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2011 -12 LINGUA INGLESE 1 modulo B Introduction to English Linguistics prof. Hugo Bowles 2011 -12 LINGUA INGLESE 1 modulo B Introduction to English Linguistics prof. Hugo Bowles Lesson 5 Word formation

CLASSIFYING MORPHOLOGY CLASSIFYING MORPHOLOGY

swim • CONVERSION • when a word changes its word class to swim (verb) swim • CONVERSION • when a word changes its word class to swim (verb) a swim (noun)

CONVERSION • to rain • to bicycle a bicycle • to cheat a cheat CONVERSION • to rain • to bicycle a bicycle • to cheat a cheat

NATO, CNN • INITIALISMS see slide 21 ff. NATO, CNN • INITIALISMS see slide 21 ff.

ping-pong, teeny-weeny • REDUPLICATION • a lexeme with two identical, or very similar, constituents ping-pong, teeny-weeny • REDUPLICATION • a lexeme with two identical, or very similar, constituents

motel, brunch, heliport • BLENDING • when a word is made out of shortened motel, brunch, heliport • BLENDING • when a word is made out of shortened forms of other words • BR-eakfast + l-UNCH = BRUNCH

BLENDING • motel • mo-tor? + ho-tel • heliport • heli-copter + air-port BLENDING • motel • mo-tor? + ho-tel • heliport • heli-copter + air-port

gas • CLIPPING • when a word of more than one syllable is reduced gas • CLIPPING • when a word of more than one syllable is reduced to a shorter form gasoline gas

CLIPPING hamburger delicatessen deli microphone mike CLIPPING hamburger delicatessen deli microphone mike

edit, televise, demo • BACK FORMATION • When a word of one type is edit, televise, demo • BACK FORMATION • When a word of one type is reduced to form a word of a different type editor edit

BACK FORMATION • television televise • demonstration demo BACK FORMATION • television televise • demonstration demo

Aussie • HYPOCORISM • A longer word is reduced to a single syllable and Aussie • HYPOCORISM • A longer word is reduced to a single syllable and then -y or -ie is added • Australian Auss + -ie Aussie

HYPOCORISM • moving picture move + ie movie HYPOCORISM • moving picture move + ie movie

quack, woof • ONOMATOPEIA • When a word is created to sound like thing quack, woof • ONOMATOPEIA • When a word is created to sound like thing it names

Darwinian • EPONYM • when a word is derived from the name of a Darwinian • EPONYM • when a word is derived from the name of a person

EPONYMY • Buzz Lightyear is derived from Buzz Aldrin the astronaut • Garibaldi biscuits EPONYMY • Buzz Lightyear is derived from Buzz Aldrin the astronaut • Garibaldi biscuits were marketed in England after Garibaldi’s visit (and you can still buy them)

nylon, aspirin • COINAGE • the invention of a totally new word This often nylon, aspirin • COINAGE • the invention of a totally new word This often occurs with scientific names and trade names of new products

Quiz (1) • • vet = clipping fantabulous = blending (fantastic + fabulous) Google Quiz (1) • • vet = clipping fantabulous = blending (fantastic + fabulous) Google = coinage (a new invention) to Google (vb) = conversion from Google (noun) doc = clipping (from doctor) zig-zag =reduplication fahrenheit = eponym

Quiz (2) • • ‘Sob!’ = onomatopeia hankie = hypocorism AIDS = acronymy to Quiz (2) • • ‘Sob!’ = onomatopeia hankie = hypocorism AIDS = acronymy to biograph = back-formation from biography (noun) • infotainment = blending (information + entertainment) • to party = conversion from party (noun)

INITIALISMS Acronymy • When the form is pronounced as a single word (NATO, AIDS) INITIALISMS Acronymy • When the form is pronounced as a single word (NATO, AIDS) Alphabetism • When the form is pronounced by its letters (BBC, CNN)

INITIALISMS IN TEXT MESSAGES (1) • Initials used as WORDS y Why? q Queue INITIALISMS IN TEXT MESSAGES (1) • Initials used as WORDS y Why? q Queue ruok Are you OK? cu See you

INITIALISMS IN TEXT MESSAGES (2) • Initials used for elements in COMPOUND WORDS gf INITIALISMS IN TEXT MESSAGES (2) • Initials used for elements in COMPOUND WORDS gf girlfriend dl download w/e weekend

INITIALISMS IN TEXT MESSAGES (3) • Initials used for words in PHRASES cwot complete INITIALISMS IN TEXT MESSAGES (3) • Initials used for words in PHRASES cwot complete waste of time imo in my opinion np no problem

INITIALISMS IN TEXT MESSAGES (4) • Initials used for words in ELLIPTICAL or WHOLE INITIALISMS IN TEXT MESSAGES (4) • Initials used for words in ELLIPTICAL or WHOLE SENTENCES lol Laughing out loud jk Just kidding swdyt So what do you think? cmb Call me back

INITIALISMS IN TEXT MESSAGES (5) • Initials used for words in EXCLAMATIONS omg Oh INITIALISMS IN TEXT MESSAGES (5) • Initials used for words in EXCLAMATIONS omg Oh my God! Yyssw Yeah, yeah, sure, whatever !

Semantic change Semantic change

Original languages alcohol Arabic boss Dutch croissant French lilac Persian piano Italian pretzel German Original languages alcohol Arabic boss Dutch croissant French lilac Persian piano Italian pretzel German robot Czech tycoon Japanese yoghurt Turkish zebra Bantu 28

Semantic borrowing ofis khobbi boykot Russian rajio konpyu-ta kissu Japanese le zapping le midwife Semantic borrowing ofis khobbi boykot Russian rajio konpyu-ta kissu Japanese le zapping le midwife le showbiz French 29

Calques - loan translations • • from skyscraper to grattaciel from ubermensch to superman Calques - loan translations • • from skyscraper to grattaciel from ubermensch to superman from hot dogs to perros calientes from boyfriend to boifurendo 30

Grammaticalisation what’s the rule? Singular Plural Italian Plural English pizza pizze pizzas hamburgers walkman? Grammaticalisation what’s the rule? Singular Plural Italian Plural English pizza pizze pizzas hamburgers walkman? walkmans? panino panini panino(e)s panini(e)s 31

paninos, paninis ………. . paninos, paninis ………. .

Other types of semantic change • euphemism • politically correct language 33 Other types of semantic change • euphemism • politically correct language 33

Euphemism • • a long illness economical with the truth adult video industrial action Euphemism • • a long illness economical with the truth adult video industrial action • • cancer liar pornography strike 34

Politically correct language • Political correctness (often abbreviated to PC) is a term used Politically correct language • Political correctness (often abbreviated to PC) is a term used to describe language or behaviour that is intended to provide a minimum of offence, particularly to racial, cultural, or other identity groups. A text that conforms to the ideals of political correctness is said to be politically correct. 35