished via KM skills maps. For example: l Activity 1: Create a prediction model of consumer behaviour in a given area using artificial neural networks for clustering and Bayesian belief networks forecasting. l Activity 2: Present one set of information “perfectly”. Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 56 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l Each individual activity will focus on a 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l Each individual activity will focus on a different set of skills. For example, students are expected to achieve the following knowledge, understanding and skills at the completion of their study for Activity 1: Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 57 of 73

21/05/2009 Figure 4 (a): KM skills map for Prediction Model (Activity 1) Edwin Gray 21/05/2009 Figure 4 (a): KM skills map for Prediction Model (Activity 1) Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 58 of 73

21/05/2009 Figure 4 (b): KM skills map for Presenting Information” Perfectly” (Activity 2) Edwin 21/05/2009 Figure 4 (b): KM skills map for Presenting Information” Perfectly” (Activity 2) Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 59 of 73

21/05/2009 Figure 5: KM course structure Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 60 of 73 21/05/2009 Figure 5: KM course structure Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 60 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l Despite the very high employability of graduates 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l Despite the very high employability of graduates (89%), the sector continues to seek to improve its performance and employability was one of the recent sector-wide Quality Enhancement initiatives. The SFC plans to support higher education institutions to implement their employability strategies by strategic funding for institutional capacity building and collaborative development projects. One dimension of the Quality Enhancement initiative on Research-Teaching links is the skills and attributes of graduates. l The SFC has commissioned a longitudinal survey of graduates, including tracking their employment history from graduation. A second longitudinal study is about to be commissioned. Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 61 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l The most recent data on the employability 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l The most recent data on the employability of graduates with bachelor qualifications relate to 2004/05: 68% of leavers with first degree qualifications went into full or part time employment in the UK or abroad within 6 months of graduation from Scottish HEIs. l 18% of leavers with first degree qualifications went into further study or training. l Statistics indicate that graduate employment rates are not decreasing, so similar levels of employability are likely for 2006 -07. Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 62 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning The Real Wo. RLD Project l Real Wo. 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning The Real Wo. RLD Project l Real Wo. RLD stands for 'Realising Work-Related Learning Diffusion'. Work-related learning is a key component of Glasgow Caledonian University's Teaching, Learning and Assessment Strategy. One of its strategic goals is to build students' competencies in the skills demanded by employers in a knowledge economy. l The project aims to raise the profile of employability across the university through encouraging all schools to embed work-related learning activities into their programmes, use innovative approaches in learning and teaching to enhance their students' professional skills and engage with employers on a regular basis. Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 63 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l The Real. Wo. RLD initiative aims to 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l The Real. Wo. RLD initiative aims to integrate the world of employment and higher education by addressing employability at three levels: l at institutional level through developing a coordinated, sustainable strategy for work-related learning l at programme level through implementing curriculum improvements that will help students develop the capabilities to function effectively in the workplace l at pedagogic level through developing innovative approaches to teaching, learning and assessment. l The project team will work in close collaboration with staff in academic and support departments, Heads of Learning, Teaching and Quality, Programme Boards, student and employer representatives. Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 64 of 73

21/05/2009 Outline Learning objectives l Qualifications Frameworks Ø European Qualifications Frameworks Ø National Qualifications 21/05/2009 Outline Learning objectives l Qualifications Frameworks Ø European Qualifications Frameworks Ø National Qualifications Frameworks u. The Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework l Lifelong Learning and Employability Ø SFIA l Conclusions; review of learning objectives Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 65 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning 8 Conclusion l The UK, with a number 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning 8 Conclusion l The UK, with a number of well established national credit and qualifications frameworks for higher education, such as the Framework for Higher Education Qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, and the SCQF in Scotland, has qualification descriptors designed to meet the “easily readable and comparable” criterion in the Bologna Declaration. Please refer to annexes 1 and 2 for comparison and equivalence of credit and qualifications frameworks between the UK and European qualifications frameworks and Annex 3 for comparison and equivalence of UK and some European grading or making schemes. l The UK also has a set of established support systems for lifelong learning and employability. In addition to the SCQF taking account of SVQs for employability, there are PDPs, Progress Files and Employability Offices. Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 66 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning On top of the world: Glasgow Caledonian University 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning On top of the world: Glasgow Caledonian University is rated UK’s best international student experience 25/02/2008 l A measure of how well the UK is good at attracting overseas students is shown by Glasgow Caledonian University’s international students rating their student experience second best in the whole world. Glasgow Caledonian University was ranked second worldwide within a field of 84 institutions which included Glasgow, Edinburgh, Oxford, Cambridge, Imperial, Queens University Belfast and Yale. The latest (autumn 2007) International Student Barometer (ISB) survey, carried out by independent research specialists i-graduate. org, measures international students’ satisfaction with every aspect of their university experience. Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 67 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l Glasgow Caledonian was rated top in Scotland 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning l Glasgow Caledonian was rated top in Scotland in every category: learning, living, support and arrival, and was rated significantly better than the Scotland, UK, and worldwide averages in every category. l The survey found that employability, work experience and careers advice are more important to international students at Glasgow Caledonian than to international students in other higher education institutions, and rate the university highly in each of these areas. Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 68 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning We must all take responsibility for the future 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning We must all take responsibility for the future It’s in our hands. Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 69 of 73

21/05/2009 Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 70 of 73 21/05/2009 Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 70 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning CONCLUSION l The most important thing in s. 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning CONCLUSION l The most important thing in s. Uccess is U Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 71 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning MANY THANKS TO YOU ALL Edwin Gray Glasgow 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning MANY THANKS TO YOU ALL Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 72 of 73

21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning QUESTIONS? ? ? Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 21/05/2009 Qualifications Frameworks and Lifelong Learning QUESTIONS? ? ? Edwin Gray Glasgow Caledonian University 73 of 73